Love finding old but new info https://itech.aorti.ru/upload/iblock/467/rti_ii_4_19_2017.pdf page 24
Sintering approaches are also used layers of structure or combining through polyimide layers and selective epitaxial growth of active layers in areas formed topology on the plate. Here flexibility of technologies is combined with high technology and complexity, the need for precise control of material parameters and critical dimensions of topology elements. An increase in the performance, functionality, and reliability of radio-photonic circuits is possible only when switching from discrete elements to integral. Construction of complex radio-photonic systems in the frequency range more than 30–40 GHz on the basis of discrete components becomes problematic and ineffective; therefore, the increase in the frequency range is typical for the FIS. For instance, a combination of the А3В5 / Si heterogeneous integration technology and the use of micro ring resonators as part of a PIS modulator recently allowed to create by developers record superlinear modulator with free dynamic range in the USA 117 dB · Hz2 / 3 . FROM THE CENTER OF COMPETENCE TO CLUSTER One of the most important active elements of the radio-photonic component base is a microwave modulator. When using radio-photonic schemes with external modulation, the laser emits in a continuous mode, and the modulation of the signal is carried out by the modulator. This is currently the approach made it possible to achieve maximum modulation frequencies of 100 GHz and data transmission rates up to 400 Gbit / s. The development of a component base for radiophotonics has begun in Russia. For example, a modulator based on lithium niobate was developed at the Physicotechnical Institute (FTI) named after A.F. Ioffe RAS. However, until now, there was practically no groundwork in the country integrated radio-photonics technologies for formation of FIS. As a result, NRNU MEPhI became one of the leading centers of excellence for creation of a cluster for integrated radio photonics. It has great scientific and technical potential for research and developments in this extremely important area. Firstly, NRNU MEPhI has an experienced technological line for the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices for microwave electronics based on non-silicon heterostructures А3В5. Most of the processes on the creation of integrated radio photonics components on the InP technological platform
One of the leading developments of the holding "Shvabe" is a disc active element made of neodymium phosphate glass, designed for for high precision large active elements. Its unique composition, which amplifies laser radiation, is protected by several patents in Russia and other countries, as well as awarded the 2016 Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in Science and Technology. In Munich on exhibition Laser World of Photonics - 2017 it became the main exhibit of "Shvabe". Another interesting development of the holding - new stereoscopic microscope MBS-16 for the study of volumetric objects, thin film and transparent objects. The guests of the Munich exposition were able to test it in action, having studied the structural features of the matrices photodetectors, the creation of which also represents one of the most active developing activities holding. - On the territory of Russia in an innovative sphere - photonics - "Shvabe" is the leader and a system integrator. Currently the holding develops several directions in this industries, including lasers, optical materials and photodetectors. In Germany there were samples of these products are presented, including know-how - an absolutely new element base superpower laser complexes. This is a breakthrough achievement in Russian optical science. and technique, which since the beginning of its use will solve the problem of creating energy complexes of the future, - notes the first deputy General Director of Shvabe Holding - Deputy for R&D and Innovative Development Sergey Popov.
logic of microelectronics and photonics, as well as completely new ones based on the growth of heterostructures and microlithography. One of the flagship models is a photodetector device that operates in shortwave parts of the infrared range (0.9-1.7 micro meters of SWIR range). This range is not thermal, the image is built due to reflection of radiation from objects, and not due to their own radiation. Therefore, the images of objects will be comparable to the visible image - the contrast of the reflected radiation obtained due to the difference between the reflection coefficients of the object and the background. This camera is capable of functioning in fog and smoke. This was shown by the results of its testing in Obninsk at the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - the World Data Center, where artificial fog was created in a very large room. So, at first I stopped A regular video camera, then observers, and the SWIR camera continued to record not only the object, but also specially applied labels. Cameras operating in this range are promising for the fleet, aviation, in the operation of cars and armored vehicles. SWIR camera is able to detect soldiers dressed in camouflage uniforms, military equipment under camouflage nets. It is impossible to hide dummies of missiles and tanks from her, another military equipment. The device is also capable of detecting the trail of a mortar projectile in the sky, from which it is possible to quite accurately determine the coordinates of the gun. Demonstrated by Shvabe specialists and optical surveillance systems for Russian drones, which are actively developing towards a decrease in weight and dimensions, including for middle class UAVs. Working with aspherical optics, designers "Shvabe" instead of seven conventional lenses, only two. As a result, the mass of the lens has decreased. one and a half to two times. The second area of activity is the stabilization of equipment for drone board. And most importantly - very necessary for the military - the creation of a laser illumination, which provides accurate guidance of guided munitions. As part of the further improvement of the military equipment, Shvabe created an all-day portable reconnaissance device and a portable reconnaissance device. This is a new class of devices which allow you to see in the infrared range, determine the coordinates of the target; in them built-in compass and positioning system. All information goes into a single system tactical level management (ESU TK). But Shvabe does not stop at the fact that done today, and is developing the elements equipment of the soldiers of the future, many of which can be attributed to devices taken from science fiction books. In particular, we are talking about about helmet-mounted eyecups and monitors with infrared and television components, as well as augmented reality systems - when a fighter's points receive an additional information about the coordinates of the place, the nearest to him objects, the intended direction enemy attack. As a result, the picture that the warrior sees in front of him, is combined with target indications, electronic maps, incoming teams. And this is not fiction - "Shvabe" is already does. And to counter terrorists, the holding plans to create a thermal imaging complex contactless remote control of the emotional state of a person by his heat field. By the way, a similar "lie detector" could be used for admission to work. For example, SWIR cameras can distinguish between a face made up, which cannot be done visually. Psycho-emotional state the thermal field can also be determined: it seems that outwardly the person did not blush, but pinkness is visible in the infrared range his cheeks. In this way, a person can be distinguished even in a crowd. THE POWER OF ENERGY In laser ranging systems, ranging and target designation, as well as for the solution of civil tasks (cutting, drilling, welding, engraving) ready to the use of a new pulse solid state diode pumped laser. Thanks to the original design, the pump efficiency is increased by 30% and the output laser energy is increased by 90%. The novelty was created by a subsidiary holding - by specialists of the Research Institute "Polyus" (Research Institute "Polyus") named after M.F.Stelmakh. Their development consists from a rod - an active element, two powerful diode arrays acting as a pump source, as well as a Q-switch, responsible for the operation of the laser in a pulsed mode. In this unit, near the laser bar beveled ends. Through them, radiation from powerful diode arrays freely penetrates into the active element, which increased by 30% laser pumping efficiency. Specialists Research Institute "Polyus" named after M.F.Stelmakh also used a Q-switch in the product, which made it possible to obtain pulses at the laser output nanosecond duration.
Having yielded to foreign countries leadership in the field microelectronics, Russia plans to bypass competitors in another area - radio photonics and defense technologies in its basis. Today, this is supposed to be done through support the state and attracting large investors to the industry. The Russian school of photonics is considered one of the best in the world. Nobel Prize for physics in 1964 was awarded to Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov for the research that led to the creation of the laser, and in 2000 - to Zhores Alferov for development in optoelectronics. Currently, no one in our country is engaged in a wide circle of research institutions and manufacturing plants in Moscow, Petersburg, Novosibirsk and other cities. At the same time, the recognized leader in this area is the Concern "Radioelectronic Technologies" (KRET). It is KRET in cooperation with the Fund Advanced Research Projects (FPI) established laboratory of radiophotonics, which allowed domestic scientists to advance far forward in a promising scientific direction and designate the transition to the sixth technological order, in other words - to a new level of evolution of industrial production, when its appearance will be determined by the use of "smart" information
networks and materials created at the nano level. In November 2014, KRET and FPI signed agreement on the implementation of a promising scientific and technical project "Development active phased array based on radiophotonics ", including conducting research on the basis of the enterprises of the concern, as well as the development of a universal technology that will form the basis for the created radars and systems of radioelectronic fight (electronic warfare) of a new generation. - Radiophotonics is a promising scientific direction that will determine the vector of development of dual technology in the future. destination all over the world. For Russia it is there will be a huge scientific breakthrough, - notes advisor to the first deputy general Director of KRET Vladimir Mikheev. Today, the laboratory is carrying out a whole range of research activities, testing samples of the elemental base of radiophotonics and a wide range of devices for it. basis. In addition to basic research, KRET specialists are engaged in the expansion of areas application of devices and systems based on radio photonics for radio communication, mobile communications and energy. According to Vladimir Mikheeva, the latest technologies will allow in the next decade to create receiving and transmitting devices, radar stations, radio engineering intelligence and electronic countermeasures systems new generation. THESE Mysterious Rofar What kind of devices will be discussed further? In everyday life, they are unlikely will be available just like that, and only specialists know that ROFAR is an abbreviation for radars operating on the basis of radio-optical phased array antennas. Their peculiarity lies in the possibility of regulating the amplitudes and phases of the excitation fields of each radiating element directly in the grating itself and obtaining the required radiated power on the canvas without power-consuming "closet" transmitting equipment. Phased array antennas have a whole range of undeniable advantages. Among them, we will single out, first of all, high reliability. If at least one fails from the transceiving elements of the lattice, then the chart parameters will worsen a little antenna directionality, but the locator will continue to function. At the same time, the use of radio-photon technologies, especially in integral design, will significantly reduce the weight and size parameters compared to "traditional" solutions. In addition, the use of radio photography will significantly increase the bandwidth of emitted signals without losses at large angles of deviation of the radiation pattern from the normal of the antenna array. It is fair to say that phased array antennas are not cheap, affecting the price of the entire radar system. However, technology is not worth on site, and the cost of transmitting and receiving elements are steadily decreasing, giving grounds for their wider application. Developments in this area are carried out by specialists both in the USA and in Europe. Not out of place mention the AN / APG 77 radar station built in the USA, which is equipped with fifth generation fighter F-22 Raptor. Carrying a station on board, the F-22 Raptor can search for planes against a nick in such a way that they won't even notice, that they are being irradiated with radio signals. Unlike from conventional radars emitting powerful energy pulses in a narrow frequency range, the AN / APG 77, on the contrary, emits low energy pulses in a wide frequency range. When the reflected signals return from the target to the radar, it is optimal processes them, providing the pilot with accurate information about distance, speed and angular parameters of the target. "RADAR VISION" Of course, KRET takes into account the realities of today and is actively working on the creation of new ROFAR, moving forward compared to overseas competitors. And there is something to fight for! With the help of ROFAR in the future it will be possible to build real networks
from synchronized space and ground radio telescopes, as well as to cover the fuselages of aircraft and helicopters Smart cladding of a new type. It is planned to equip with radars based on ROFAR, for example, the Russian fifth generation fighter, a number of other aircraft (manned and unmanned), warships and under water boats. All of them will find ROFAR very handy, because the level of resolution, the speed and efficiency of broadband radars will become so high that one can speak of “radar vision”. According to a number of experts, the radar with radio-optical phased array antennas are able to detect a plane located at a distance of more than 500 km, and give the user his volumetric radio images. With the help of ROFAR, in the future it will become it is possible to cover the fuselage of aircraft and helicopters with "smart" casing, which allows their crews to receive an integral radar picture throughout range of solid angles around the aircraft. ROFAR will be able to provide work antenna systems in active and passive radar mode, installation of all types interference, covert and anti-jamming data transmission, communication with the ground and other aircraft, state identification and a number of other functions. A few numbers. Currently the frequency radiation of modern radars is 10 GHz with 1-2 GHz bandwidth. At ROFAR she can oscillate at the same time from 1 to 100 GHz. This in the long term will provide range superresolution. Besides, the possibility of frequency tuning in a wide range will significantly reduce the effectiveness of the use of electronic struggle (EW) against complexes using ROFAR. ROFAR can also be used in civilian industries, for example, in railway transport, where they can instantly find obstacles on the way of high-speed trains. According to Vladimir Mikheev, the laboratory of radiophotonics is working on the creation of a prototype ROFAR, and if it will pass all the necessary tests, it will be launched into mass production. A full-scale ROFAR sample must be created in the near future. After that a list of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles will be formed, which are planned to be equipped with radars based on ROFAR. Possibility of restructuring frequencies in a wide range will significantly reduce efficiency of application electronic warfare equipment against complexes, using ROFAR
Only copied the texts I have found interesting but just like KRET, RTI states up to 100ghz but included the transmission data rates of 400 gigabits per second which is pretty new info to me and by transmission data rate I am assuming communication capabilities of transmitting information. Also what do they mean by that modern radars use 10ghz with 1-2ghz Bandwidth? Do they mean they can use 10ghz with a 1-100ghz bandwidth? Is bandwidth what is responsible for SAR resolution capabilities such as higher frequencies mean higher resolution such as seeing and recognizing human faces? Is that what they mean provides them super resolution? Latest RTI articles were boring currently awaiting any day now to a couple of months for their newer articles for those that have time to kill https://itech.aorti.ru/