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    Russian Electronics: Semiconductor and Processors

    caveat emptor
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    Post  caveat emptor Mon Sep 26, 2022 8:42 pm

    I'm aware how mobilization process works. As i mentioned, Russian system has same organizational structure as in Serbia. Mistakes and slowness are pretty common. Last mobilization in Russia was for WW2, so mistakes are normal. What is important is how fast they are rectified and that they don't repeat.
    That's why i think that existence of these large tg groups is beneficial in the process. Few of them have opened bots, where people can complain with proof about mistakes. Soloviev and RT did same. Some more proactive governors got involved, as well. You want to do mobilization right and not alienate population.
    Offices should have age, last reported address to them, where person served, rank, year of service and branch.

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    Post  lancelot Tue Oct 04, 2022 9:45 pm

    https://www.mikron.ru/company/press-center/news/8061/

    Technopolis Moscow SEZ residents Mikron and NM-Tech combine resources
    04.10.2022

    At the forum "Microelectronics-2022", residents of the Special Economic Zone "Technopolis Moscow" JSC "Mikron" and LLC "NM-Tech" signed a cooperation agreement for setting up technologies and launching production at the facilities of NM-Tech.

    "The goal and absolute priority is to increase the total production capacity in Russia. Now the increased demand exceeds the capacity of our factory, and we need to increase production volumes, " said Gulnara Khasyanova, General Director of Mikron JSC.

    "It is important to deliver the technology as quickly as possible and launch the production of products – for this we have modern equipment, highly qualified personnel and technological potential. Mikron's expertise will significantly speed up the process, "said Sergey Zarapkin, Executive Director of NM-Tech LLC. "We are working together on a common cause of extreme importance."

    "For our part, we are doing everything possible to provide comfortable conditions for interaction between our residents. Cooperation between microelectronic cluster enterprises will significantly increase the volume of production of popular semiconductor products for all sectors of the country, "said Gennady Degtev, General Director of the Technopolis Moscow SEZ.

    Under the agreement, Mikron will assist in the development of technology and development of such products as dual-interface VLSI for use in payment cards of NSPK MIR, integrated circuits with non-volatile memory for new-generation passport and visa documents with support for biometric characteristics of the owner and for compulsory health insurance policies.

    It seems like the chip industry is finally going to do what I expected them to do. Mikron is going to offload their production of Mir card chips to NM-Tech, formerly known as Angstrem-T, these chips should be made at 180nm. Mikron is basically going to help NM-Tech setup their production processes so they can make the smart card chips.

    This should allow Mikron to devote more of their limited production resources to other projects.

    For reference: Mikron has a capacity of 3000 wafers per month, NM-Tech has a capacity of 15000 wafers per month. 200mm diameter wafers.

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    Russian Electronics: Semiconductor and Processors - Page 39 Empty X ray maskless Lithography machine.

    Post  Swgman_BK Mon Oct 10, 2022 6:25 pm

    I just checked the news. Russia has begun development of a X Ray Maskless lithography machine. This will allow Russia to produce 10nm in the next 5 years. At least the machine they are building is good for 10-7nm. Apparently it has far better resolution than your conventional EUV machine

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    Post  Kiko Mon Oct 10, 2022 7:41 pm

    Swgman_BK wrote:I just checked the news. Russia has begun development of a X Ray Maskless lithography machine. This will allow Russia to produce 10nm in the next 5 years. At least the machine they are building is good for 10-7nm. Apparently it has far better resolution than your conventional EUV machine

    Could you post the source, please?

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    Post  Swgman_BK Mon Oct 10, 2022 7:57 pm

    I will scroll through my history..
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    Post  Swgman_BK Mon Oct 10, 2022 8:00 pm

    But in general , Its going to be 4-5 years till the machine is done. Work began in 2019-2020 if I remember right. At the moment Russia is working on building commercial 28nm and 14nm tech by 2028 and also having this X Ray lithographic machine for more advanced jobs. I think that ELBRUS 32 core 14nm chip will be built by this new X-RAY Lithography machine. (which is a first by the way. Nobody has ever tried this ever. If it succeeds the West would have just helped Russia advance faster than usual)

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    Post  Kiko Tue Oct 11, 2022 1:10 am

    Would be grateful if a correspondent link is provided.
    If true, this is news of the most relevance.

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    Post  GarryB Tue Oct 11, 2022 10:41 am

    https://www.tomshardware.com/news/russia-invests-in-home-grown-x-ray-lithography-tech

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    Post  Kiko Tue Oct 11, 2022 10:50 am

    Thanks a lot, Garry!
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    Post  Kiko Tue Oct 11, 2022 3:53 pm

    Further details:

    Russia's lithography machine action is 15 years late?Do you guess the fighting nation will succeed?, 10.11.2022.

    The war did not give anyone a buffer, and it was on the verge of breaking out. From March onwards, the world seems to be turbulent, rushing to another unknown.

    So far, it seems less important who wins and who loses. What we care more about is who can swim and who can stick to the shore when the waves of war come.

    Unsurprisingly, after the start of the Russian-Ukrainian war, it was energy, then food, and now chips. After the Western world and Russia were separated, they were hit hard. Winter is coming, and looking at the future, Putin seems to have done a good job. One of the most important preparations for the cold winter is to develop a lithography machine.

    It's not that Russia didn't know the importance of lithography machines before this, but it has relied on imports from the United States and the West for so many years. The research and development process is undoubtedly very difficult. In addition, the domestic electronics industry in Russia is not very developed, and the demand for the semiconductor consumer market is not strong. If it weren't for the international economic sanctions on chip suppliers, Russia would not need to invest too much in the research and development of lithography machines.

    But the cruel side of war is starkly revealed that if you don't stand up for yourself, you will always be held hostage. So the Russian side announced that it will manufacture lithography machines independently.

    Moreover, the upcoming maskless X-ray lithography machine will be benchmarked with ASML's EUV lithography machine, and its performance may be more advanced than EUV lithography machine.

    Why did they make a maskless X-ray lithography machine, and how is it different from the current ASML EUV lithography machine?

    The current status of technical application of lithography machine

    At present, the lithography machine market is a typical "three-point world" pattern. (ASML), Nikon (Nikon), and Canon (Canon) have a market share of more than 90%, which is a typical oligopoly market, and ASML is monopolizing the most high-end extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography machine market.

    Canon's lithography machines mainly occupy the mid-to-low-end market, mainly manufacturing packaging lithography machines, LED lithography machines and panel lithography machines.

    Nikon's lithography machine mainly promotes ArF immersion technology. The application of EUV technology is not yet mature, and the lithography process is still far from ASML.

    The status quo of lithography machines in China is still using the 193nm process technology of deep ultraviolet DUV, such as the lithography machine of the Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Corporation (CMEE) process 90nm process, which is equivalent to the level of the Pentium four processor in 2004.

    Although we can also use a DUV lithography machine to improve the performance of the chip to 7nm through multiple exposure and etching methods, but the cost is huge, the yield is low, and it is difficult to commercialize mass production. Therefore, the gap between China's lithography machine and the Netherlands, the United States and Japan is very obvious. Fortunately, a 28nm lithography machine is being developed, which is expected to achieve a pure localization process.

    What is an X-ray maskless lithography machine? Why is Russia developing it?

    Manufacturing lithography machines is more of a last-ditch battle out of desperation.

    Russia's largest chip manufacturer Mikron has been sanctioned by the United States, and several other chip factories have also been sanctioned in all directions, so Russia announced in April that it would invest 670 million rubles (equivalent to about 51 million yuan) as a lithography machine. , and the project was undertaken by the Moscow Institute of Electrotechnical Technology (MIET), Russia.

    The "maskless X-ray lithography machine" developed by MIET is a little different from the Dutch EUV lithography machine and several other lithography machines we mentioned above.

    The biggest difference is the choice of light source.

    ASML's EUV lithography machine is based on the principle of extreme ultraviolet, with a wavelength of 13.5nm, and the Russian region is about to develop a maskless X-ray lithography machine based on the principle of plasma source or synchrotron.

    The development history of X-ray lithography machine has a long history, but it has not been formed. X-ray was first proposed to be used in lithography in 1972, because its strong penetration determines that it can also define high-resolution patterns on thick materials. After the hiatus in the 1990s, the international research on X-ray lithography has become active again in recent years, and it is becoming a hot spot in international lithography research.

    X-ray is an electromagnetic wave with wave-particle duality like other particles. The wavelength of X-ray is extremely short, between 0.01nm and 10nm. From the perspective of wavelength, it is indeed superior to EUV wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the exposure resolution and the higher the writing accuracy. Therefore, Russia's vigorous development of a maskless X-ray lithography machine is likely to be a miracle.

    Because of the extremely short wavelength of X-rays, serious diffraction phenomena do not occur. When we use X-rays for exposure, the choice of wavelength is limited by certain factors. During the exposure process, the photoresist will absorb X-ray photons and generate photoelectrons whose range changes successively with the change of the X-ray wavelength. These photoelectrons will Reduce the lithography resolution, the shorter the wavelength of X-rays, the longer the photoelectron range, the more unfavorable for lithography. Therefore, increasing the wavelength of X-rays helps to improve the lithographic resolution. However, long-wavelength X-rays will widen the line width of the pattern. Considering the influence of various factors, usually only the wavelength of X-rays can be selected as a compromise.

    In recent years, studies have found that when the line width of the pattern is small to a certain extent (usually below 0.01 μm), it is affected by the waveguide effect, and the line width of the final pattern is smaller than the actual mask pattern, so the resolution of X-ray lithography is also Influenced by the size of the reticle-to-wafer distance.

    Among the technologies of post-optical lithography, the most important and most difficult technology is the mask manufacturing technology, in which 1:1 lithography is very difficult, which is one of the difficult problems hindering the development of the technology.

    IMEC's ​​simulation research shows that with the gradual improvement of the process, the emergence of EUV and high NA EUV lithography machines also brings new challenges to masks. The impact of mask defects will become larger and larger, and mask design rules will need to become more stringent.

    Therefore, in order to achieve a more flexible lithography process, the industry has begun to study replacing physical masks with other things, or even processing without masks at all. Such a method is called "maskless lithography".

    That is the main direction of the Russians.

    Why "maskless lithography"?

    In the field of pan-semiconductor, lithography technology is mainly divided into mask lithography and direct writing lithography according to whether a mask is used or not. Direct write lithography is also known as maskless lithography.

    It refers to the focused projection of a computer-controlled high-precision beam onto the surface of a substrate coated with a photosensitive material, without the need for a mask for direct scanning exposure.

    As early as 20 years ago, the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology in Russia carried out research in the field of maskless EUV. The project research of "maskless lithography machine" is progressing relatively smoothly.

    As can be seen from market applications and technology trends, maskless lithography technology has been in the process of continuous evolution and exploration.

    Can the X-ray lithography machine finally be realized? It's hard to tell. However, related technologies such as synchrotron radiation light source, photoresist and other processes have become increasingly mature, and are expected to play an important role in future R&D and production.

    Although the Russian media is also saying that Russia's lithography machine plan is 15 years late, as netizens said, the biggest problem in Russia is the lack of money and industrial base. In theory, there is no problem. Its related research can be traced back to the last century. 80's. At that time, they were already researching and manufacturing light sources. The theoretical physicists who are currently undertaking this project are also mainly engaged in X-ray optics, optical interferometry, etc. Judging from all the existing conditions, Russia's lithography machine does not mean that just say it,

    The last stand after breaking the boat is likely to end the monopoly of ASML, and expect the Russians to make history again.

    Although China has invested in this field, its relative strength is relatively weak. Should it also pay close attention to the development trend of this technology, and also look forward to the early launch of China's self-developed lithography machine. When the next wave comes, I hope we can save some ability to protect ourselves or resist, that is, not to lie flat on the beach.

    https://inf.news/en/military/32d28b7aa61f39310fb7bcffecea6115.html

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    Post  Firebird Sat Oct 15, 2022 1:06 pm

    "Russia's last ditch attempt out of desperation", says the above article.

    Does anyone actually believe this bullshit?

    In any case, sanctions are completely unworkable in this day and age.

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    Post  kvs Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:02 pm

    GarryB wrote:https://www.tomshardware.com/news/russia-invests-in-home-grown-x-ray-lithography-tech

    Wow an article that is not foaming at the mouth with derision at Russian technology. Even though this is not an MSM outlet, similar portals engage
    in the standard cheesy sneering at anything related to microchips in Russia. The clowns think that the Elbrus VLIW is a "failed" design.

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    Post  kvs Sat Oct 15, 2022 2:04 pm

    Firebird wrote:"Russia's last ditch attempt out of desperation", says the above article.

    Does anyone actually believe this bullshit?

    In any case, sanctions are completely unworkable in this day and age.

    Obvious BS is obvious.

    Russian tech is not pie in the sky, yet to be attempted development. The X-ray maskless lithography work is not starting
    with the recent token contract. It has see development of various precursors for decades. This is how technology advances.
    Not with a single contract, but with years of the development of all the necessary inputs. Something that western chauvinist
    fanboi retards can't grasp.

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    Post  GarryB Sun Oct 16, 2022 4:49 am

    The wests view of itself as the centre of human civilisation is fragile, so when they go nuclear sanctions on some country it has to shrivel up and die and come crawling back to them for relief.

    The west ignores all the best and brightest they have been attracting with free scholarships to use the worlds best brains to keep their companies working and creating new technology, and they are not used to real competition.

    The core difference is that the west strangles the countries these people came from, so that it can remain on top... just look at the diamond mine industry... the diamonds are dug from the ground by people poorer than the dirt they dig through... if they find something they might get a dollar or two... if they find something enormous they might get $5,000 dollars, just to make sure you don't try to steal it, but when the rich white people come over to that third world country and look at everything that has been dug up so far, they might give the mine owners double or triple what the guys digging in the dirt get for everything they find, so those owners might have 100 kids and men digging for them so the income they create means the mine owner gets what all their workers get or double that (that is minus what they pay the workers of course), but these experts from Europe who take all these rocks back to Europe take the stones to expert stone cutters and a one dollar stone becomes a $100,000 dollar cut stone, that big stone they paid the digger 5K for and the mine owner probably got paid $15K or $20K for will be worth millions when it is cut... and even though they pay someone at both borders to bring this stuff in because they wont be paying the right amount of tax on these things in either country, and the Stone Cutter probably takes have the price of the stone they cut, those European experts are making a fortune while those people who dig the stones scrape by.

    It is not just coffee that is unethical, it is everything.... which makes you wonder how unethical coffee beans can be legally bought in the west...

    Normally it is lack of competition so western companies traditionally can set any price they like... well, when Chinese experts and Russian experts go in there and start offering a fair price for these stones what is going to happen to the western monopoly?

    So of course they bad mouth China and Russia... they are scared... Europe is losing its cheap energy and it does not realise because it thinks this is all negotiation and Russia will come to its senses and give up and gas will be even cheaper than before and everything will go back to normal...

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    Post  kvs Sun Oct 16, 2022 10:36 am

    This exploitation model applies to family farms in the US and Canada. They get pennies for their wheat grain but when I buy my bread
    I am paying vast markups much like with the diamonds. The money is made downstream from the original source. It's the middle man
    mafia.

    This may be OT but market dynamics are critical for Russian IC manufacturing as well. It has been cheaper to source foreign components
    and so the domestic production is under-developed. Placing the chasing of profits on a pedestal like Ayn Rand is nonsense.

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    Post  Robert.V Fri Oct 21, 2022 2:16 pm


    The Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPF RAS) is developing the first domestic lithography facility for the production of microelectronics using modern technological processes.

    Now, as the developers themselves say, a demonstration sample has been created, which they themselves call the “prototype of the prototype”. This setup was used to obtain individual images on substrates with a resolution up to the limiting 7 nm. Now in our country, on an industrial scale, only microstructures larger than 65 nanometers (but mostly 90 nm or more) can be worked with. However, while talking about a grand breakthrough a little early, you need to go through three stages of development 6 years before the appearance of full-fledged industrial equipment :

    In 2024, the “alpha machine” should be ready. From now on, the plant will become working equipment and will be designed to carry out a full cycle of operations. However, the emphasis at this stage will not be on the high speed of its work or resolution, but on the full implementation of all systems. However, this should be enough to make the development attractive to investors and factories, especially given the competitive cost of the plant itself and its maintenance.

    At the second stage in 2026, a "beta machine" will appear. Systems will be improved and more complicated, resolution will increase, productivity will increase, many operations will be robotized. The installation can already be used in large-scale production, which will be done - at this turn, it is important to integrate it into real technological processes and debug it by “pulling up” the appropriate equipment for other stages of production.


    for Further reading see the link.

    https://tehnoomsk.ru/archives/6359

    Hopefully this will go according to plan.


    Frankly this could have been and should have been initiated  a decade ago.  But Russia wouldn't be Russia. if not for sheer incompetence and lack of foresight within the leadership and the elite. Not to mention thievery and corruption and treachery.

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    Post  lancelot Fri Oct 21, 2022 2:50 pm

    What about everything else? Wafer cleaning tools, Chemical Mechanical Planarization tools, Ion Implanter tools, Etcher tools, Metrology tools, etc.
    Not to mention the materials. Wafers, Photoresist, Masks, and assorted crap.
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    Post  Robert.V Fri Oct 21, 2022 2:58 pm

    It's part of the program.  There is no lithography facility without them.


    Edit


    Anyone who's actually Russian.    Maxim Gorshenin  worked for Micron among other and is a insider in the Russian IT sector.

    On his channel  he covers the latest news about current development and situation in Russian in regards to substitution  in the IT, etc sectors.

    Currently visited Russian Forum "Microelectronics 2022" and did a 3 part interview

    One of the parts.



    Last edited by Robert.V on Fri Oct 21, 2022 3:38 pm; edited 1 time in total

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    Post  GunshipDemocracy Fri Oct 21, 2022 3:31 pm

    today Mishustin assigned couple of deputy prime ministers to be responsible to develop different technological branches. No microelectronics was specified as separate tech (materials, sotware ro quantum computing were) do you know whom microelectronics was assigned? as subset of which tech group?
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    Post  kvs Fri Oct 21, 2022 10:14 pm

    Robert.V wrote:

    Frankly this could have been and should have been initiated  a decade ago.  But Russia wouldn't be Russia. if not for sheer incompetence and lack of foresight within the leadership and the elite. Not to mention thievery and corruption and treachery.

    It is not a command economy. There was no financial incentive to sink billions of dollars into domestic production when it was
    vastly cheaper to import components. AMD used make its own CPUs (e.g. at Dresden) but now is totally fabless. That is not
    a fetish, it is driven by financial considerations.

    But regardless of the cliche BS about Russian "incompetence" the technological precursor development has been ongoing in
    small companies and research institutes.



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    Post  GarryB Sat Oct 22, 2022 6:19 am

    Frankly this could have been and should have been initiated a decade ago. But Russia wouldn't be Russia. if not for sheer incompetence and lack of foresight within the leadership and the elite. Not to mention thievery and corruption and treachery.

    Of course... the only reason they are not completely independent and making everything for themselves is thievery and corruption and traitors, because everyone else has obviously had their own micro electronic component production capacity available to them for decades...

    Russia was starting from less than scratch in many areas... in the year 2000 there was no money and everything to fix and they were no only out of money but also deeply in debt on that same slippery slope most western countries have run down because borrowing out of trouble seems to be the thing to do.

    They did what they could with what they had and are now in a position where they can tell the western world to **** off so I would actually say if Russia is fucked up then what are we?

    I would say with rampant thieves and corruption and traitors Russia would look.... like the Ukraine right now... EXACTLY like the Ukraine.... but they don't.

    They still are not perfect but they have not adopted the US model of theift and corruption and loyalty to money instead of country that you call being a traitor.

    The article you just posted shows they are well on their way to solving a problem using new technology that has failed others in the past.

    But why the negative spin?

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    Post  Robert.V Sat Oct 22, 2022 2:21 pm

    kvs wrote:

    It is not a command economy.   There was no financial incentive to sink billions of dollars into domestic production when it was
    vastly cheaper to import components.   AMD used make its own CPUs (e.g. at Dresden) but now is totally fabless.   That is not
    a fetish, it is driven by financial considerations.

    But regardless of the cliche BS about Russian "incompetence" the technological precursor development has been ongoing in
    small companies and research institutes.  



    There was in fact a incentive ...to avoid exactly what is happening now.  Which anyone with a single brain cell could see coming.  Not the Russian leadership or the Elite though for the most part.   Rather fill their pockets.

    In fact with the  widespread chip shortages. And Russian staff currently getting paid a laughable wage even compare to the Asians.  If Russia had  mature 65 nm up to 90 nm along with 200mm and 300mm fabs. You can bet you're ass there would have been orders from abroad especially from japan.  

    But ALAS.


    And of course it's not a  command economy.  But again Russia can have people in the government that can identify the countries needs especially the governments and work with the manufacturers, etc. in those areas.  Which is something that even the west used to do.   Also work with Companies identifying the future  technology. Not to mention protection of it's industries. And of course also assists with funding and coerce Elites to provide some venture capital.

    Even now for example for all the talk about domestic production..   Currently Russian government is getting printers from China. while Russia itself has 2 printer manufacturers.     While they might not be able to fulfil the  entire order of printer's that's needed.   They can provide a portion of it.   And used the money to further expend.  But they won't because the Russian government has inept, incompetent and corrupt sons of whores in charge.



    GarryB wrote:
    The article you just posted shows they are well on their way to solving a problem using new technology that has failed others in the past.

    But why the negative spin?


    Because  work on building up semiconductor sector among other areas could have been started much earlier  by a decade plus in fact   There was money for this.  
    But for the most part all that happened was talk, talk and talk.  Hell, Medvedev and the elites on his side even pushed for this.  Alas didn't get his way.  Didn't get his way on a lot of things unfortunately enough.

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    Post  sepheronx Sat Oct 22, 2022 4:24 pm

    I actually agree Robert that the ineptitude of the Russian authorities is what has lead Russia to the situation it is in now, where they have to start over again to a certain degree.  If they just kept up their development and invested like back when Mikron wanted to go to 28nm, then Russia would be there right now instead of having to wait 5 - 6 till this equipment is completed.

    With that said, under current PM, there is an online portal where it connects companies and agencies together for ordering goods and listings for each companies goods.

    The printers thing I'm unsure of but it's probably really to do with l
    (Whith what you said) lack of ability to provide all orders in one go and has to be split up and Chinese printers are ordered too to meet demand.

    But if the current companies cannot meet demands then there should be a demand to get these companies what they need to expand production, rather than going the easiest route of buying from China.

    This was my argument when people here were saying to just buy chips from China instead of making their own equipment.  But a lot of the authorities involved in the criminal actions of buying others and no investment internally, are gone. At least the bigger ones like Chubias is.

    Better late than never though.

    Edit: I think the best and smartest move was setting up a council specifically to make sure these stuff is being made in the economy. So yeah, it's moving to a command economy.

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    Post  Robert.V Sat Oct 22, 2022 5:39 pm

    sepheronx wrote:

    But if the current companies cannot meet demands then there should be a demand to get these companies what they need to expand production, rather than going the easiest route of buying from China.
    Yep, or let the meet as much of the demand as they can (while also ordering them to put that money into expansion) and then order rest from other sources.

    Anyway, i agree with you Except this


    But a lot of the authorities involved in the criminal actions of buying others and no investment internally, are gone. At least the bigger ones like Chubias is.


    That might seem to be the case but it really isn't. Same with corruption on all levels ..it is not at a scale as it was in the 90's or early 2000's or even as out in the open as it used to be.. It's still is there however ...it's a pond of thousands of fishes. Just because you remove hundreds of them you still have thousand or hundreds over.

    What irks me the most and especially the elite and leadership. It's the fact that they are not only corrupt but also in a way traitors. Just because they sent their money abroad along with their children. And tried time and time again to actually integrate with the west and it's elite. Putin included.

    And again Medvedev(Very pro-west at first) is one of the few that saw the light of day earlier then others thanks to democrats.


    For all the approval ratings on Putin and Co. It is because the lack of choice as the Russia "liberals" poisoned and still poisoning the well for decade(s) to come The current leadership of course has been using those bastards to do so. By giving them a platforms to stand on despite what the western news said.

    In a actual well governed Russia the econamie would be even better and the country far more independent. A Russia were "liberals" would be turned into fertilizer or like in the Soviet days rightly locked up in a mental ward. And hat list can go on and on.







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    Post  sepheronx Sat Oct 22, 2022 5:51 pm

    I'll disagree with you here.

    Reason being that all politicians including those in China were doing the exact same thing yet they were developing fast.

    Russias development and advancements were in fields they decided to keep up all the while the fields they didn't put emphasis in, they let stagnate. Limited budgets and strict economic policies would do that. Russia went through austerity that is rather very damaging to any economy, for over a decade.

    Medvedev saw it. But there were indeed many bad people in power who prevented the development. The people who actually mattered and had influence in these industries, were moving money west (Chubias and Kudrin are two examples of such).

    Of course if you look at the Duma, it is like the US senate or the Chinese communist party - you could probably just point at a whole lot of them and they are all guilty of corruption or being traitors.  That is politics for you.

    We are assuming what situation Russia would be in if they went a different  way only because we don't know how it would have been handled or what end results would be. We currently see what is happening only because it happened and we can see the known, not unknown.

    All I can say is that they are on the right track now. But as a friend said to me about here (Canada): things don't change until someone loses a head.  Proactive isn't a thing. It's a word that no one really follows.

    Putin is 1 man, and honestly we don't even know who his kids or grandkids are. But anyway, he stuck to people he figured were good enough for too long.  His biggest mistake was keeping Kudrin.

    Edit: what gives me hope is that when the going got tough, Russia acted fast. Industrial 3d printers, standard grade 3d printers and industrial CNC machines are being built en mass now. Industries that were ignored got pumped hard and now Russia exports such tech they imported 99% before. Also the other major one was Microbolometers where Russia imported from France and now they make both cooled, uncooled Thermal and now OLED micro displays for optronics and displays. Only a few countries have this capability. Quantum computing is already domestic and soon microprocessors. But I agree with you where they could have been ahead in this game years ago.

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