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    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles

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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 11:46 am

    Thought this deserved its own thread. Brought what I could find into it as a starter. This is what started me off

    Steve Trimble
    @TheDEWLine
    ·
    9h
    New Lockheed image. Four AGM-183A ARRWs on a B-52H. Those are some serious boosters. A B-1B will be able to carry six.


    Note that the AGM-183A has not been fired yet. The photos show aerodynamic test samples fitted with sensors.



    Flight Global

    The US Air Force has selected Lockheed Martin to rapidly develop and field both new hypersonic missiles launched as a response to surprise developments in high-speed weapons by China and Russia, newly-released acquisition documents confirm.

    The service already announced a $928 million award in April deal for Lockheed’s Missiles and Space company to develop the Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW, pronounced “Hacksaw”).

    But a new document reveals that the USAF awarded a separate deal to Lockheed’s Missiles and Fire Control division in July 2017 to rapidly develop and field the Air-launched Rapid Response Weapon (ARRW, pronounced “Arrow”).

    The ARRW, now assigned the designation AGM-183A, evolves from the Tactical Boost Glide (TBG) programme launched in 2014 by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). By using a rocket to boost the missile to very high altitudes, the unpowered ARRW then glides down to lower altitudes at speeds up to Mach 20.

    Although Lockheed won the $780 million ARRW contract more than a year ago, the USAF was forced to re-open the competition this summer. The original deal was structured as an extension to a DARPA contract for TBG. The USAF later decided to restructure the terms using the service’s own acquisition process. That decision, however, required the USAF to re-consider the two bidders that had already been disqualified under the DARPA programme.

    Boeing had been out of DARPA’s TBG programme since 2015 and Raytheon was cut after 2016, but both companies responded to the USAF’s latest call for information in July.

    Neither of their responses, however, met the USAF’s requirements for ARRW. Indeed, Boeing presented an hypersonic design that flew a ballistic re-entry trajectory, rather than a glide profile as required, the USAF document says. Boeing’s design also proposed different propulsion systems for development and production versions of the weapon, which the USAF dismissed for adding too much risk. Raytheon Missile Systems submitted a compliant boost-glide concept, but the USAF criticised the proposal for lacking details about the effort required to field a flight-qualified weapon.

    Lockheed’s concept — resubmitted a year after winning the original contract — was unsurprisingly far more detailed and technically compliant with the ARRW requirement, the USAF says. Moreover, Lockheed has worked with suppliers to prepare to meet the “required production rate at 36 months after contract award”, the USAF says.

    Both ARRW and HCSW have come to light as the Department of Defense scrambles to respond to breakthroughs in hypersonic testing reported by China and Russia since 2016. Most recently, state media reported on 5 August that a hypersonic waverider vehicle — similar in concept to the Boeing X-51 demonstrator — completed a successful test in northwestern China at the end of last week. In February, Russian president Vladimir Putin revealed the existence of the Kinzhal (“Dagger”) missile, which is capable of hypersonic speed upon launch from a MiG-31.

    Lockheed’s hypersonic experts now form the thrust of the US response to the Chinese and Russian developments. Although the contract awards went to the company’s operating divisions, the Skunk Works advanced prototyping and development organisation is heavily involved in designing and producing the new vehicles.

    Source: FlightGlobal.com

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles EWz70k4XQAECpsp?format=jpg&name=large

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles ?u=https%3A%2F%2Ftse1.mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DOIP

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles ?u=https%3A%2F%2Ftse1.mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DOIP



    There is more on the earlier single weapon fight in June 2019 at
    https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/28576/behold-the-first-flight-of-a-b-52-bomber-carrying-the-agm-183a-hypersonic-missile


    Last edited by JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 12:12 pm; edited 5 times in total
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 11:48 am

    The US Air Force (USAF) is conducting market research in search of companies capable of helping to build an air-breathing hypersonic cruise missile.

    The service made known its interest in a “Future Hypersonics Program” sources sought notice posted online on 27 April 2020.

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles 69703_raytheonnorthropgrummanhawcrenderingcraytheon_56462

    Source: Raytheon

    The Future Hypersonics Program is intended to develop a “solid-rocket boosted, air-breathing, hypersonic conventional cruise missile, air-launched from existing fighter [or] bomber aircraft”, the USAF says.

    The service is looking for the missile to have an open systems architecture.

    “The effort involves the use of digital engineering and model-based engineering practices for requirements, design, trade studies, and analyses,” says the service. “This weapon system must be designed and analysed to achieve a preliminary design review in [the fourth quarter of FY2021].”

    The USAF is looking for companies with a variety of expertise including sustained air-breathing hypersonic propulsion, such as ramjet, scramjet, or dual-mode engines; stable hypersonic aerodynamics; aero-thermal protection systems; solid rocket motors; warhead and missile integration; as well as advanced hypersonic guidance, navigation and control.

    The Future Hypersonics Program is the USAF’s second air-breathing cruise missile effort. It is also developing in partnership with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency a cruise missile called the Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept (HAWC). A Raytheon-Northrop Grumman team and a Lockheed Martin-Aerojet Rocketdyne team are offering competing designs in the HAWC effort.

    https://www.flightglobal.com/fixed-wing/us-air-force-launches-study-of-another-hypersonic-cruise-missile/138151.article


    Last edited by JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 11:58 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 11:54 am

    Report from 2018


    The U.S. Air Force has awarded contracts to defense giant Lockheed Martin to develop two new hypersonic weapon systems. The contracts are in response to the rapid development of hypersonics in Russia and China, a development that could challenge U.S. technological superiority.

    The first weapon, the AGM-183A Advanced Rapid Response Weapon (ARRW, pronounced “Arrow”) is an outgrowth of the DARPA’s Tactical Boost Glide program. ARRW is a rocket carried aloft by an aircraft such as a B-52 bomber and has a top speed of up to Mach 20. This makes it up to four times faster than Russian and Chinese hypersonic weapons, including Starry Sky 2 and Kinzhal. The Air Force recently awarded Lockheed Martin a $480 million contract to develop the ARRW, with an eye towards operational capability in 2021.
    image
    Kinzhal, a tactical ballistic missile launched from a MiG-31 interceptor that flies at hypersonic speeds.
    Russian Ministry of DefenseGetty Images

    The second weapon is the Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW, or “Hacksaw”). A solid fuel rocket with GPS guidance, HCSW is also designed to be carried by aircraft with a planned in-service date of 2022. Lockheed Martin received $928 million to work on Hacksaw in April 2018.

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles Defense-large-1534880806

    https://www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/a22791042/the-first-us-hypersonic-weapons-arrow-and-hacksaw/
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 11:56 am

    By Stephen Trimble7 August 2018

    Save article

    The US Air Force has selected Lockheed Martin to rapidly develop and field both new hypersonic missiles launched as a response to surprise developments in high-speed weapons by China and Russia, newly-released acquisition documents confirm.

    The service already announced a $928 million award in April deal for Lockheed’s Missiles and Space company to develop the Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW, pronounced “Hacksaw”).

    But a new document reveals that the USAF awarded a separate deal to Lockheed’s Missiles and Fire Control division in July 2017 to rapidly develop and field the Air-launched Rapid Response Weapon (ARRW, pronounced “Arrow”).

    The ARRW, now assigned the designation AGM-183A, evolves from the Tactical Boost Glide (TBG) programme launched in 2014 by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). By using a rocket to boost the missile to very high altitudes, the unpowered ARRW then glides down to lower altitudes at speeds up to Mach 20.

    Although Lockheed won the $780 million ARRW contract more than a year ago, the USAF was forced to re-open the competition this summer. The original deal was structured as an extension to a DARPA contract for TBG. The USAF later decided to restructure the terms using the service’s own acquisition process. That decision, however, required the USAF to re-consider the two bidders that had already been disqualified under the DARPA programme.

    Boeing had been out of DARPA’s TBG programme since 2015 and Raytheon was cut after 2016, but both companies responded to the USAF’s latest call for information in July.

    Neither of their responses, however, met the USAF’s requirements for ARRW. Indeed, Boeing presented an hypersonic design that flew a ballistic re-entry trajectory, rather than a glide profile as required, the USAF document says. Boeing’s design also proposed different propulsion systems for development and production versions of the weapon, which the USAF dismissed for adding too much risk. Raytheon Missile Systems submitted a compliant boost-glide concept, but the USAF criticised the proposal for lacking details about the effort required to field a flight-qualified weapon.

    Lockheed’s concept — resubmitted a year after winning the original contract — was unsurprisingly far more detailed and technically compliant with the ARRW requirement, the USAF says. Moreover, Lockheed has worked with suppliers to prepare to meet the “required production rate at 36 months after contract award”, the USAF says.

    Both ARRW and HCSW have come to light as the Department of Defense scrambles to respond to breakthroughs in hypersonic testing reported by China and Russia since 2016. Most recently, state media reported on 5 August that a hypersonic waverider vehicle — similar in concept to the Boeing X-51 demonstrator — completed a successful test in northwestern China at the end of last week. In February, Russian president Vladimir Putin revealed the existence of the Kinzhal (“Dagger”) missile, which is capable of hypersonic speed upon launch from a MiG-31.

    Lockheed’s hypersonic experts now form the thrust of the US response to the Chinese and Russian developments. Although the contract awards went to the company’s operating divisions, the Skunk Works advanced prototyping and development organisation is heavily involved in designing and producing the new vehicles.

    Source: FlightGlobal.com
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 12:02 pm


    USA, Norway to continue THOR-ER hypersonic work

    By Greg Waldron21 April 2020

    Save article

    The USA and Norway will continue research work into solid fuel ramjet technologies, with an eye to developing affordable full-sized prototypes with high-speeds and long ranges.

    The Tactical High-speed Offensive Ramjet for Extended Range (THOR-ER) is an Allied Prototyping Initiative (API) under the USA’s Directorate for Advanced Capabilities.

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles 69448__dsc4397_38936

    Source: Nammo

    Nammo unveiled its new ramjet powered missile concept in September 2019 at DSEi in London

    “This continuation is an important next step in advancing high-speed propulsion technologies with our Norwegian partners,” says Michael Griffin, Under Secretary for Research and Engineering.

    “It will drive fielding of the critical technologies needed to ensure U.S. and Allied military superiority in hypersonic systems.”

    THOR-ER draws on Norway’s long-term research into missile and rocket technology. On the Norwegian side, the project involves defence and propulsion specialist Nammo.

    “Nammo’s new propulsion solutions are closing the range gap between the US and its future potential adversaries,” says Nammo chief executive Morten Brandtzæg.

    “Our involvement in THOR-ER allows us to bring together the best of US and Norwegian propulsion technology through the framework of a bilateral US-Norwegian partnership, and this fits perfectly with our long term ambitions.”

    https://www.flightglobal.com/defence/usa-norway-to-continue-thor-er-hypersonic-work/137987.article
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 12:04 pm


    Why the US Air Force chose hypersonic ARRW over HCSW

    By Garrett Reim, Orlando, Florida28 February 2020


    The US Air Force’s (USAF) decision to cancel the Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon (HCSW) and proceed with Air-Launched Rapid Response Weapon (ARRW) came down to size and shape of the missile, in addition to budgetary pressures and a desire to move toward production faster.

    The HCSW programme was cancelled several weeks ago. The ARRW programme passed its critical design review on 27 February.

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles 67976_notionalhypersonicglidevehiclelockheedmartin_670421

    Source: Lockheed Martin

    Notional hypersonic glide vehicle

    Still, the HCSW missile was promising, says Will Roper, assistant secretary of the USAF for acquisition, technology and logistics, a the Air Force Association Air Warfare Symposium in Orlando, Florida.

    “I truly, truly hate having to down select between HCSW and ARRW a year early,” he says. “The team of Lockheed Martin and our government team were green, ready to get to flight testing in the next year and so you hate to have to take a programme that can get to flight test and make a decision a year early.”

    The USAF awarded a $780 million contract to Lockheed Martin 2017 to develop ARRW. It is a so-called boost-glide hypersonic system; a vehicle which is dropped from an aircraft and then uses a rocket to accelerate its payload to high speeds, before the payload separates from the rocket and glides unpowered to its destination at hypersonic speeds up to Mach 20.

    The HCSW, also a boost-glide missile, was funded with a $928 million development contract that was awarded to Lockheed Martin in 2018.

    The Pentagon had to decide between the two missiles because the USAF’s FY2021 budget request, which totaled $169 billion, was flat compared to the previous year and several new expensive initiatives are to burn up cash. In particular, the service plans to spend heavily on rebuilding its nuclear armament via the Ground Based Strategic Deterrent programme, its space capabilities via the newly formed Space Force and its networking ability via its Joint All Domain Command and Control effort.

    “Those are huge initiatives and they took a lot of the budget. We had to make tough choices, and one of them was down selecting early,” says Roper.

    Ultimately, ARRW was chosen over HCSW for several reasons.

    The reason that we went with ARRW was not that HCSW was bad, but ARRW is smaller. You can carry twice as many on the B-52,” says Roper. “It’s possible it could go on the F-15, if we don’t experience mass growth, but we haven’t validated that yet. It’s in class to be able to fit on the center line.”

    Having ARRW in the Pentagon’s quiver also adds variety to its selection of hypersonic weapons.

    “ARRW is a unique design and it’s a more advanced design,” says Roper. “At the department portfolio level, it diversifies the number of flight bodies that are being looked at so you’re not all looking at the same thing.”

    Choosing a hypersonic weapon also allows the USAF to focus on quickly producing the missile.

    “In both programmes, we have single suppliers,” says Roper. “We would like to get to duel suppliers for both so that we don’t just succeed in flight testing, [but] we move into an industry base that’s capable to produce at scale.”

    The service doesn’t aim to produce hypersonic weapons at a massive scale, but instead wants to be able to have an “agile, adaptive industry base that can allow us to do spiral upgrades, [production] lot to lot,” he says.

    “We’re really looking at suppliers who can 3-D print components, like leading edges that we think we’ll need to iterate on, so that we’ve got an adaptable agile industry base where we don’t have single points of failure,” says Roper. “By down selecting earlier, we’re able to start bringing on the second supplier.”

    The HCSW programme will continue development a little longer, despite being cancelled.

    “We will close out [critical design review] for HCSW, so that we tie up that design in case it needs to be started in the future,” says Roper.

    https://www.flightglobal.com/fixed-wing/why-the-us-air-force-chose-hypersonic-arrw-over-hcsw/137018.article
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 12:19 pm

    Japan’s Acquisition, Technology & Logistics Agency (ATLA) started developing a hypersonic guided missile able to attack both ships or ground targets. The missile, qualified as “game changer” by the Japanese Ministry of Defense’s agency, will use scramjet engine technology for propulsion.

    Yoshihiro Inaba 27 Apr 2020

    Development work of this new missile began in 2019 and is set to be completed in the 2030s. ATLA is currently in the development phase of the scramjet engine along with local company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries which won a contract for the prototype engine research.

    The missile aims to be powered by a Dual-Mode Scramjet engine (DMSJ), a combination of ramjet and scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines, to fly at a wide range of speeds, including hypersonic speeds of Mach 5 or higher.

    The scramjet engine is expected to have high engine efficiency in a wide range of speeds, from Mach 5 to 15, because the air inhaled from the intake is compressed and combusted at supersonic speed when the missile flying at Mach 5 or higher. That means that the scramjet engine would need to be accelerated the missile to hypersonic speeds to operate, and that would require acceleration by a rocket booster. However, a large rocket booster would be required to accelerate to hypersonic speeds, which would increase the overall length of the missile, including the booster. Therefore, ATLA planned to combine the capabilities of the ramjet engine, which operates efficiently in the Mach 3 to 5 speed range(supersonic speed), with the scramjet engine (DMSJ) to reduce the proportion of the rocket booster. In this way, the rocket booster only needs to accelerate the missile to supersonic speed, and from there, the ramjet engine accelerates the missile to hypersonic speed, which then activates the scramjet engine to cruise.

    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles Geopolitics-00381-1-696x371

    https://geopolitics.news/asia-pacific/japans-atla-developing-hypersonic-anti-ship-missile/
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 12:21 pm

    Garry, can you add "and Allies" to the thread title after the "US" please?
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    Post  George1 on Thu Apr 30, 2020 1:52 pm

    JohninMK wrote:Garry, can you add "and Allies" to the thread title after the "US" please?

    there is a lot of talk for US hypersonic weapons development here also

    https://www.russiadefence.net/t2758-russia-us-and-other-developments-in-hypersonic-research
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 4:40 pm

    George1 wrote:

    there is a lot of talk for US hypersonic weapons development here also

    https://www.russiadefence.net/t2758-russia-us-and-other-developments-in-hypersonic-research

    I understand that George, it made sense when Russia was so far ahead and there are glimmerings of Western products that made up a small proportion of the posts but as time goes on and the Russian products become more mature so less newsworthy the Western aspect will start to dominate the thread.

    But surely now that they are heading towards actual products, albeit gradually, it no longer makes logical sense to include Western developments and products in the Russian section of the site, we don't in other technology areas.

    Time to split the topic?
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    Post  George1 on Thu Apr 30, 2020 5:38 pm

    JohninMK wrote:
    George1 wrote:

    there is a lot of talk for US hypersonic weapons development here also

    https://www.russiadefence.net/t2758-russia-us-and-other-developments-in-hypersonic-research

    I understand that George, it made sense when Russia was so far ahead and there are glimmerings of Western products that made up a small proportion of the posts but as time goes on and the Russian products become more mature so less newsworthy the Western aspect will start to dominate the thread.

    But surely now that they are heading towards actual products, albeit gradually, it no longer makes logical sense to include Western developments and products in the Russian section of the site, we don't in other technology areas.

    Time to split the topic?

    i will do it the next days
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    Post  JohninMK on Thu Apr 30, 2020 6:09 pm

    George1 wrote:
    i will do it the next days
    Thanks, done already respekt
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    Post  JohninMK on Sun May 03, 2020 8:12 pm

    Breaking Defense outlines four of the hypersonic program the DoD is working on:
       
    Air-launched boost-glide: Air Force ARRW (Air-launched Rapid Response Weapon). The Air Force also had another program in this category, HCSW (Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon), but they canceled it to focus on ARRW, which the service considers more innovative and promising.
       
    Surface-launched boost-glide: Army LRHW (Long Range Hypersonic Weapon) and Navy CPS (Conventional Prompt Strike). Both weapons share the same rocket booster, built by the Navy, and the same Common Hypersonic Glide Body, built by the Army, but one tailors the package to launch from a wheeled vehicle and the other from a submarine.
       
    Air-launched air-breathing: HAWC (Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapons Concept) and HSW-ab (Hypersonic Strike Weapon-air breathing). Arguably the most challenging and cutting-edge technology, these programs are both currently run by DARPA, which specializes in high-risk, high-return research, but they'll be handed over to the Air Force when they mature.
       
    Surface-launched air-breathing: This is the one category not in development – at least not in the unclassified world. But Lewis said, "eventually, you could see some ground-launched air breathers as well. I personally think those are very promising."

    Some of the first hypersonic weapons could be deployed with the Army in 2023. Though, as we've previously noted, Russia has already deployed hypersonic missiles, and China has been doing many live-fire tests.


    US (& Allies) Hypersonic developments and missiles ARRW%20hypersonic%20vehicle_0

    https://www.zerohedge.com/markets/pentagon-reviewing-hypersonic-program-investments-mach-5-missiles-are-expected-soar

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