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    Russian Radar systems

    JohninMK
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    Post  JohninMK Sat Apr 24, 2021 11:12 pm

    Note sure if this is the correct thread for this.

    ASB News / MILITARY

    @ASBMilitary
    ·
    5h
    Game-changer: Scientists at the National Research University of Electronic Tech “MIET” (Moscow, Russia) have created a new radar remote sensing device for aircraft and spacecraft. It can capture images regardless of lighting, weather, the presence of clouds, or tree crowns.

    "It is known that the lower the frequency range, the greater the penetrating power of the wave, so our radar can survey not only through clouds and fog but also under foliage” it can accurately scan the state of soil, ice, etc

    If this gets mounted on combat drones-it’s game over


    Russian Radar systems - Page 24 EzwASsXWEAYSPRO?format=jpg&name=large

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    thegopnik
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    Post  thegopnik Sun Apr 25, 2021 5:51 am

    JohninMK wrote:Note sure if this is the correct thread for this.

    ASB News / MILITARY

    @ASBMilitary
    ·
    5h
    Game-changer: Scientists at the National Research University of Electronic Tech “MIET” (Moscow, Russia) have created a new radar remote sensing device for aircraft and spacecraft. It can capture images regardless of lighting, weather, the presence of clouds, or tree crowns.

    "It is known that the lower the frequency range, the greater the penetrating power of the wave, so our radar can survey not only through clouds and fog but also under foliage” it can accurately scan the state of soil, ice, etc

    If this gets mounted on combat drones-it’s game over


    Russian Radar systems - Page 24 EzwASsXWEAYSPRO?format=jpg&name=large

    Good shit, I remember RTI stating something about satellites being ground penetrating as well.
    franco
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    Post  franco Sat May 15, 2021 3:45 pm

    New means of reconnaissance: radar station "Yenisei" entered the Russian army

    Russian Aerospace Forces received a radar with unique characteristics for equipping air defense systems. At the end of April, the Yenisei radar was adopted by the Russian army, a high-ranking source in the Russian military-industrial complex told Gazeta.Ru. The newest station can be part of the S-500 air defense system, although in reality this locator is a much more universal reconnaissance tool.

    The Yenisei radar station, which entered service with the Russian army, is designed for continuous operation for a long time. For example, the S-400 Triumph radar systems (a command post radar system and a multifunctional radar station of an anti-aircraft missile battalion) were not originally intended to function for such a long period, since anti-aircraft battles and battles do not take place for long hours and days.

    It is this feature of the Yenisei that makes it possible to receive reconnaissance information for a long time, which is important for the means of conducting radar reconnaissance. At the same time, the operator's error factor is practically excluded - the radar works, as they say, in full automatic mode.

    Yenisei is a fully digital locator, its antenna is an active phased array. In addition, the radar is an active-passive device, it can conduct reconnaissance and detect air objects and issue target designations to air defense fire weapons even without broadcasting. That is, "Yenisei" has the functions of conducting electronic intelligence.

    In particular, information on targets from the Yenisei is issued to the multifunctional radars of the S-400 and S-500 anti-aircraft missile systems.

    This year, a contract will be signed for the supply of the S-500 air defense system, since all the components of the system are already ready. As for the S-400 air defense system, the Yenisei (along with the 96L6 all-altitude detector) is already included in this system.

    The Yenisei locator is equipped with remote posts, which allows it to successfully deal with jammers. For example, the success of the US Air Force's actions in many local conflicts was ensured by the fact that practically all air defense systems of Washington's opponents were suppressed by powerful and well-organized interference.

    But this does not apply to the Yenisei. The higher the interference intensity, the better the locator ties up target tracks and more accurately gives target designation to air defense fire weapons. So with the adoption of the Yenisei by the Russian Aerospace Forces, the United States, one might say, lost this trump card.

    Another feature of the Yenisei radar is that the radar can operate in a sector (recall that most radar reconnaissance equipment operates in a circular view mode). This characteristic allows the radar to successfully issue target designations for ballistic missiles.

    By the way, the 96L6 all-altitude detector (VO), usually attached to the S-400 air defense system, cannot work in the sector.

    The characteristics of the "Yenisei" interested the leadership of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Russian Aerospace Forces. So, the radar complex (RLK) 92N6 of the command post of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system operates "round-the-clock". But it is the continuous and long-term work of the Yenisei in the sector that will sharply increase the effectiveness of anti-aircraft missile defense against ballistic missiles in missile-hazardous areas. Therefore, in the anti-aircraft missile forces at the positions of the command post of the S-400 air defense system, two locators are installed at once - the standard 92N6 S-400 radar and the Yenisei radar.

    In addition, the Yenisei “sees” well and accompanies its launched anti-aircraft guided missiles and can very accurately determine whether the target has been hit in the event of a meeting. This feature of the locator really liked the leadership of the anti-aircraft missile forces of the Aerospace Forces. Now, with the help of the Yenisei, they can assess the effectiveness of the anti-aircraft missile units.

    "Yenisei" provides the issuance of target designations for hypersonic targets.

    And this system has another remarkable feature. For example, the missile of the Iskander-M operational-tactical complex first rises to a great height (about 100 km). Then, on the descending part of the trajectory, it begins to actively maneuver. This makes it almost impossible to intercept it.

    Moreover, on the way to the target, the Iskander missile releases carbon threads, which leads to a complete illumination of the enemy radar indicator screens, that is, there is such an abundance of false targets that any effective operation of the enemy's anti-aircraft missile systems on such missiles becomes simply unrealistic. ... In the United States, they have not developed any effective method of confronting the missiles of this complex.

    Yenisei, on the other hand, “sees” such targets, can steadily accompany them and issue precise target designations on them.

    In addition, Yenisei is able to effectively combat atmospheric phenomena, the so-called "angels". They arise mainly over water surfaces and cause a strong illumination of the indicator screens (in the form of a large number of false targets) of both detection radars and missile guidance stations. In particular, the Chinese came face to face with them after purchasing the S-400 air defense system and placing their starting positions near water surfaces. Domestic experts have made effective protection (by various kinds of algorithmic tricks) and from "angels", including on the Yenisei radar.

    Also, the Yenisei is equipped with built-in state identification means, both domestic (the Guardian system) and NATO MK-12 (the latter may be of interest to foreign customers). In addition, the locator also has a secondary channel for operation in the EU ATC (unified air traffic control system) in the range of 1030-1090 MHz. This allows the Yenisei to have complete information about the civilian aircraft currently in the air.

    The Yenisei radar is highly maneuverable. The coagulation / deployment time does not exceed 5 minutes.

    To increase mobility, outriggers (outriggers), which, for example, have, for example, VVO 96L6, were removed from the Yenisei. Mechanical "paws" for leveling at this radar remained, but they are already being put forward in a rut, without removal.

    Yenisei detects airborne objects at altitudes of more than 100 km (on the border of space and air space), at ranges over 600 km, steadily accompanies them and is a universal and multifunctional tool for detecting a variety of airborne objects and issuing precise target designations to fire weapons air defense.

    The name "Yenisei" has already been carried in the past by a mobile two-coordinate VHF radar station of the P-12 radar. This locator entered service with the radio engineering troops (RTV Air Defense Forces) in 1956 and for many decades served in the field of protecting the airspace of the USSR.

    https://3h6hg2shdcaaxrfeyjv5eak4oi-ac4c6men2g7xr2a-www-gazeta-ru.translate.goog/army/2021/05/13/13591220.shtml

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    Hole
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    Post  Hole Sat May 15, 2021 10:39 pm

    I´m curious, the radar systems of which opponent was "suppressed by powerful and well-organized interference"??? dunno
    franco
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    Post  franco Sat May 15, 2021 11:49 pm

    Afghanistan and Somalia Shocked
    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB Sun May 16, 2021 10:39 am

    I would say Iraq and Serbia and most other places they have attacked, they have started with jamming and during that jamming attempted to destroy major radar sites and communications centres and HQs.

    During Desert Storm they used Apache helicopters to sneak in at low altitude to destroy large radars to clear the way for cruise missile and stealth aircraft attack.
    Isos
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    Post  Isos Sun May 16, 2021 11:18 am

    GarryB wrote:I would say Iraq and Serbia and most other places they have attacked, they have started with jamming and during that jamming attempted to destroy major radar sites and communications centres and HQs.

    During Desert Storm they used Apache helicopters to sneak in at low altitude to destroy large radars to clear the way for cruise missile and stealth aircraft attack.

    That's why you need Sosna-R, 57mm AA gun and manpads in huge quantity. They are totally immune to radar jamming.
    Atmosphere
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    Post  Atmosphere Sat Jun 26, 2021 2:36 am

    https://youtu.be/ghEKD6_WHCQ

    That is it , they confirmed it themselves, modern meter wave radars hace gotten improved resolution and can perform stand alone tracking. Although it was obvious from the start, the fact that they confirmed it themselves means some folks can finally shut the **** up about meter wave resolution limitation.


    And to think that some People are saying that even the higher frequency wing slat radars would be lacklustre.....

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    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko Sun Jun 27, 2021 2:07 am

    "The type of target will no longer matter": the head of the RTI Systems concern - on the development of radio photonic technologies for radars, June 26, 2021, Alexey Zakvasin.

    Research in the field of radio-photonics, which is now being carried out in Russia, will significantly improve the capabilities of radar stations. Yuri Anoshko, General Director of JSC Concern RTI Sistemy, spoke about this in an interview with RT. Radiophotonics is a field of physics focused on the transition to the optical range of information processing. The concern's specialists, in cooperation with other Russian enterprises and research centers, expect to radically increase the speed of radar data processing, enhance noise immunity and reduce the energy consumption of modern and future radars.

    - Yuri Gennadievich, practically nothing is known about radio photonics to a wide range of people. Could you explain what this area of ​​modern physics is studying?

    - Now there is a generally accepted, but not entirely correct interpretation. It boils down to the fact that radio photonics is a technology for transmitting information inside a radar station via optical channels, that is, converting data from the radio band to the optical one. Many modern radar stations already use such a scheme.

    The optical range is characterized by a high level of protection against the effects of various suppression means. It can be unambiguously stated that the throughput and stability of such a channel is higher than that of traditional schemes.

    However, in its pure form, this cannot be called radiophotonics. In fact, it assumes the maximum allowable transition from microwave (ultra-high frequencies. - RT ) to the optical range both in the location and in the information processing segment.

    - Can we say that radio photonics has become a trend in modern science, a popular field of study?

    - The development of science and technology always follows the same scenario. First, a hypothesis appears, which is either confirmed or not. If everything is in order with it, then it goes into the field of scientific research, and those, in turn, flow into experimental and applied research. At present, we are only at the stage of confirming the viability of the existing scientific hypotheses in the field of radio photonics.

    - Nevertheless, is it possible hypothetically to create a radio-photon station and how will it conceptually differ from the usual radar?

    - In my opinion, the issue of creating a radio-photon station is overly advertised in certain circles. Now Russia and other countries are only moving in this direction. No one yet knows how to build a radar (radar station. - RT ) solely based on radio photonics technologies.

    Today it is appropriate to talk not so much about the creation of such a product, but about the development of a number of technological solutions and their subsequent integration into modern and promising radar stations.

    In our research, we focus on the transfer of radar information from the radio to the optical range, where, as it is assumed, the data will be mainly processed.

    - What will the technology you are talking about give in practice?

    - The possibility of switching to the optical range opens up very great prospects. In practice, we will be able to develop radars with significantly improved characteristics. First of all, we are talking about a serious increase in the volume and speed of information processing by radio-photonic optical processors.

    It will also reduce the weight and dimensions of the radar, reduce heat generation, and enhance noise immunity. In general, we will get a new quality of radar information processing. Without progress in this field, it is unrealistic to count on significant success in increasing the potential of radar detection equipment.

    - Will the radar range increase with the introduction of radio-photonic solutions?

    - It is difficult to unequivocally answer this question, since the range indicator depends on many accompanying factors.

    - Will such a radar detect hypersonic aircraft? This question now worries many, including Russia.

    - If we are able to implement a quantum locator in its original understanding, then the type of target will no longer matter. In this sense, we will be able to see any air objects and promptly process information on them.

    It will be possible not only to accurately determine the coordinates of targets, but also to display (on the radar screen - RT ) an image of this object, which, of course, simplifies identification and improves the awareness of decision-making centers.

    - One gets the impression that radio photonics began to develop as a way to correct the shortcomings of existing radars. What problems do modern radars have?

    - This logic is not very correct. It is worth talking not about the shortcomings, but about the objective limitations that exist in the microwave range and are associated with the physics of this state of electromagnetic energy. But two major problems, which I mentioned, are solved by radio photonics - this is a significant increase in noise immunity and the throughput of information streams.

    - What about energy consumption? It is no secret that modern radars are extremely energy-intensive, which a priori worsens their performance.

    - You're right. But a large amount of power consumption is an inevitable necessity to ensure the normal operation of modern locators. A powerful radar station consumes a lot of electricity, and it will not be possible to change the situation with the help of the usual technical solutions. In this regard, the optical range just allows you to achieve a significant reduction in power consumption.

    - In 2018, the RTI Systems website announced the creation of the first experimental radar with elements of radio-photon technologies. It was emphasized that the appearance of such a product made it possible to confirm the possibility of using radio-photon technologies in radar. At the same time, it was noted that the radar had a lot of shortcomings and limitations in its use.

    - Yes that's right. We have proven the fundamental possibility of integrating these technologies into radar systems. To obtain further large-scale results, research is required on the development of nodes for transmitting information to the optical range. What, in fact, our concern is doing.

    Naturally, we do not work separately and we are building interaction with leading enterprises and research institutes in Russia, which have gained some experience in the field of research and implementation of radio photonics technologies into practice.

    The center of concentration of our competencies is the site of the design center for radio photonics on the basis of the Academician A.L. Mints.

    - Is it still possible to predict that the creation of a full-fledged radio photonic radar is a prospect for the coming decades, since it is necessary to solve too many complex problems?

    - As I already noted, the issue of creating a prototype of a full-scale quantum locator is not on the agenda. It makes no sense to talk about any timing of the appearance of such a product yet also because many scientific and technological solutions will need confirmation of the right to exist for a long time.

    Moreover, it should be borne in mind that the development and operation of a radio-photonic radar will entail the creation of a virtually new industry - it will be necessary to establish mass production of a wide range of completely new components, an elementary component base, fundamentally different systems and assemblies.

    On the one hand, this opens up new horizons for the development of the high-tech sector in Russia, on the other, it is a resource-intensive and not at all fast process that will require the concentration of significant competencies and finances.

    - Do you have an understanding of the stage at which projects in the field of radio-photonics abroad are?

    - Earlier in the public space of foreign states there was a lot of information about the development of these technologies, but at a certain moment this flow stopped. This indicates that, in all likelihood, a certain level of development of radiophotonics has been reached abroad. The closure of information probably indicates that research has migrated to the practical plane.

    - What place does Russia occupy in this eternal competition with the West?

    - In order to compare the achievements of Russia and foreign states, you still need to have more complete information than what I have. However, I have no doubt that domestic science and industry are not lagging behind the West. Another question is which way of technological solutions will be the most correct.

    https://russian.rt.com/science/article/878079-radiofotonika-rls-koncern-rti-anoshko

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    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko Thu Aug 26, 2021 7:34 pm

    New Russian missile-defense radar system is world-first for helping intercept nuclear warheads, military industry chief reveals, 26/08/2021.

    Russia's Soviet-era nuclear defense shield has had a major overhaul and has now become one of the world's most advanced military installations, benefitting from secret technology, one of the businesses behind the project has said.

    Speaking to RIA Novosti at the ARMY-2021 conference on Thursday, the general director of RTI systems, one of the country's largest defense contractors and a supplier of radar hardware and rocket technology, disclosed that the Don-2N station in the Moscow region had been upgraded. "It is now being tested," Yuri Anoshko said.

    "As a result of these works, the functionality has changed," and the radar station, which underpins Russia's nuclear defense network, is now said to be unparalleled by any other in use across the globe. While Anoshko refused to reveal the nature of the added functionality, the colossal installation is a key part of the national anti-missile defense grid, and picks up potential threats at long distances in case of nuclear war.

    The construction of the giant dome-shaped structure began in 1978, and took over a decade to come online. Since then, it has been on continuous duty, ushering out the Cold War and acting as the eyes of modern Russia's nuclear arsenal. Its antennas rise to the height of an 11-storey building, and it is said to be capable of tracking even smaller ballistic missiles that deploy technology to disguise against detection.

    Concerns have previously been aired about countries' growing capacity to identify and intercept incoming nuclear weapons. After the US successfully intercepted a simulated missile attack in 2020, analysts warned that one nuclear state making itself invulnerable to a barrage would shift the delicate balance of atomic power and make conflict more likely, not less.

    https://www.rt.com/russia/533140-cutting-edge-russian-radar-system/

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    Broski
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    Post  Broski Thu Aug 26, 2021 9:00 pm

    Kiko wrote:Speaking to RIA Novosti at the ARMY-2021 conference on Thursday, the general director of RTI systems, one of the country's largest defense contractors and a supplier of radar hardware and rocket technology, disclosed that the Don-2N station in the Moscow region had been upgraded. "It is now being tested," Yuri Anoshko said.

    "As a result of these works, the functionality has changed," and the radar station, which underpins Russia's nuclear defense network, is now said to be unparalleled by any other in use across the globe. While Anoshko refused to reveal the nature of the added functionality, the colossal installation is a key part of the national anti-missile defense grid, and picks up potential threats at long distances in case of nuclear war.
    Photonic Radar Technology, no doubt.
    franco
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    Post  franco Thu Aug 26, 2021 11:40 pm

    Russia: Resonans-N radar to be deployed in Sakhalin

    A decision has been made to deploy several Resonans-N radars in the Far East to detect and provide guidance at hypersonic and stealth targets. The first one will be deployed in Sakhalin region, a defense industry source told TASS at Army-2021 forum.

    The Resonans-N radar is capable of detecting and providing target acquisition on aerodynamic targets at a distance of 600 km and at a range of 1,200 km on ballistic targets, at an altitude of up to 100 km (Picture source: Rosoboronexport)

    “Up to five Resonans-N radars have to be deployed in the Far East by 2027 according to the arms program. The first one will be deployed in Sakhalin region. The Defense Ministry will determine the exact location,” the source said.

    TASS could not obtain an official confirmation of the report.

    A source previously told TASS that training of operators of Resonans-N will begin in 2022 in the air defense center in Vladimir region.

    The 45th air force and defense army of the Northern fleet currently has three four-module round-view Resonans-N and another two are being deployed in the Arctic.

    Resonans-N operates in the meter band by the resonance of waves and detects stealth and hypersonic targets flying at 20 speeds of sound. The radar can detect and provide guidance at aerodynamic targets at a distance of 600 km and ballistic targets at a distance of 1200 km and an altitude of 100 km.

    https://airrecognition.com/index.php/news/defense-aviation-news/2021/august/7567-russia-resonans-n-radar-to-be-deployed-in-sakhalin.html

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    kvs
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    Post  kvs Fri Aug 27, 2021 12:55 am

    As I already noted, the issue of creating a prototype of a full-scale quantum locator is not on the agenda. It makes no sense to talk about any timing of the appearance of such a product yet also because many scientific and technological solutions will need confirmation of the right to exist for a long time.

    Not just bandwidth and reduced power, new physical approaches to detection as well. But as he says this early days.

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    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS Sat Aug 28, 2021 12:57 pm

    Smart interview to the head of RTI

    Yuri Anoshko: Russian radars see all planes in the air

    Along the bordersRussia has created a continuous radar field within the framework of the missile attack warning system (SPRN), which makes it possible to monitor ballistic targets. Work is underway to create a continuous field using over-the-horizon stations. The Russian Armed Forces pay special attention to the development of air and space surveillance systems, taking into account the concepts of multi-sphere operations and a massive air strike developed in NATO. General Director of the Concern "RTI systems"Yuri Anoshko on the forum "Army-2021" said in an interview with RIA Novosti, Dmitry Reshetnikov on the current capabilities of the Russian early warning system, the next directions of its development, modernization of stations to the level of "Yakhroma", about the effect of the use of U.S. technology "stealth", and also restrictions on artificial intelligence in radar, watching the space, and the nuances of working with space debris.
    – What are the capabilities of the Russian missile attack warning system (SPRN)? Which ballistic missile launches can we track and which can't, and is the system capable of detecting hypersonic vehicles?
    – In fact, Russian EWS stations can see any target that is above the horizon. We are also talking about aerodynamic objects, such as airplanes, as well as hypersonic vehicles. The question is, what size is the target, and at what distance do we need to accompany it?
    – And at what maximum range are we currently able to detect missiles or other objects?
    – Today, we see spacecraft in geostationary orbit using the radar stations that are part of the early warning system. This is an altitude above the Earth's surface of more than 30 thousand kilometers.
    – Earlier, the Russian Defense Ministry announced plans to create a continuous radar field not only for ballistic targets, but also for aerodynamic targets. It was about the Container stations, the first of which was put on combat duty in Mordovia. How many such stations will you need? In which regions are they planned to be delivered and in what time frame?
    – If the EWS stations see targets that are above the level of the radio horizon, then the Container radars are just able to look beyond the radio horizon due to the fact that they use decameter-length waves that are re-reflected from the ionosphere. How many such stations will be required is a question for the Ministry of Defense, which orders the required number, we do not make such estimates. As I imagine, these stations should be deployed along our border and cover the corresponding space.
    – In addition to the" Container " in Mordovia, any other work is currently underway?
    – Yes, the Ministry of Defense has decided that a whole system will be deployed, and as part of this task, work is being carried out to create new Container stations.
    – Earlier it was stated that at the end of the year of operation, the Container station in Mordovia confirmed its qualities. In particular, it showed the ability to detect NATO aircraftmade using stealth technology. What kind of aircraft are we talking about? Under what circumstances were they detected?
    - Stealth technology involves reducing the probability of detecting a given object in a certain range of wavelengths. And as a rule, stealth technologies are focused on the wavelength range in which radars that detect such targets operate. In particular, these are on-board radars of other aircraft, radars of anti-aircraft missile systems, and so on. The over-the-horizon station operates in a completely different wavelength range, the so-called short waves, although their length ranges from tens to hundreds of meters. In this case, the effect achieved by using radio-absorbing coatings and the shape of the aircraft itself no longer works. Accordingly, for an over-the-horizon station, the use of stealth technology is not an obstacle to detection.
    – Can you use over-the-horizon stations to determine the type of target? Is it possible to say that it was the F-35 that flew?
    – The task for over-the-horizon stations to identify the types of air targets is not worth it. The task is to detect changes in the intensity of aviation use over the horizon, at a distance of up to three thousand kilometers from the station's position. That is, against the background of regular aircraft traffic, you can see the appearance of something non-standard, such as the use of special aviation. The interest is to reveal the very fact of an abnormal development of the situation in the air.
    – So its accuracy is low, and you won't be able to determine the coordinates from it?
    – You can determine the object's location.
    – And how many re-reflections of the signal occur at the maximum range of the station?
    – We work on the same race.
    – You say that it is impossible to determine the type of target, while how can we say that the Container in Mordovia detected foreign stealth aircraft?
    "Very simple. We simply see all the planes that are in the air due to the lengths of radio waves with which the "Container" works. Accordingly, knowing from open sources where the F-35s are based, and knowing that they flew sorties, we can say for sure that we saw them and accompanied them.
    – How effective do you think stealth technology is?
    - It depends on what I want to achieve using this technology. If I use it in some countries that have certain classes of radars in the air defense system, including on-board radars of fighters from the air defense forces on duty, then stealth technology can be quite effective for breaking through this system.
    – If we hypothetically assume that the United States has brought its B2s against us, will we see them?
    – The probability of a direct breakthrough of our air defense system by these aircraft is almost zero. Some other means should make a breakout zone for them, and then it will become possible. But these planes themselves, apart from the effect of psychological pressure, in my opinion, are useless against us as a means of air attack.
    – Well, at least the range of their detection is reduced due to the technology of reducing radar visibility?
    – Today, where B-2BS are deployed, and this is far beyond our territory, we detect them with the help of over-the-horizon stations even on the flight route. Regardless of the "stealth" technology.
    – Is the work on creating a radiophoton radar continuing?
    - Work continues, we are building up our competence in this matter. Moreover, we are creating one of the competence centers for the development of radiophotonics. Moreover, we will develop it not in purely theoretical terms, but in applied terms – from the point of view of implementing these technologies in newly created locators.
    – Earlier it was announced about the construction of new Yakhroma EWS stations in the Crimea and the Far East. Is this a further modernization of Voronezh stations?
    – Yes, this is another step in the development of the Voronezh series of radars. These stations will have greater noise immunity and bandwidth. In addition, already in the course of their creation, the technology of an automated digital twin system will be implemented, which allows tracking the status of the radar (stages of the radar life cycle).
    – Will all other EWS stations be upgraded according to the same scheme?
    – Yes, of course, all the new achievements that we get at the new station, we use when upgrading existing ones. During the modernization period, we will also bring them to this level.
    – And by what year will Yakhroma be built in the Crimea?
    – It is better for you to contact the state customer.
    – Are there plans to use artificial intelligence elements in new EWS stations, for example, to ensure their functioning without human intervention?
    – It all depends on what we mean by artificial intelligence (AI). In fact, these are just mathematical and logical methods of information processing. They are required when there is more and more information available. Naturally, such methods are used in the processing of radar information, in station management, and in diagnostics of its condition. Another question is whether AI makes decisions. In this case, of course, this is out of the question and cannot be. Because the information that EWS stations give out must be evaluated by a person for reliability. Otherwise, we may get a situation where, as a result of a technical or software failure, an erroneous decision will be made about a missile attack, which may lead to irreversible consequences.
    – Will the level of automation of Yakhroma allow you to reduce the combat crew?
    - Of course, automation involves reducing the number of people who participate in the operation of the plant. The combat crew of Yakhroma will be smaller than on Voronezh.
    – Today, the problem of space debris is acute, which, in particular, can threaten the collision of existing spacecraft of the Russian group. Are EWS stations involved in tracking debris and space debris objects? Is this data transmittedRoscosmos?
    – All EWS radars continuously monitor the space situation. As I said, the radars control everything over the radio horizon. We see spacecraft that operate in their orbits, upper stages, various launch objects, and elements of destroyed space objects. Information about them is systematized in the catalog of space objects, which is used, among other things, to exclude dangerous situations in space.
    – How small can you see objects?
    – The thing is, we can't measure the object we're currently seeing – we can't fly up to it with a ruler. We see space objects with a certain effective scattering area. Depending on the angle of illumination, on how it is illuminated by the sun or illuminated by our radar, we can observe a variety of objects.
    – That is, radar radiation from the Sun, reflected by an object in the direction of the SPRN station receiver, also allows you to see space objects, as they say, in passive mode?
    – Yes, this situation is also feasible.
    – The Americans have a NORAD command. They regularly observe our spacecraft and distribute their orbit parameters. Do we also track their satellites with EWS stations?
    – All objects located above the radio horizon are observed, including space objects.
    – Do you plan to upgrade the Don-2N missile defense station near Moscow? In what directions can its modernization be carried out?
    – We just recently completed the modernization of this station, now it is undergoing testing. As a result of these works, the functionality of Don-2N has changed. Moreover, it has not only changed its quantitative characteristics, but also its qualitative ones. For obvious reasons, I can't give you specific values.
    - Tell us more about the Elik complex.
    – This is an onboard multi-frequency radar system. With the help of this complex, for example, during the tests, a runway from the Great Patriotic War was discovered, completely covered with a layer of earth in 10 centimeters. There was a metal grid that was then used for field airfields, it was forgotten about, and it was overgrown with a cultural layer, and "Elik" discovered it.
    – For what purposes can the complex be used?
    – It can be used for monitoring pipelines that may be collapsed or buried, for monitoring any other structures that may be located at some depth, for example, gas pipelines, oil pipelines. The wavelengths that Elik uses are 3 centimeters, 23 centimeters and 73 centimeters.
    – What is its maximum penetration capacity into the ground?
    – Such assessments have not been carried out yet.
    – What kind of aircraft is Elik installed on?
    – It's still a test facility. It is not put on any specific aircraft, we are conducting experiments with it. We mount it on disembodied vehicles, helicopters, and other aircraft and work out its software and algorithmic support.
    – What other promising tasks do the concern face today?
    – By order of the Russian Academy of Sciences, we are creating a locator for heliogeophysical research of the situation.
    – And what will it do?"
    – It will be a research locator that will be used for peaceful purposes in the interests of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In particular, it will allow studying solar activity, as well as its effect on the Earth's ionosphere, and will give other related results.

    https://ria.ru/20210826/anoshko-1747223211.html

    So, against Conteiner the stealth is so useless that they they cannot directly tell if they are detecting a "stealth" plane or a conventional one Laughing

    Also important that the guy clearly states they can locate the position of the targets, for all those out there claiming the width of the beam gives a uncertainty of dozens of km, ignoring there are many ways of using known terrain features and algorithmic tricks to radically improve that accuracy.

    franco and dino00 like this post

    GarryB
    GarryB

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    Russian Radar systems - Page 24 Empty Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GarryB Sun Aug 29, 2021 5:54 am

    Sharing target information a flight of Su-35s would quickly work out using L band radar as well as IRST and nose mounted Ku and Ka band signals what they can detect (non stealthy) and what is difficult to track with the nose mounted KU and KA band radar but what appears as blips on L band and dots on IRST as to what is stealthy and what is not.

    Either way it will know its location and be able to close in and intercept it.

    One of the problems with search radar is its low speed due to range... when you are scanning for targets 3,000km away you can't have the radar spinning at 60 times a second because the radar has to be pointing in the right direction to receive the return signal.

    With a fixed array however it is always listening in all the directions it can see, so the scan rate is what is important.

    A normal spinning search radar might spin 12 times a minute which means one spin every 5 seconds... if the target is a Zircon missile moving at 3.2km/s that means each spin its blip will shift 16km each spin... most current search radars sees a target skip 16km per radar spin will not see one target moving at 3.2km/s... it will see two separate targets that appear and then disappear in the case of the first dot and in the case of the second dot was not there and then it was and then on the next sweep has disappeared again...

    Tracking radars don't scan 360 degrees and so their scan rates can be much higher so it is easier to track fast targets.

    Of course needless to say on the Iraq/Iran border where F-35s are deployed... if the Iranians are not detecting fighters on their border and the Russian systems in Russia are tracking fighter sized targets flying along the border area then it is a pretty safe assumption that this is F-35s we are talking about.

    For Iran sending lots of fighters would be risky, because the F-35s might shoot them down, but they could certainly send drones with IR guided missiles in numbers that exceed the number of weapons the F-35s could be carrying...

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