PALMA AIR DEFENSE MISSILE/GUN SYSTEMAuthor: Oleg Korotkov, Anatoly Karpov, Vladimir Kopylov
Oleg Korotkov - general designer of special engineering, Doctor of Science, academician of RARANAnatoly Karpov - chief of a complex
Vladimir Kopylov - chief of external economic affairs departmentMilitary Parade, No. 6, 2011
Development of the highly effective naval air defense systems, capable to repel the swarm attacks of anti-ship missiles (ASM), has not reduced an urgency of development and manufacture of air defense small caliber artillery systems. Moreover the systems of this class have been advanced and fitted up by small-size short-range anti-aircraft missiles (SAM). It is determined by larger or smaller probability that cruise missiles will no be knocked down even by the most perfect missile systems.
The reliable defense of such expensive armament as the warship may be ensured only by "reshooting" the penetrated missiles on the last defense line. In some cases, when the air defense missile system cannot be placed on the ship because of limitations on permissible mass or due to its excessively high cost, the small caliber artillery system fitted up by SAM is the only and simultaneously very effective self-defense weapon. The role of the air defense systems containing in their structure the small caliber artillery system is important for both ship defense in straits, narrows, protected waters, and for repelling the piracy attacks. The concept and main principles of the reviewed Palma air defense system were elaborated by developers headed by Arkady Shipunov,Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, with the direct participation of many leading specialists of the Navy and industry. This system was developed by JSC Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau (KBtochmash) being a part of JSC "RPC "High-precision complexes" holding company in close cooperation with FSUE KBP, JSC Tulamashzavod, JSC Amethyst Design Bureau and other leading enterprises.
The concept of "Palma" system structure foresaw the follows:
- use of combined armament that includes small caliber rapid-fire guns and small-size high-precision SAM;
- application of high-precision electro-optical control system (EOCS) in combination with shipborne radar station control unit (SRSCU) in backup mode in extremely adverse weather conditions;
- provision of complete automation of combat performance;
- ensuring all-round ship defense by including up to four firing modules (FM) in the system structure (Fig.1);
- provision of use this system on the mobilized ships and ashore by means of its own detection radar (DR) and gyrostabilization systems (GSS) incorporated into the base complete equipment and through the development of container-based design version;
- provision of integration with ship-borne DR, GSS and SRSCU in case of use on the Navy ships and boats;
- development of the system with provision for the creation of large modernization potential ensuring a capability of qualitative improvement by the subsequent upgrades.
The developed concept has reflected in the base principles of system construction:
1. As armaments of firing models are used two AO-18KD rapid-fire modernized cannons guns with link-less ammunition feed, increased projectile muzzle velocity and with essentially increased service life and also highly effective eight Sosna-R light hypersonic SAM.Main technical characteristics of firing module:
two 30mm AO-KD guns with an ammunition load of 1500 rounds;
eight Sosna-R SAM
Control system :
automatic EOCS, by shipborne 5P-10 RCS in backup mode
Distance of target defeat, km
0.2 - 10
Altitude of the target defeat, km
Time from target designation till engagement, sec
Weight with an ammunition load and secondary power sources, t
2. Armament and surveillance and target designation radar are installed directly on artillery mount on "the same axis" to exclude the errors caused by ship strains.
3. For target acquisition according to target designation and for target tracking and armament aiming the system uses the specially designed high-precision ECM-pro-tected automatic electro-optical control system (EOCS) unified with EOCS of Sosna SAM.
4. The structure of EOCS contains a full set of the necessary information channels placed on gyrostabilized platform allowing use it round of clock and in adverse weather conditions. In extremely adverse weather conditions the system is controlled by 5P-10 ship-borne radar control system.
5. The EOCS has increased jamming immunity due to using information channels with narrow fields of sight and application of special signals processing algorithms in the automatic control unit of target acquisition and tracking, considering the target signatures. Besides, it is impossible to distort laser spot-beam rider guidance or to flash an optoelectronic sensor of a flying missile by the similar laser beam.
6. High performance of SAM is attained due to high accuracy of missile guidance, circle diagram of proximity fuse, overlapping of guidance errors by kill zone, and also due to short flight times to the target.
7. High accuracy of SAM guidance is ensured through small errors of target tracking, high accuracy of laser-guidance system, large available lateral g-load of missile and due to application of special control algorithms realized in the microcomputer onboard a missile.
8. High engagement effectiveness of artillery armament is realized due to high accuracy of laying
Main characteristics of EOCS:
Operating modes: Target acquisition:
automatic, semiautomatic, inertial external target designation, independent automatic, sector search
Range of pointing angles, in azimuth/angle of sight, deg.:
± 178 / -20 ... 82
Maximum angular rates and accelerations, deg/sec / deg/s2:
Field of view, deg:
- TV system 2.0хx3.0 / 6.5х9.0
- Thermal image channel
2.2х2.7 / 6.7х9.0
Distance of a taking into target autotracking at (max.range of visibility =15 km, p=80 %), km:
- Airplanes / helicopters / cruise missiles
16 ... 30 / 10 ... 14 / 8 ... 12
- Armour installations
Measured distance, km:
up to 20
- stabilization, mrad
- finding of coordinates and distances, mrad/m
- laying of laser range finder
- Laying of information field of laser-beam control channel, mrad
0.08 ... 0.12
the cannons, small dispersion and a large density of fire.
9. Automatic, inertial and semiautomatic laying modes are realized in a system. High automation of combat performance processes is attained owing to application of modern algorithms, and also due to information processing and decision making system, allowing to exclude the necessity of permanent operator participation in the fast flowing combat performance processes. In the semiautomatic mode which is used mainly in difficult countermeasures environment the system is controlled by operator.
Structurally the firing module is comprised of an artillery mount with gear system and electro-optical control system.Sosna-R SAM
consists of main propulsion stage, separated engine and detachment point. The SAM placed and stored in the transport-launching container (TLC) and launched from it. The missile has small acceleration time and is characterized by high aeroballistic efficiency.
The combined control system is used for missile guidance - a radio command system and high-precision ECM-protected laser-beam guidance after engine detachment and missile injection into a sight line.The electro-optical system control (EOCS)
ensures the target detection, automatic acquisition, tracking, measuring of angular coordinate and distance, and also laying of an information field of laser-beam control channel to the target at any time in the conditions of jamming and natural noise, including against the background of clouds, terrain features and horizon line.EOCS consists of following blocks (Fig.3):
- electro-optical tracking system,
- digital computing system
- operator panel,
- power panel.
The trials of Palma system in fullscale conditions on the ship of Project "Gepard 3.9" have confirmed very high accuracy of targeting and have allowed to defeat the shown targets by the first missile or by first string of burst (Fig.2). An insertion in an angle of photo shows the warhead blasting at the target.
FSUE Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau actively expands the potential of Palma system and also makes efforts to ensure its leading positions in this class of weapons.
The main technical characteristics of missile:
Distance and altitude of impact zone, km
up to 10.0 / to 5.0
Total weight of warhead, kg
laser fuse with the circular diagram
SAM weight, launching / in transport-launch container, kg
30.6 / 42.0
Caliber before and after SAM detachment, mm
132 / 72
SAM length in flight / in transport-launch container, mm
2317 / 2400