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    Russian defence against drone swarms

    d_taddei2
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    Post  d_taddei2 Tue Mar 17, 2020 11:43 pm

    to combat swarms and drones in general, i think you need a multitude of systems as having a layered and different methods of taking them out makes it difficult for the enemy to deploy a drone that can get through these systems. there is no question one of the best methods is EW systems, but this has to no just be limited to bigger systems but also personal systems. Next you have the large calibre AA guns, from 57mm upwards to even the 100mm sa-ir mass shrapnel or even EMP rounds. for the more high tech, expensive and larger drones you will have various missiles , fired from various platforms such as aircraft land based systems. The aircraft itself doesnt have to be high tech, a Yak-130 armed with a small radar, gun pods, AA missiles, and EW warfare pod to not only protect itself but also to shut down drones, and they could be guided by larger radars or AWACS towards drones and then there smaller radar then locks on to it, and then its goodnight drone. You could have yak-130 on standby ready to combat drone threats. another useful platform would a Mi-17 EW version, having the ability to hover would be a bonus. Russia has many options on the table.
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Apr 17, 2020 9:42 pm

    Rostec has developed a radar station to detect miniature drones

    Moscow. October 10th. INTERFAX - Holding Roselektronika has developed a radar station for the detection of small unmanned aerial vehicles, the press service of the state corporation Rostec.
          "Holding" Roselektronika "state corporation" Rostec "has developed a radar station for the detection of small drones at a distance of 7.5 km. The equipment is built entirely on the domestic electronic component base and has no analogues in Russia," - said in a statement.
          To date, the first samples of equipment have been created, and field tests of the radar station have been conducted.
          According to the state corporation, the target radio illumination station (ROC) is capable of detecting and tracking small and low contrast targets with an effective dispersion area of ​​30 square centimeters, a wide speed range and the ability to fly at low and very low altitudes.
          "When an object is detected, the equipment transmits information to the control tower or to the control center," the press service said.
          It is noted that the multi-channel Ka-band radar has small dimensions - 325x240x230 mm.
          "The Russian Orthodox Church is located on a rotary device that provides visibility in all directions. The station can be controlled either manually from a laptop or automatically," the message said.
          According to the executive director of Rostec Oleg Yevtushenko, whose words are given in the message, modern small-sized drones have a large list of functions and can pose a great threat, so the new development has a great prospect.
          “This is not only about special drones made in an industrial environment. It can be a toy copter from a children's store or a craft made by handicrafts. Traditional radar methods do not provide reliable detection of UAVs with a small reflective surface. The development of our holding“ Roselectronika ”successfully solves this task. Of course, the novelty will be in demand among both special and civil customers, "said Yevtushenko.
          The complex was developed by specialists of JSC "NPP" Salute "(part of the" Russian Electronics ") in conjunction with ICD" Torch "(included in the group of EKR" Almaz-Antey ").

    https://www.militarynews.ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=519026&lang=RU
    dino00
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    Post  dino00 Fri Apr 17, 2020 10:05 pm

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Rostec has developed a radar station to detect miniature drones

    Moscow. October 10th. INTERFAX - Holding Roselektronika has developed a radar station for the detection of small unmanned aerial vehicles, the press service of the state corporation Rostec.
          "Holding" Roselektronika "state corporation" Rostec "has developed a radar station for the detection of small drones at a distance of 7.5 km. The equipment is built entirely on the domestic electronic component base and has no analogues in Russia," - said in a statement.
          To date, the first samples of equipment have been created, and field tests of the radar station have been conducted.
          According to the state corporation, the target radio illumination station (ROC) is capable of detecting and tracking small and low contrast targets with an effective dispersion area of ​​30 square centimeters, a wide speed range and the ability to fly at low and very low altitudes.
          "When an object is detected, the equipment transmits information to the control tower or to the control center," the press service said.
          It is noted that the multi-channel Ka-band radar has small dimensions - 325x240x230 mm.
          "The Russian Orthodox Church is located on a rotary device that provides visibility in all directions. The station can be controlled either manually from a laptop or automatically," the message said.
          According to the executive director of Rostec Oleg Yevtushenko, whose words are given in the message, modern small-sized drones have a large list of functions and can pose a great threat, so the new development has a great prospect.
          “This is not only about special drones made in an industrial environment. It can be a toy copter from a children's store or a craft made by handicrafts. Traditional radar methods do not provide reliable detection of UAVs with a small reflective surface. The development of our holding“ Roselectronika ”successfully solves this task. Of course, the novelty will be in demand among both special and civil customers, "said Yevtushenko.
          The complex was developed by specialists of JSC "NPP" Salute "(part of the" Russian Electronics ") in conjunction with ICD" Torch "(included in the group of EKR" Almaz-Antey ").

    https://www.militarynews.ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=519026&lang=RU

    WOW Shocked

    Russian Orthodox Church lol1
    PapaDragon
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    Post  PapaDragon Fri Apr 17, 2020 10:27 pm

    dino00 wrote:
    WOW Shocked

    Russian Orthodox Church lol1

    RPC

    Stealth technology is nothing compared to power of Jesus angel

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    medo
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    Post  medo Fri Apr 17, 2020 11:27 pm

    станция радиоподсвета цели (РПЦ)

    RPC is radio target iluminator. I wonder where Google translator find Russian Orthodox Church located on rotating device.... This church must be realy interesting. lol1
    medo
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    Post  medo Fri Apr 17, 2020 11:31 pm

    PapaDragon wrote:
    dino00 wrote:
    WOW Shocked

    Russian Orthodox Church lol1

    RPC  

    Stealth technology is nothing compared to power of Jesus  angel


    Amen. Nothing can compare, specially when preast is rotating. thumbsup
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Apr 17, 2020 11:43 pm

    medo wrote:
    PapaDragon wrote:
    dino00 wrote:
    WOW Shocked

    Russian Orthodox Church lol1

    RPC  

    Stealth technology is nothing compared to power of Jesus  angel


    Amen. Nothing can compare, specially when preast is rotating.  thumbsup

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Source
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Wed Apr 29, 2020 1:31 am

    "#Avtomatika demonstrated advanced complexes to counteract drones

    A full-scale demonstration of developments took place at the Kudinovo landfill in Kaluga Oblast. Concern presented complexes like Rubezh-Avtomatika an Sapsan-Bekas, radio interception and monitoring means."

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 ETfMM_uXsAIFUM1?format=jpg&name=large

    https://twitter.com/Rostec_Russia/status/1240685145255849984
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Tue Aug 04, 2020 8:14 pm

    The calculation of the newest radar "Casta" Southern Military District discovered a drone "enemy" near Rostov
    In the field, the servicemen complied with the standards for the deployment of the station, and also worked out various inputs for detecting air objects, determining the range, flight altitude and route characteristics.


    Specialists of the air defense of the 150th motorized rifle division of the Southern Military District (YuVO) operated the newest radar station (radar) "Kasta" on a tactical-special exercise for detecting and tracking air targets of a conditional enemy in the Rostov region

    In the field, the servicemen complied with the standards for the deployment of the station, and also worked out various inputs for detecting air objects, determining the range, flight altitude and trail characteristics.

    Particular attention was paid to the development of tasks for the detection of air objects, including airplanes, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and winged missiles, flying at low altitudes and extremely low altitudes, against the background of intense local reflections from hydromagnets.

    To simulate an air target, a complex with an unmanned aerial vehicle was used.

    In addition, the calculation of the Kasta radar station performed the transmission of coordinates to the command post of the anti-aircraft missile subunit, equipped with the Tor-M complexes, with the further destruction of the drone by electronic launches.

    More than 300 military personnel were involved in the exercise, and more than 50 units of special equipment were also involved.

    https://tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/content/20208420-a0cg5.html

    Mobile radar asset designed specifically against small aerial objects (drones) that fly extremely slow and low altitude, and integrates in SHORAD IAD to aid in drone destruction.
    kvs
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    Post  kvs Tue Aug 04, 2020 8:18 pm

    The above is rather relevant information for all the stealth fanbois. In principle, a drone can be made as stealthy
    as possible since it is small and all the stealth tricks are maximally effective. In the real world, the pig does not fly.

    medo
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    Post  medo Wed Aug 05, 2020 12:30 am

    Who would think, that radar based on ancient P-15 would still be effective against drones.
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Wed Aug 05, 2020 4:27 pm

    medo wrote:Who would think, that radar based on ancient P-15 would still be effective against drones.

    Yeah the radar dishes did look like they were originally from the 60's. Wink
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    Post  kvs Wed Aug 05, 2020 6:32 pm

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    medo wrote:Who would think, that radar based on ancient P-15 would still be effective against drones.

    Yeah the radar dishes did look like they were originally from the 60's. Wink

    Physics is still physics. In spite of all the western bleating about Russian inferiority, competent researchers can develop ways
    to use the same dish to do more than what it was used for during the 1950s. In fact, you see more than one dish, which
    means that a wider band of frequencies is used.

    The Soviet and even the post collapse Russian education system with its rigorous mathematics and hard science is paying
    off. Touchy feely western participation trophy "education" is not.

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    Hole
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    Post  Hole Wed Aug 05, 2020 9:23 pm

    New computers and algorithms work wonders. Very Happy
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Wed Aug 05, 2020 9:30 pm

    Hole wrote:New computers and algorithms work wonders. Very Happy

    That's why I always stress the importance of command posts. They've shown to even make the likes of MANPADS and ATGMs capable of defeating cruise missiles. They gave new life for ancient SAMS like S-75/125/200 in Syria.
    flamming_python
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    Post  flamming_python Fri Aug 28, 2020 5:20 pm

    Hole wrote:Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Pischa10
    Pischal-PRO

    Have a bit more info on this

    From https://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/9290673

    "Rostec's Automatics concern has brought to market the most powerful hand-held system for fighting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVS), said Vladimir Kabanov, General Director of Automatics.
    "The Pishchal-PRO anti-UAV complex is positioned on the market as the lightest and at the same time powerful manual complex, both for individual and as part of other complexes of application. Yes, there are a lot of manual complexes on the market, but our complex "Pishchal-PRO" is the best in its class," Kabanov said.
    The "uniqueness "Squeaked" is this: weighing in at 4 kg, low power, number of concurrent ranges of opposition, we have achieved a range of action in 2000 m, what is the best indicator for systems of this type," — said Kabanov. He stressed that Pishchal-PRO does not pose any threats to the operator's health and has a medical certificate of user safety.

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Thu Oct 29, 2020 4:27 pm

    Landing the "drones": a line of anti-drone defense systems created in Russia
    In our country, a whole line of systems has been created that allow you to effectively detect hostile drones and provide comprehensive protection from them at close and distant approaches to the guarded facility.
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Adron1_d_850

    Drones are often referred to as drones - from the English word drone, one of the meanings of which is drone in Russian. As it turned out, these mechanical insects can sting just deadly. It is not surprising that very serious attention is paid to combating them throughout the world. The domestic industry, having caught the trend in a timely manner, was able to develop and launch into production a large number of effective means of countering unmanned aerial vehicles - reconnaissance and strike.

    Let's talk about the most interesting developments created by various enterprises of the State Corporation Rostec.

    Concern "Avtomatika" specializes in electronic and optical countermeasures in stationary, mobile and portable versions.

    So, "Pischal - PRO" looks like a gun. It does not require any special operator training or special technical knowledge. Seeing the target, the operator simply pulls the trigger, and the radio-electronic impact immediately begins. The drone is suppressed by means of communication, control, navigation. The drone appears to be in a state of "prostration". And heavy aircraft-type UAVs simply fall.

    Another mobile portable jamming device is Kupol-PRO, made in the form of quick-assembly units that allow one person to assemble and disassemble the product within three minutes. The device acts by means of a protective electromagnetic effect on the on-board electronic subsystems of the drone, due to which they become inoperative.

    Another portable UAV detection and countering complex "Luch-PRO" can be deployed within five minutes and used even from unprepared positions. It detects drones and creates interference suppressing control and navigation channels in a given sector at a distance of at least five kilometers.

    A more "heavyweight" development of "Avtomatika" in the field of countering UAVs is the "Sapsan-Bekas" system - a mobile multifunctional complex using both passive and active detection means. In addition to radar systems, the complex includes optoelectronic surveillance of drones, a visible spectrum video camera and a thermal imager. The range of drone recognition by optical means is up to four kilometers. The range of suppression of control and navigation channels of drones is up to four km, depending on the configuration and appearance of the protected object and tactics of use. In addition, the complex can act as a target designation tool for other electronic warfare and air defense systems, conduct circular observation or scan a given sector.

    Rubezh-Avtomatika is Rostec's answer to the growing problem of terrorism using drones and their illegal use. The product ensures the safety of social and sports events, industrial enterprises and facilities of the fuel and energy industry. The range of the "Rubezh" can reach 30 km.

    The transported UAV countermeasure complex "Bastion-Avtomatika" is intended for continuous radio surveillance, detection of signals from unmanned aerial vehicles and generation of counter signals. At the same time, the analysis of the signal from the drone is carried out in automatic mode, means of identification "friend or foe" are introduced, which allows the object to be protected without the participation of operators.

    Another Rostec association, Ruselectronics, also has a wide range of anti-UAV solutions. At the last exhibition "Interpolitex-2020" the new module of acoustic reconnaissance "Ataka-Shorokh" was presented for the first time. The equipment is designed to protect civil and special objects from unauthorized entry of unmanned aerial vehicles flying in radio silence. The module is equipped with ultra-sensitive microphones that allow you to determine the location of an approaching drone. The detection range of drones depends on the level of ambient noise - for example, in a city, the range of equipment is 100-150 m. The required number of modules and their locations are determined depending on the characteristics of the protected object.

    Recently, tests of the modernized Ataka-DBS anti-drones complex using a new type of antennas were successfully carried out. The results showed that the range of the complex increased almost 2 times in terms of detection and 2.5 times in terms of suppression. The complex is based on radio frequency detection and suppression modules. The equipment is capable of automatically detecting a drone within 0.1 seconds, identifying an object according to the "friend or foe" principle, blocking its communication and navigation channels.

    Ruselectronics has also created a mobile version of the Ataka-Trophy anti-drone countermeasures system based on an all-terrain UAZ vehicle. The complex can, without operator participation, identify the drone on the principle of "friend or foe" and automatically prevent unauthorized entry into the protected area. The deployment time of the complex is five minutes. The peculiarity of "Attack-Trophy" is that literally "from the wheels", without preparation and installation of equipment, you can organize the protection of various objects - industrial companies, critical infrastructure, as well as crowded places during social and sports events.

    At the Army-2020 forum, Roseletronica showed for the first time a multifunctional mobile complex to combat drones Rat. This complex has become one of the forum's sensations. The Rat was created on the basis of a special armored vehicle and is equipped with a full range of drone detection and suppression devices to protect critical objects from unauthorized intrusion of foreign drones.

    The new items include a radar station, a complex for automatic recognition and suppression of telecommunication channels, a system of directed microwave (microwave) suppression and a system of directed laser destruction. All equipment is integrated into a single intelligent system for collecting, processing and displaying information. Data from the means of detection and observation are sent to the central control panel, the system processes the target parameters and offers the operator several options for further actions. The complex detects drones at a distance of up to 3.5 km, carries out targeted suppression of UAV control channels within a radius of up to 2.5 km. In case of an unauthorized intrusion of several objects, it blocks their communication and satellite navigation channels.

    Now we are working on a new system - "Aegis". According to the developers, using special software, it will be able to distinguish an aircraft-type drone from a helicopter and aerostatic one, which will allow predicting its landing trajectory after the drone's communication channel with the control center is interrupted. That is, a drone that has lost control can be quickly found and its purpose found out. In addition, the system is capable of detecting and even neutralizing UAVs that operate over encrypted communication channels or jam their signal.

    The Kalashnikov concern pays the most serious attention to unmanned aerial vehicles and means of combating them.

    The REX-1 electronic rifle, created by Izhevsk designers from the Zala Aero Group, effectively protects against light drones. The weapon is built on a modular basis and can be assembled for specific tasks. Simple pictograms on the modules facilitate assembly: the "quadrocopter" suppresses the control and information transmission channels of drones, the "satellite" extinguishes the navigation systems, the "antenna" - the Wi-Fi channels, and the "phone" - the mobile communication. The REX-1 can also be used to detain intruders: a laser and a strobe will blind and disorient a potential terrorist, and electronic countermeasures will prevent him from contacting accomplices or transmitting a signal to an explosive device. The REX-1 will not be superfluous even if it detects suspicious objects: it blocks radio communication, and you can safely wait for the arrival of sappers.

    Now REX-2 is being launched into series. This system is the most compact in the world as it is based on a pistol. At the same time, all the characteristics of the basic sample - the REX-1 gun - are preserved. The REX-2 is equipped with a replaceable set of modules for jamming radio and satellite navigation signals for controlling drones. As a result of optoelectronic jamming, operators lose control of the drones.

    Another system, ZALA ZONT, ​​suppresses signals from satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, GALILEO) within a radius of 2 kilometers, ensuring the safety of ground groups from attacks by kamikaze drones and taking the exact coordinates of the group.

    It should be added that the world market for anti-drone systems is growing very actively. According to ResearchAndMarkets forecasts, from 2019 to 2025, the global market for anti-unmanned technologies will grow by an average of 29% per year, or by $ 2.4 billion. the market will grow even faster - by 30% per year. And Russia has a winning position in this segment - we have something to offer the most demanding customers.

    The author expresses gratitude to the press service of the State Corporation Rostec for help in preparing the material.

    https://rg.ru/2020/10/28/prizemlit-trutnej-linejka-sistem-zashchity-ot-dronov-sozdana-v-rossii.html

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    Post  AlfaT8 Thu Oct 29, 2020 6:48 pm

    Considering what happened in Armenia a much more comprehensive drone detection and interception system will need to be developed.

    These smaller drones are going to be quite the headache in the near future, especially when they start using real swarming tactics with explosive kamikaze drones.

    Apparently even the vaunted NEBO-M system has problems detecting such tiny drones.
    22:00
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    Post  lyle6 Thu Oct 29, 2020 7:40 pm

    AlfaT8 wrote:Considering what happened in Armenia a much more comprehensive drone detection and interception system will need to be developed.

    These smaller drones are going to be quite the headache in the near future, especially when they start using real swarming tactics with explosive kamikaze drones.

    Apparently even the vaunted NEBO-M system has problems detecting such tiny drones.
    22:00
    These systems are designed for targets that are wholly dissimilar with drones except for the small RCS. That they've managed to adapt the Nebo-M to detect targets outside of its normal purview with simply detection algorithm tweaks says a lot. Imagine what they could do with systems designed for the task?
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    Post  LMFS Thu Oct 29, 2020 7:41 pm

    AlfaT8 wrote:Considering what happened in Armenia a much more comprehensive drone detection and interception system will need to be developed.

    These smaller drones are going to be quite the headache in the near future, especially when they start using real swarming tactics with explosive kamikaze drones.

    Apparently even the vaunted NEBO-M system has problems detecting such tiny drones.

    Precisely Nebo detects even ridiculously small drones that have essentially no military value at a good distance, the bigger ones would be detected and eliminated much sooner.
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    Post  Hole Thu Oct 29, 2020 8:52 pm

    Some anti-drone systems

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 000260
    Repellent
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 000433
    Luch-PRO
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 000160
    Zont

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Oct 30, 2020 12:02 am

    LMFS wrote:
    AlfaT8 wrote:Considering what happened in Armenia a much more comprehensive drone detection and interception system will need to be developed.

    These smaller drones are going to be quite the headache in the near future, especially when they start using real swarming tactics with explosive kamikaze drones.

    Apparently even the vaunted NEBO-M system has problems detecting such tiny drones.

    Precisely Nebo detects even ridiculously small drones that have essentially no military value at a good distance, the bigger ones would be detected and eliminated much sooner.

    Not only that if Nebo-M (RLM-D - Self-propelled AESA radar based on L band Protivnik G design*) is capable of sending out higher output pulses of L-Band emissions, it would already be extremely capable of defeating drones without external aid as was shown here:

    magnumcromagnon wrote:Radiation effects of High-Power Microwave(HPM) pulse on the UAV's datalink and Ground Control Station(GCS) antenna.
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Ej8wbPjXcAAENLb?format=png&name=large
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Ej8wbNJWsAAL_w5?format=png&name=large
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Ej8xai8XYAARc49?format=png&name=small

    Apparently the effects on a drone's circuit board.
    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Ej8wbOPXcAAnT1_?format=png&name=small

    https://www.russiadefence.net/t7921p25-nti-drone-warfare#296938
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Oct 30, 2020 12:04 am

    Hole wrote:Some anti-drone systems

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 000260
    Repellent
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    Luch-PRO
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    Zont

    There's also this posted almost a whole year ago:
    George1 wrote:Some promising Russian means of fighting unmanned aerial vehicles

    As the Vector Scientific Research Institute JSC (part of the Vega Concern of the Ruselectronika Holding) reports in its press release, the enterprise took part in the VII All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference Russian Technologies of Anti-Terrorism Protection, Security and Defense, which is held in Kaluga potentially dangerous objects. "

    At the venue of the event, the Scientific Research Institute “Vector” presents the key developments of the enterprise in the field of monitoring the environment of critical objects in order to identify unauthorized UAVs and counteract them - passive coherent location complex (PCL), Cheremukha control channel detection module and small UAV radio-electronic suppression module “ Sickle".

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 Antenna
    Passive coherent location complex (PCL) (c) JSC Research Institute "Vector"

    PKL provides the location and tracking of UAVs in a guarded zone, and also controls the drone's movement path when it is suppressed. At the same time, the product uses third-party sources of radio signals to illuminate the targets and is a passive system that does not emit unmasking signals.

    The “Bird cherry” module provides the ability to detect, direction finding and positioning both the drone itself and its control panel, while having the ability to simultaneously operate on several UAVs.

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 117
    Module "Bird cherry" (c) JSC Research Institute "Vector"

       The “Sickle” electronic suppression module provides suppression of small UAVs in the angle sector ± 45º and at a distance of up to 20 km, providing continuous frequency overlap in the range from 400 to 6200 MG currently used for UAV control, as well as all frequencies of global navigation satellite systems. The module creates interference, aimed in frequency and direction, upon command from detection and radio monitoring equipment. The counteraction system can include an arbitrary number of suppression modules, thereby solving the tasks of protecting against UAV flying from several directions at the same time, and protecting extended and area objects.

    Russian defence against drone swarms - Page 6 215
    Radio-electronic suppression module "Sickle" (c) JSC Research Institute "Vector"

       “All the described modules can be combined into a single complex that solves the problem of protection against UAVs. A specific solution - the choice of modification, the determination of the required number of modules, their distribution over the territory of the protected facility, the allocation of each module of its area of ​​responsibility - is carried out at the stage of project development according to customer requirements, taking into account the configuration of the facility and the threat model. At the same time, the undoubted advantages of our system are the ability to ensure stealth of use, detection of stealth objects, the absence of interference with other radio engineering devices, and the need to obtain permission to use radio frequency channels, ”said Sergey Skorykh, Director General of Research Institute Vektor.

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/3820848.html

    https://www.russiadefence.net/t7921p25-nti-drone-warfare#267938

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    AlfaT8
    AlfaT8

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    Post  AlfaT8 Fri Oct 30, 2020 4:02 am

    Good to see such systems underway. Wink

    All i have been seeing were these singular anti-drone guns, so i was worried after what happened in Armenia that more comprehensive systems were being neglected.

    And yes the NEBO is indeed excellent, but such things like Trees or Mountains will always be an issue.
    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS Fri Oct 30, 2020 10:35 am

    Russian systems have been protecting Hmeimim for years now without a failure, that is why they don't make it to the news... Russian PVO is up to date vs. drones, and these should not be overestimated as if they were weapons of total annihilation, they carry very small payloads in very small numbers, any proper artillery barrage still is and will be much more effective, its problem in the informational warfare is that it does not record its effects...

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