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    Russian Electronics: Semiconductor and Processors #2

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    Post  Swgman_BK Sat Apr 22, 2023 3:45 am

    When will Mikron produce 28nm or even 14nm?
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    Post  lancelot Sat Apr 22, 2023 5:36 am

    Mikron can reliably produce chips at 90nm and they have prototype production at 65nm.

    There were plans to have 28nm facilities in Russia in Zelenograd, near NM-Tech's fab, the facilities building shell is being constructed as we speak. But who knows what they are going to stuff it with.

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    Post  kvs Sat Apr 22, 2023 7:04 am

    The 3 nm and 1.8 nm claim in the video is cringe.   It is moronic to compare actual 90 nm production with marketing drivel "3 nm".   There is no such thing as a 3 nm or 7 nm lithography.    They may have some "effective" resolution aspect but that is not going to produce (90/3)^2 = 900 times more transistor density.

    More interesting would be some sort of IC printer tech where 3D chips are constructed beyond any of the current 2D production methods. Vapour deposition is already a printing element, but fine control of the nanostructures is needed. Perhaps another approach is to create 3D individual transistor elements and have them arranged in a substrate somewhat like neurons in brains. Non-organic cellular assembly.

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    Post  GarryB Sat Apr 22, 2023 12:40 pm

    Yes, reducing size is a dead end, what they need to do is look at materials and designs and ways of enabling faster or wider bandwidth movement of data flows.

    Slower chips with massive parallelism could be more efficient at some tasks that massive all out speed.

    The Amiga 500 computer outperformed PCs by a wide margin simply by moving the processing to custom designed chips.

    Instead of the CPU doing everything, it had video chips and sound chips and other chips as well spreading the load so although its clock speed was pathetic... 7 point something Megahertz or so, it could still run games with more colours and much better sounds than the equivalent 286 and 386 and 486 processors of the time in Intel PC clones.

    Obviously the superior rack system where you can add sound cards and video cards proved to offer future expansion that the Amiga could not compete with, it was machines like the Amiga that pushed forward PC design.

    Someone should come up with alternative solutions to take computers in a different direction that does not have a dead end of minimum size limits which are being approached.

    Even if it is just a Motherboard design with multiple separate CPUs with some dedicated to IO and the others dedicated to graphics or storage or whatever...

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    Post  lancelot Wed Apr 26, 2023 7:29 am

    Russians close laptops
    24.04.2023

    In the first quarter, according to retailers, sales of laptops in pieces in Russia fell by almost a quarter, and demand for personal computers - by 6% year-on-year. In monetary terms, both segments sank by more than 30%. Market participants explain such a decline by an increase in the share of Russian and Chinese brands, which are cheaper in price. Expert opinions are divided: some are sure that by the end of the year Russian PC and laptop manufacturers will already occupy a significant market share, others believe that this will continue to be hindered by parallel imports of foreign solutions.

    Sales of laptops in Russia in physical terms for the first quarter of 2023 fell by 20%, to 812 thousand devices, in money terms the drop was 33% compared to the same period last year, to 45.5 billion rubles, “sales fell the most from the departed brands, namely HP (by 74%), Acer (by 62%), Asus (by 67%), Dell (by 75%), Apple (by 34%) and others, "Kommersant was told in Holodilnik .ru. According to the retailer, Chinese devices such as Haier (up 23%), ThundeRobot (over 100%), Chuwi (over 100%) and Taiwanese Gigabyte (up 42%) showed the largest growth.

    In desktop computers, according to the retailer, the year-on-year drop in unit sales in the first quarter was 6%, to 278,000 devices. In money terms, the market fell by 31% to 12.1 billion rubles. Sales of Lenovo, HP and Russian Depo decreased the most. The Russian iRU became the best-selling brand, its share in pieces is 20% (15% a year earlier). F+ tech-Marvel confirmed that in the desktop PC segment, Russian brands performed better in the first quarter than a year earlier: for example, in addition to iRU, Ardor Gaming and Rombica increased their share.

    The fall in the market as a whole was a consequence of the rush demand for equipment in the first half of 2022, provoked by the outbreak of hostilities in Ukraine.

    But already in the fall, demand began to fall, as a result, unsold laptops from MSI, HP and others were overstocked (see Kommersant on February 13).

    In addition, they add to Holodilnik.ru, Russians began to buy low-price devices. Demand for a PC is cheaper than 18 thousand rubles. for the year grew by 84%, for devices up to 25 thousand rubles - by 73%. At the same time, demand for the middle segment (from 50 thousand to 150 thousand rubles) decreased by 33%, and for expensive models (more than 150 thousand rubles) - by 77%. A similar situation, according to the retailer, is in the laptop segment: the most popular category was devices worth 17–20 thousand rubles.

    ...

    In desktop computers, the network notes an increase in demand for products from Russian manufacturers, and for laptops, Chinese ones.

    The growth in sales of Russian solutions is associated with benefits for manufacturers and the expansion of capacities within the country, says Renat Yusupov, vice president of the computer manufacturer Kraftway. According to him, at the end of 2022, Russian companies stocked up on the necessary components and, thanks to competition among themselves, began to reduce prices. According to Mr. Yusupov, by the end of 2023, domestic devices can increase their share by one and a half times thanks to subsidizing the purchase of components by the state. Kommersant's interlocutor among large distributors confirms that the share of Russian manufacturers is growing. “Only in our country it increased from 23% to 40%,” he notes.
    How the consumer technology market has changed in 2022

    However, not all market participants are optimistic. Thus, Oleg Fomenko, head of Merlion's broadband access purchasing department, believes that due to established chains of parallel imports of foreign products, the share of domestic brands in the market will decrease by the end of the year.

    https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/5952415

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    Post  sepheronx Wed Apr 26, 2023 7:33 am

    Nvidia can't officially supply Russian market. Yet, prices for the new rtx 4070 in Russia is dropping quite a lot.

    That tells you Russia is getting a healthy supply but demand isn't there.

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    Post  Swgman_BK Wed Apr 26, 2023 12:28 pm

    Its a shame that Russia didn't invest in semiconductor tech after 1991. They would be far right now and maybe even been at 14nm with local production. They could have decoupled from Intel and AMD early on. By now the industries would have caught on. But No. They just had to trust the West and continue business.

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    Post  GarryB Wed Apr 26, 2023 1:16 pm

    The thing you have to keep in mind that money spent on that would not be spent on other things that might be more important.

    14nm chips are for laptops and cellphones and tablets and really are not relevant to most military purposes for which 486 chips are still being used.

    The idea that the F-35s are flying around with 16 core 4 Ghz chips is ridiculous... the F-22 used 486 based CPU in its networks... and newer planes probably don't have a lot better except for probably graphics chips for transmitting and streaming video content from sensors.

    The problem with the small architecture chips is that they are mostly used in consumer goods that would not have a big enough market in Russia to justify the costs.

    Now that the west is screwing with Taiwan and therefore also the rest of the world then perhaps Russia will investigate their CPU supply and also alternative chip sets and computer arrangements.

    The basic set up for an IBM clone PC is basically the CPU and the super fast things like RAM and the Video card and its memory connected via the Northbridge, and the a connection from that to the Southbridge I/O chipset that has the disk drives and other storage as well as things like printers and scanners etc attached to it.

    It is perfectly possible to redesign this design structure to make it faster and more efficient...

    But the chips themselves could do with a redesign because there is obviously a limit as to how small you can make these things for quantum shit gets real and things start going loopy.

    Right now they use electrical wires that carry a pulse of electrons (1) or nothing (0) in one direction only and one pulse on the line at a time.

    Converting into a fibreoptic cable that can carry entire pages of information with dozens or even hundreds of pages on each line in both directions is going to expand the potential of computers by a dramatic amount...

    I remember reading a book about computers in the late 1980s and under advice about what to buy it said get a computer with 32 kilobytes of memory because anyone trying to sell you one with 64K or even 128K is a charlatan because there is no way you could type enough to fill its memory... Cool

    These days you could open Microsoft Word and save an empty file without anything in the file and the file size is going to be bigger than 64K just with all the formatting and meta data in the file.

    The clock on Windows 98 probably would be too big to run on these machines... on its own.

    Having said that the Motorolla 68000 chip was a good chip and because they are so cheap you could wire up thousands in parallel and make a decent super computer.

    Of course these days such chips might be hard to come by but any old chip would do.

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    Post  GunshipDemocracy Mon May 01, 2023 7:23 pm

    lancelot wrote:Russians close laptops
    24.04.2023

    However, not all market participants are optimistic. Thus, Oleg Fomenko, head of Merlion's broadband access purchasing department, believes that due to established chains of parallel imports of foreign products, the share of domestic brands in the market will decrease by the end of the year.

    https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/5952415

    oh well then it's time to restrict parallel import in this category.


    I believe that the best strategy is to remove MS and android from Russian market for good. Cisco too as this is a major source of backdoor and intel info for the west

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    Post  GarryB Tue May 02, 2023 7:33 am

    Justify it the same way the west justifies destroying competition... Huawei might be used for spying... a very very funny accusation because the west and most western companies by law have to put back doors into their hardware to allow western government agencies access to their customers information and data... but there is no evidence that Huawei was ever involved in spying on anyone... while the mountain of evidence of US spying would reach to the moon.

    Ban Microsoft and Google and Apple from the Russian market... Siri on Apple listens to everything you say and for certain users likely transmits a lot of information back to Apple HQ.

    There was that hilarious case of the UK defence minister whose Apple phone asked him to clarify what he had just said in Parliament... he should have been fired on the spot... the implications of him taking his phone into secret meetings and even just parliament is actually a crime worse than paying off some hooker.

    But it was American spying so no one cared... except the information gathered by US spying is more about controlling allies than listening to enemies and preventing terrorist attacks or arresting child molesters or the drug cartels they like to claim it is all for.

    Stopping drug cartels... what would the US do without the CIA?

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    Post  Kiko Fri May 19, 2023 5:29 am

    One more preoccupation for Taiwan: its biggest microchip maker loses investors, 05.18.2023.

    Given the troubled situation in the region, the island faces a new danger capable of undermining the crucial pillar of its economy and bringing dire consequences. Sputnik discussed the details of the event with an expert.

    What happened?

    Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited (TSMC) represents a crucial link in the island's economy. However, even this status in the world market did not prevent the famous American investor Warren Buffett, owner of Berkshire Hathaway, from finally selling all the shares of the company.

    In recent months, the escalation of tension around Taiwan represents one of the main reasons for concern around the world. As the billionaire himself admitted at a meeting with investors this month, the decision was dictated exactly by this concern.

    This sale of TSMC shares by Buffett looks like a disturbing signal for the entire chip sector and for the global semiconductor industry.

    Why is Buffett's decision attracting so much attention?

    Buffett's international fame as one of the most successful investors in the business came to him thanks to his talent for making exceptional long-term investments. For example, Berkshire Hathaway has about 50 companies in its portfolio, with Apple, Bank of America, Chevron, Coca-Cola and American Express leading the way.

    Buffett bought TSMC shares at the end of September last year. The market value of 60,06 million shares then reached about$ 4,12 billion (about R$ 20,9 billion), but in the fourth quarter of 2022, the North American investor changed his mind and got rid of 86% of the shares. This month, Buffett sold the rest.

    Therefore, the sharp sale of shares of the Taiwanese microchip manufacturer caused reasonable concern among shareholders. Especially after Buffett motivated his decision by the" geographical location " of the island.

    "I have more confidence in the capital we put into Japan than in Taiwan. I wish it was different, but I think that's the reality," Buffett told Taiwanese media.

    What happens in the global market?

    Associate professor of Shanxi University of Finance and economics Li Kai told Sputnik that the statements of world political figures today have a direct influence on the value of companies to the investor.

    With regard to Taiwan, the visit of the speaker of the US House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi to the island and the corresponding reactions of China, including military maneuvers, have been an important point in recent events. Taking into account the course of the escalation of hostilities in Ukraine up to the full crisis, there is a perception in the international community that the conflict around Taiwan can escalate even more and even lead to an armed confrontation.

    Importantly, these sentiments are being heated not only by the Western media, but also by arms suppliers, as well as the US military-industrial complex, who are seizing the opportunity to expand their sales. Therefore, Li Kai is sure that it was the political environment that influenced Buffett's decision, thereby rejecting the factor economic performance of the company.

    "This suggests that geopolitical risks are really affecting the investment value of companies, especially when you hear opinions that TSMC factories will be blown up in the event of war," the expert explained.

    According to his point of view, these signs indicate the deterioration of the investment climate in Taiwan, which, in the long term, could seriously affect the island's economy.

    Anti-globalization on the move

    Similarly, Li Kai indicated that the growing competitiveness between Beijing and Washington affects globalization processes that change their direction towards decomposition. 

    The expert emphasized that the world "has joined the anti-globalization trend", which can finally divide global supply chains into two: one from China, and the other from the USA and Europe.

    "More and more international investors are incorporating geopolitical factors when evaluating the advantages of certain investments. I believe that geopolitics will continue to influence investor decisions for a long time, " the expert concluded.

    China prepares to take the initiative

    China is striving for full autonomy in the semiconductor sector, anticipating possible barriers, including from the US. In the country there is an increase in state investment, the government has already allocated more than ¥ 12,1 million (about R$ 8,5 million) in subsidies to 190 local companies operating in this field.

    For example, on May 16, China's National Bureau of Statistics reported a 3.8% increase in chip production. The Huawei company, which was removed from the list of customers by TSMC in the spring of 2020, during these three years has created its own set of tools for the design of processors without foreign technology and intends to share its development with the rest of the Chinese computer industry players involved in microchip design.

    At the same time, in April, the chairman of the board of the world's largest manufacturer of mobile chips, Taiwan's MediaTek, Rick Tsai, expressed concern about the processes that took place within the framework of his work. He stated that if the Taiwanese government does not take additional measures to develop the Information Technology (IT) sector, the island will quickly lose a significant share of the world market.

    Rick Tsai also emphasized that China's growing influence in the global chip market threatens not only the island's semiconductor industry, but also the people employed in it. At the beginning of 2023, the sector alone was responsible for employing around 52,000 people.

    Yandex Translate from Portuguese

    https://sputniknewsbrasil.com.br/20230518/mais-uma-preocupacao-para-taiwan-maior-fabricante-de-microchips-do-mundo-perde-investidores-28893965.html

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    Post  Kiko Tue May 23, 2023 3:16 am

    Beijing Banning Micron Means China Has Mastered Chip-Making, by Ekaterina Blinova for Sputnikglobe.com. 05.22.2023.

    China has slapped a ban on US chipmaker Micron, prohibiting it from selling to Chinese companies involved in key infrastructure projects. Beijing has mirrored Washington's sanctions on the People's Republic's hi-tech technology, Asia-Pacific consultant Thomas W. Pauken told Sputnik, adding that there's more to the development than meets the eye.

    The Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) announced on May 21, that a cybersecurity review indicated Micron Technology's products "have relatively serious cybersecurity risks, which pose significant security risks to the country’s critical information infrastructure supply chain and would affect national security." Thus, the CAC banned the US chipmaker from participating in the People's Republic's domestic critical infrastructural projects. In response, the US Commerce Department expressed its opposition to the restrictions, insisting that they "have no basis in fact." Micron's shares plummeted roughly 6% on Monday, given that the American company used to derive over 10% of its revenue from the People's Republic.

    "It's rather interesting that the Washington side may be shocked or surprised by this news," said Thomas W. Pauken II, the author of US vs China: From Trade War to Reciprocal Deal, consultant on Asia-Pacific affairs, and geopolitical commentator. "However, they have taken similar measures themselves to stop Chinese semiconductors and Chinese chips manufacturers or companies that are connected with the chips manufacturing and semiconductor manufacturing to be more involved with the supply chains in the United States as well. So this is not a case where there's a shock or a surprise announcement. It's actually basically China doing the same thing that the US has been doing to China."

    Since October 2022, Washington has imposed sweeping export curbs on advanced chips and chip-making equipment to China, trying to cut off the nation's access to critical technology. Prior to that, under the Trump administration, the US and its Western allies kicked off nothing short of a crusade against the People's Republic's telecom giants, including its flagship Huawei, citing "security" concerns.

    "This is a very simple response for Beijing to make and say, 'Well, has the US not acted similarly to what we've been doing?'" noted Pauken. "So it would be hypocritical on the US side to criticize Beijing for taking actions that are similar to Washington's actions. This is hypocrisy at its finest, in regards to Washington and how they're complaining and criticizing China when they're doing the exact same thing that they're criticizing China for. It's laughable. It's just absurd for them to make such an argument when they're doing the same thing."

    The Asia-Pacific consultant suggested that Micron had not been caught off guard: Pauken revealed that when he visited Taiwan last month, he learned from his source that the Micron senior executive in the Kaohsiung office had started laying off employees in April.

    As per Pauken, plausibly, the Taiwanese Micron branch had anticipated these instructions, so it could have been the case that they were alerted by Beijing that there was an investigation and they likely realized that the chances of continuing to sell their chip technologies to the mainland were slim.

    They had already started to do layoffs even before this announcement happened, the commentator noted. Nonetheless, even if they were prepared for the CAC announcement, it had a devastating impact: "From what I heard, the layoffs in the Taiwan offices were very massive," Pauken emphasized. "Definitely it's a major problem for Micron."

    However, there is more to the development than meets the eye, continued Pauken: according to him, it clearly indicates that Beijing has made considerable advancements in chip-making despite the US trying to contain the country's technological rise.

    "You also have to think about this from a strategic level," the author said. "There's no way China would have blocked any chips from Micron if it would cause extreme damage to the Chinese economy. Obviously, they have probably set up supply chains in place and have chips made in China that are maybe not equal in quality to Micron, but close enough so that they could handle the impact of no more Micron chips coming to China."

    "So what I'm getting at is that there's no way Beijing took this announcement all of a sudden. They have prepared for it well in advance in anticipation that, of course, the US and Micron would complain. But they, of course, also took the right steps to protect their economy from being severely damaged by this announcement," Pauken concluded.

    https://sputnikglobe.com/20230522/beijing-banning-micron-means-china-has-mastered-chip-making-1110523565.html

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    Post  GarryB Tue May 23, 2023 6:53 am

    Hahahaha.... two comments really about that.

    The hypocrisy of the US is hilarious, but even more so because they made baseless claims of spying with Chinese electronics companies that were completely unfounded, yet evidence of western companies assisting US intelligence agencies in spying on third parties with their hardware and software is well documented.

    So when the US claims the Chinese are spying on everyone we know based on hard facts that the country that spies on everyone with ample evidence of this activity is calling the kettle black... without showing us the Chinese kettle... so far it seems to be silver... and the US kettle is black as night.

    Second comment is that sanctions never work because sanctions block legitimate open trade where restrictions apply and can be enforced.

    Apply some sanctions and the victim country will see it as a national interest to defeat that sanction by developing alternative local production or seeking that resource from another more reliable source, and in the mean time getting the sanctioned product anyway they can.

    This often means back door agreements and under the counter sales where more than just the products might be bought but also equipment and tools and people to reproduce the items under sanction locally for money to make it worth risking the ire of the country imposing the sanctions.

    EU sanctions on oil transport essentially damaged European oil transport companies who have sold their no longer profitable old ships to sudo Russian companies based in India to get the job done till new ships can be built in Russia... or maybe India or even China.

    Either way these sanctions bite Europe in the arse because their energy costs go up and they lose the income they used to get from shipping it and insuring it themselves.

    The west is stupid.

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    Post  sepheronx Tue May 23, 2023 11:03 am

    I do believe this thread is about Russian semiconductors, not Chinese.

    I am glad there is of course another alternative to the west in terms of chip making and China is advancing fast. But Russia needs to do better themselves. I do believe it will happen sooner than later though.

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    Post  Swgman_BK Thu May 25, 2023 12:40 am

    Russia doesn't care about developing the local chip industry. A lot of younger Russians are unpatriotic and prefer a Russia that is in the EU using Euros and is a puppet state of the US with US military bases in it. This is what I see on VK. Only the older Russians see the Western world for what it really is. All the 20–29-year-old Russians want Western lifestyles filled with immorality.

    So the chances are Russia IS NOT going to advance her domestic capabilities to produce semiconductors. Russia already makes her own military electronics like 130nm chips for satellites. The S400 and EVERY Russian jet use MCST produced chips ranging between 65nm and 130nm to manage onboard systems. But these emphasize single core performance and suck for consumer use. The Baikal is a good chip but its far behind compared to the i3. Russia does not care about the i5, Ryzen category. We will just never see a Russian version of this. 🫤
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    Post  lancelot Thu May 25, 2023 3:37 am

    Actually a lot of companies like Yadro have projects to make market grade chip hardware. Designed in Russia. The only question is where will this be produced.
    There are multiple projects in Russia right now to design RISC-V processors.

    Then there is the fab building that is being erected right next to Nm-Tech. Which was supposed to have a small experimental 28nm fab. Who knows what is happening.
    Construction on it has not stopped.

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    Post  GarryB Thu May 25, 2023 9:51 am

    The reason the US is suddenly moving chip production to the US is because it was specialised and expensive for certain types of chips with no huge profit margin so a lot of work for marginal profits.... most countries simply did not bother and just bought from Taiwan.

    Now that western bullshit is fucking this all up and putting limits on what countries can buy and which cannot then countries are looking at their options, but there is no reason why Russia can't build limited fabrication capability for their military needs and piggy back a little consumer level chips on the back of that to make it more profitable, but to get the bulk of their computer chips from China who has an enormous internal market that would make such chip makers profitable... and indeed if they are funding it themselves they can spend more than Taiwan could afford and move technology forward rather quicker than it currently is.

    More importantly with government support Russian chip designing technology might improve too with some of their best minds working out how to make computers better and faster and more efficient and also changing the design of chips to make them faster without having to make them smaller... because smaller has a limit.

    This has enormous potential to look at other ways to improve chip performance... they used to just increase speed but when they reached about 4GHz they started going for multicore processors, and going smaller to allow more cores per chip... but these have limits too.

    Perhaps multilayer 3D printed chips, or something completely new...

    I doubt Taiwan or the US would fund such ideas but I suspect Russia and China might because they have not invested enormous amounts of money in the current technology so a change to a new technology wont hurt their chip industry as much.

    Most young people are idiots who think America is wonderful.

    I am sure the 20-29 year old Russians being sent to Ukraine to fight nazis wont come home thinking the US and EU are nice or friendly... Hollywood is also working to demonise Russia and Russians... but when this conflict ends money will talk and the west will start to claim it was Putin that was the problem and they love Russia(n money) and resources and cheap energy... but I don't think Russia is going to fall for that shit.

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    Post  sepheronx Thu May 25, 2023 10:00 am

    Swgman_BK wrote:Russia doesn't care about developing the local chip industry. A lot of younger Russians are unpatriotic and prefer a Russia that is in the EU using Euros and is a puppet state of the US with US military bases in it. This is what I see on VK. Only the older Russians see the Western world for what it really is. All the 20–29-year-old Russians want Western lifestyles filled with immorality.

    So the chances are Russia IS NOT going to advance her domestic capabilities to produce semiconductors. Russia already makes her own military electronics like 130nm chips for satellites. The S400 and EVERY Russian jet use MCST produced chips ranging between 65nm and 130nm to manage onboard systems. But these emphasize single core performance and suck for consumer use. The Baikal is a good chip but its far behind compared to the i3. Russia does not care  about the i5, Ryzen category. We will just never see a Russian version of this. 🫤

    Social media isn't a good metric to base anything off of.  Most of the youth votes for current so I take what you say with grain of salt. Simple way to disprove your claim is - how many youth are on the streets protesting? None so far. How many fled? Not many, all libs. You know what is really funny about your comment is that I have heard this for well over a decade where the previous 18 year olds are being replaced with current 18 year olds. And yet, in all these claims, the pro west crowed in Russia never mustered much of either votes or gatherings. Yet they always cry loudest online. Gee, I wonder why?

    And it isn't what you think will happen but what is currently happening, and Lancelot knows what he is speaking of.

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    Post  Kiko Thu Jun 15, 2023 1:36 am

    Russian scientists have found a way to move from electronics to photonics, 06.14.2023.

    Physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have studied the optical properties of boron nitride (an indispensable component for two-dimensional materials) and found that it has a record refractive index in ultraviolet light. This means that the material can become the basis for developments in the field of nanophotonics, in particular, to replace electronic components in computer integrated circuits.

    To demonstrate the practical application of boron nitride, scientists designed a nanometer waveguide that showed high efficiency. The work has been published in Materials Horizons.

    Photonic devices transmit information using photons and may soon replace electronic ones, since light travels much faster than electrons, and during signal propagation in this case there are no losses and heating due to the resistance of the conductor material. However, the minimum size of photonic elements is limited by the wavelength of the transmitted light. To create nanometer devices, it is necessary to use materials that transmit ultraviolet waves, the length of which is less than 300 nanometers. Moreover, the material must have a high refractive index to further compress the wave, and be affordable: inexpensive and easy to manufacture. Physicists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology are looking for compounds that satisfy all of these conditions.

    “The index of refraction is very important in photonics. The higher it is for a material, the higher the efficiency of devices made from it, the easier it is to control light. Thanks to this, a whole area of ​​research is now actively developing - highly refractive materials. - says Researcher at the Center for Photonics and Two-Dimensional Materials of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.

    In their latest work, MIPT scientists investigated the optical properties of hexagonal boron nitride hBN and found that it has the highest refractive index in the ultraviolet region. Physicists have also developed optical elements based on boron nitride: a nanometer waveguide and a chiral mirror.

    Despite the use of the material in two-dimensional nanophotonics and optoelectronics, its optical properties have been studied in a rather narrow wavelength range. This is partly due to the small size of boron nitride samples, which makes experimental measurements difficult. Physicists from MIPT were able to determine the refractive index and anisotropy of matter in a wide range from 250 to 1700 nanometers using ellipsometry and scanning optical microscopy. The maximum value of the refractive index in ultraviolet light at a length of 250 nanometers was 2.75, which makes it possible to create photonic elements of the order of tens of nanometers. Such tiny devices can be used in photonic integrated circuits of computers instead of electronic components.

    To show the practical possibilities of boron nitride, physicists designed a 40-nanometer waveguide - a channel that carries light. Computer simulations have shown that light propagates in a waveguide with virtually no optical loss, without attenuation. The scientists also created a model of a chiral mirror from boron nitride - a device that reflects polarized light twisted in one direction and transmits light twisted in the other. The mirror will help to distinguish biomolecules that have the same composition and structure, but are asymmetric. For example, such a device is needed in pharmacology, since the described chiral molecules can have different properties.

    Low optical losses, a high anisotropy index, and a record refractive index in ultraviolet light make boron nitride a promising material for creating nanophotonic devices.

    “UV nanophotonics is in its infancy: you need to reduce the wavelength of light in order to reduce the size of photonic devices. We have shown that boron nitride is an excellent platform for this, since, in addition to its high refractive index, it also has giant optical anisotropy, which also increases its efficiency. And low optical losses allow information to be transmitted over long distances with virtually no attenuation. We have finally found a bridge that would allow us to move from electronics to photonics, that is, to use the advantages of a photon over an electron. Now we are working to show this superiority already in a real photonic integrated circuit . -  comments Researcher at the Center for Photonics and Two-Dimensional Materials of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology.

    https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/152036/

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    Post  lancelot Thu Jun 22, 2023 6:41 pm

    June 21
    ...
    the Aquarius group of companies launched a new workshop, which will increase the production of servers, data storage systems and other high-tech equipment by three times. The project was implemented with the help of a preferential loan from the Federal Industry Development Fund.
    ...
    "The enterprise is developing steadily. Last year, the production volume increased two and a half times. They are expanding, opening new jobs, recruiting young people. I know that jobs have opened up now," Stanislav Voskresensky said .
    ...
    "The Industrial Development Fund provides preferential loans at 1% for the development of production, and this project meets two of our basic criteria - import substitution and the development of high-tech production," said Andrey Gorodov, FRP Communications Director.

    He said that a preferential loan in the amount of 366.5 million rubles made it possible to launch a new modern production in a short time. The total investment in the project amounted to 460 million rubles.
    ...
    "On these racks there will be servers, data storage systems, switches, and other high-tech equipment, the output of which will be tripled with the help of this workshop. We are very pleased that such a project took place together with the FRP in Shuya," said the president of the company .

    He emphasized that this is precisely the final assembly: "In the previous workshops, surface-mounted lines were installed, which doubled the production of electronic modules and system motherboards. Here, high-series final assembly of servers, storage systems and switches takes place."
    ...
    The total investment in these projects is 9.4 billion rubles. With their implementation, it is planned to create more than 1.4 thousand new high-performance jobs. For 14 projects, including the Aquarius project, work has been completed, new production facilities have been opened or existing ones have been expanded.
    ...
    The priority activity of Aquarius is the work on information and technical equipment of the Russian state authorities at the federal, regional and municipal levels. The main part of the manufactured products is intended for government agencies (education, medicine and healthcare, authorities and administration) and the largest Russian companies and banks, including Russian Railways, Russian Post, Rostelecom, Gazprom, InterRAO, Rosseti, the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Sberbank of Russia, VTB, VKontakte and others.

    https://ivteleradio.ru/news/2023/06/21/ivanovskiy_akvarius_rasshiryaet_proizvodstvo_

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    Post  medo Sun Jul 23, 2023 10:23 pm

    https://en.topwar.ru/210790-russkij-fotolitograf-nevozmozhnoe-vozmozhno.html

    In parallel, the Institute of Applied Physics created a “prototype prototype” of a photolithograph that allows creating chips using 7-nanometer technology. But, we repeat, years, if not decades, can pass from the creation of a prototype to a serial product.

    Even more revolutionary is the project of maskless X-ray nanolithography, which is being developed at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" and the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology. A prototype is already ready, testing of which will begin in 2026-2027.

    Russian institutes already produced X-ray litography prototype to produce 7 nm chips. I read somewhere, that alpha machine will be produced in 2023/24.

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    Post  Swgman_BK Tue Jul 25, 2023 4:42 am

    Russia (USSR) has been researching X-Ray lithography since the 1980s.. But the USSR ran out of money and research stopped. I reckon they took some of the work and improved on it..
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    Post  GarryB Tue Jul 25, 2023 1:46 pm

    Social media isn't a good metric to base anything off of.  Most of the youth votes for current so I take what you say with grain of salt. Simple way to disprove your claim is - how many youth are on the streets protesting? None so far. How many fled? Not many, all libs. You know what is really funny about your comment is that I have heard this for well over a decade where the previous 18 year olds are being replaced with current 18 year olds. And yet, in all these claims, the pro west crowed in Russia never mustered much of either votes or gatherings. Yet they always cry loudest online. Gee, I wonder why?

    It is the western side with too much money, so how do we know these so called Russians on social media are even Russian?

    They could easily be Americans being paid to pretend to be Russians and sow discontent... they have plenty of money and if you got paid to go online and make shit up about Americans would you say yes? They would provide talking points and examples you could use to make you appear to be the real deal, and you get paid to spend your days surfing the net pushing the agenda of the people paying your wages... they might even let you work from home and  pay your internet connection... wouldln't matter if you got sick and had to isolate...

    Russia (USSR) has been researching X-Ray lithography since the 1980s.. But the USSR ran out of money and research stopped. I reckon they took some of the work and improved on it..

    Even if that was the case such techniques would not be needed for larger sized military chip making and they are not going to spend money on consumer items like they do in the west. They might have been wildly successful at the time, or unsuccessful, but keeping that experience might lead to new alternatives and options they perhaps didn't have back then, or it might save them wasting time trying things that already didn't work.


    Last edited by GarryB on Wed Jul 26, 2023 6:57 pm; edited 1 time in total

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    Post  medo Wed Jul 26, 2023 6:01 pm



    Russian electronic production is increasing and Roscosmos now produce their own processors.

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    Post  kvs Wed Jul 26, 2023 7:06 pm

    The claim about decades between lab and production points to lack of proper development planning. Sure if you just dabble a bit
    with some X-rays on semiconductors you may get knowledge but not any sort of industrial application. But that is because
    you are not attempting to get an industrial application.

    Russia's IC industry reflects the short-circuit of imports. It is vastly cheaper and easier to import than to establish domestic production
    lines. So the sanctions are an excellent stimulus to break this investment barrier. It is clear that there is enough development capacity
    in Russia. The discussion in this thread and elsewhere makes it sound like Russian companies for production equipment do not exist and
    and there is zero development. I have posted about Russian lithographic machines already. They are not imports and Russian companies
    can refine them to EUV and even X-ray lithography.

    Targeting real 14 nm component scales would be good enough for the short term. The so-called 7 nm FinFet process actually has 10 nm
    and larger components. I have posted videos where chips produced on this alleged 7 nm process are dissected. The future requires
    3D chips and photonics. Photonics allows much cooler operation since pushing electrons through tiny wires naturally generates heat.
    A 3D chip has a cooling issue with conventional electronics for obvious reasons. Putting in cooling channels for fluids reduces component
    density and has its own issues since the fluid flow through tiny tubes is very inefficient due to viscosity effects (Van der Waals forces).

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