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    Russian Army Robots

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    Post  magnumcromagnon Mon Feb 14, 2022 8:11 pm

    The Marker robotic platform was tested as a short-range air defense system

    Russian Army Robots - Page 24 1644836579_snimok
    Wheeled platform "Marker". Photo illustrative

    The Russian robotic complex "Marker", tested as a short-range air defense system, has demonstrated success in the fight against small drones. Platform tests were recognized as successful.

    To use the "Marker" as an air defense system, a small-arms-grenade launcher module and a radar were installed on it, capable of recognizing air targets with a small dispersion area. During the tests, the radar detected the target, transmitted its coordinates to the module, after which it was destroyed by the fire of a regular machine gun. At the same time, the shooting module, after receiving the coordinates of the target, independently tracked it using optics. It is emphasized that the "Marker" can be trained using modern neural networks and hit targets even faster.

    Another test took place at the trap shooting range, where the robot shot down 80% of the launched skeet with a carbine.

    As noted by the executive director of NPO "Android Technique" Evgeny Dudorov, whose words are quoted RIA News, the Marker robotic complex can be used as short-range air defense to neutralize drones, including a swarm of drones.

    The beginning of tests of the robotic platform "Marker", created jointly by the Foundation for Advanced Research and NPO "Android Technology", was announced in early March 2019. The platform is designed in a modular fashion. The ultimate goal of the Marker project is to create a fully autonomous complex capable of independently performing a wide range of tasks.

    https://en.topwar.ru/192278-robototehnicheskuju-platformu-marker-ispytali-v-kachestve-kompleksa-pvo-maloj-dalnosti.html

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    Post  Hole Wed Feb 16, 2022 1:34 pm

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    Marker with new antenna on top

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    Post  limb Wed Mar 02, 2022 10:31 am

    Why are there no such drones used in Ukraine.
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    Post  Regular Wed Mar 16, 2022 6:28 pm

    limb wrote:Why are there no such drones used in Ukraine.

    Not supplied to military forces in operation, probably no usage concept worked out still. Robots are being used in anti-terrorist work and quite widely.
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    Post  Isos Wed Mar 16, 2022 8:19 pm

    They will for sure come to patrol roads in captured areas very soon.

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    Post  flamming_python Tue Mar 29, 2022 1:01 am

    Russia is apparently about to start testing a T-72 teletank, the 'Shturm'
    https://www.c4isrnet.com/unmanned/robotics/2020/01/11/russian-army-will-develop-of-storm-robot-tank-and-ally/
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    There were experiments with a T-72 robotized unmanned platform in the 2000s


    There are plenty of T-72 chassis in Russia that can be converted

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    Post  GarryB Tue Mar 29, 2022 4:56 am

    Another test took place at the trap shooting range, where the robot shot down 80% of the launched skeet with a carbine.

    80% is pretty good with a rifle, normally skeets are shot with shotguns which limits the useful shooting distance to 30-40m at most.

    With carbines you should be able to hit targets at much greater distances, but the risks to nearby friendly or neutral forces would be rather high.

    The wheeled vehicle shown above with the new radar seems to use a 30mm grenade launcher... using the same radio command detonation system as used in 30mm cannon rounds but with a front mounted warhead with fragments designed to shower a cone area in pellets would be an excellent anti drone weapon... fire the round to get close to the target and detonate it as it approaches to shower the drone in high speed fragments would be the most efficient way of dealing with light drones.

    Using the new 40mm grenades would increase the HE and fragmentation capacity further, and a simple command detonation system could be used across the board on all platforms because airborne explosions are vastly more effective than impact explosions.

    The difference between the airburst 40mm under barrel Russian grenade and the impact grenades is enormous... the impact grenades tend to cause leg and lower body injuries, but the airburst grenades tend to cause head and upper body injuries that are more life threatening.


    Russia is apparently about to start testing a T-72 teletank, the 'Shturm'

    Makes sense, though in that video it appeared that it was roboticised by adding equipment inside the tank to operate the controls remotely... it might make sense to just take all that stuff out and replace it with digital stuff that does the same thing directly, although the way it is now you could climb in and take over yourself, if you modified it to be remote control only you could make it lighter and modify the inside to make it rather more damage resistent.

    With the older gen vehicles with ammo all through the crew compartment a penetrating hit was dangerous if it hit crew or ammo, but revision of ammo storage means tank penetrations are now largely only dangerous if they directly injure or kill crew. Take the crew out and you have to go for ammo or mechanical damage which is not as easy as it sounds.

    If you remove the crew you can double the capacity of the under floor autoloader because the floor can be made higher... sort of the opposite of what they did with the Black Eagle where they removed underfloor ammo and put it all in a turret bustle.

    I think the front grader blade makes sense but also cover it in ERA as well... no sense in making it easy to destroy... and I would add roof mounted MG turrets too...

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    Post  lyle6 Tue Mar 29, 2022 11:11 am

    flamming_python wrote:
    There were experiments with a T-72 robotized unmanned platform in the 2000s


    There are plenty of T-72 chassis in Russia that can be converted

    Probably would serve as wingmen to the premium Armata MBTs. The Shturms 'storm' ahead of their manned counterparts, attracting aggro while the Armatas in overwatch take their sweet time blasting anything the drones miss. The electronic interfacing of the T-14s should lend itself to remote tele-operation of these drones as well so Armata crews can take over the drones, fight as recklessly as they can while taking notes on enemy disposition and if the tank is knocked out they can just roll on over with their superior armor and redo the engagement with their advantages intact and having done damage.

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    Post  Hole Tue Mar 29, 2022 1:33 pm

    The conversion will be easy because of the autoloader. Big thanks to the inventors!

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    Post  The-thing-next-door Fri May 13, 2022 1:35 pm

    One thing they could do is remove the main gun, add multiple autocannon with compartmentalised ammunition multiple APUs and a lot of NERA modules to make the survivability rather ludicrous.
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    Post  GarryB Sat May 14, 2022 9:01 am

    One thing they could do is remove the main gun, add multiple autocannon with compartmentalised ammunition multiple APUs and a lot of NERA modules to make the survivability rather ludicrous.

    You mean a remote control Terminator?

    I would think roof mounted remote weapons like MGs and grenade launchers would be effective but as it is likely only ammo present in the main gun autoloader could be used by the vehicle without human intervention a modification of the underfloor autoloader would be useful to perhaps add another layer of ammo and propellent stubs so no room for people any more but 44 rounds ready to use...

    Of course perhaps a turret bustle that can be ejected if it catches fire could be used for HE rounds that might add another 31 rounds ready to fire... but then you have to ask what the vehicle is going to be really used for... if it is mine clearing and demolition then perhaps taking the 125mm gun out and replacing it with a low velocity 100mm rifled gun of the BMP-3... the 1 piece ammo could probably be loaded in each ammo cell so 44 rounds could be carried in the existing autoloader...

    Maybe an APFSDS round could be designed for it like the 57mm grenade launcher round for penetrating medium armour targets... it could be super thick and contain a HE frag section and be for penetrating light bunkers and lighter armoured vehicles and trench positions and then exploding inside.

    It would not need to be made of exotic or expensive metal because its penetration would not need to be in metres of armour... a subcalibre 60mm penetrator with a tail fuse and a HE core moving at a modest speed of maybe 1,200m/s or so from a quite long barrel ( say 50% longer than the BMP-3 barrel...).
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    Post  The-thing-next-door Sat May 14, 2022 12:06 pm

    GarryB wrote: perhaps taking the 125mm gun out and replacing it with a low velocity 100mm rifled gun of the BMP-3... the 1 piece ammo could probably be loaded in each ammo cell so 44 rounds could be carried in the existing autoloader...

    Maybe an APFSDS round could be designed for it like the 57mm grenade launcher round for penetrating medium armour targets... it could be super thick and contain a HE frag section and be for penetrating light bunkers and lighter armoured vehicles and trench positions and then exploding inside.

    It would not need to be made of exotic or expensive metal because its penetration would not need to be in metres of armour... a subcalibre 60mm penetrator with a tail fuse and a HE core moving at a modest speed of maybe 1,200m/s or so from a quite long barrel ( say 50% longer than the BMP-3 barrel...).

    Interesting that you mention that, because the west seems to be taking interest in "medium" armored vehicles these days. A subcalibre APHE round would be extraordinarily effective against them.

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    Post  GarryB Sat May 14, 2022 3:43 pm

    The gun equivalent of the Bulat variant of the Kornet.

    Many vehicles are not as heavily armoured as MBTs, so guns like 57mm guns make sense but a version of the 100mm round would be interesting in the same way as a telescopic round for the same reason.

    Both have huge HE projectiles with small propellent charges which makes them great against soft area targets for which HE fragments are very effective... but the shape and proportion of the round means if you replace the huge heavy HE bomb with a small relatively light dart shape with the volume of the HE round replaced with propellent you get a good APFSDS round too.

    All you need is a barrel able to take the pressure...
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    Post  thegopnik Sat Aug 20, 2022 12:12 am

    https://topwar-ru.translate.goog/200463-rossijskij-marker-perspektivnoe-oruzhie-protiv-diversantov-ot-sozdatelej-robota-fedora.html?_x_tr_sl=ru&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=en&_x_tr_pto=sc

    Russian Army Robots - Page 24 15598810

    Russian "Marker": a promising weapon against saboteurs
    Yesterday, 04:16
    64
    Source: sila-rf.ru

    The opening of the international military-technical forum "Army-2022" was not without novelties. So, for the first time at an event of this level, the Marker robotic complex, developed by the Android Technology Research and Production Association with the support of the Advanced Research Foundation, was presented. Previously, these organizations became known to the whole world thanks to the creation of the Fedor robot, which flew to the ISS, so interest in their new product turned out to be expectedly high. In this material, we will talk about the main features of the Marker, which have already been tested in the field.


    Robot for the rear

    Now you can often see newfangled statements that the army badly needs ground combat robotic systems capable of solving fire missions to defeat the enemy. However, the expediency of manufacturing these products, as well as the financial issue, usually fade into the background. But that's not the point. The rear is where robotics can be much more useful than on the front lines. And an example of a promising use of unmanned vehicles can be the protection of strategically important large facilities, including infrastructure, bases, warehouses, and so on. Especially now, when sabotage of various scales follow one after another.

    One of the areas of robotization of security activities, both in the frontline zone and in the deep rear, can be a patrol service, on which the security of a supervised facility largely depends.

    One of the variants of the Marker tracked platform. Source: ferra.ru
    One of the variants of the Marker tracked platform. Source: ferra.ru

    Indeed, a palisade of video recording cameras and observation posts is not enough to protect the territory from the penetration of outsiders, and it doesn’t matter if local natives or saboteurs are eager for metal and other valuables. They do not appear out of nowhere in the immediate vicinity of the guarded point, so their detection often falls on the shoulders of patrols, which often act as rapid response teams. In this case, as a rule, the larger the perimeter, the more labor is required to protect it. As a result, an increase in staff and an increase in the load on security units.

    To a large extent, the problem of protection concerns extended infrastructure facilities - railways and oil and gas pipelines. The fact of sabotage committed against them is fixed quite quickly, but preventing them is not a very simple task. It is simply impossible to solve it in other ways than regular patrolling. But this is complicated by objective reasons: a large length and hard-to-reach areas of the route.

    Wheel version of the "Marker". Source: russian.rt.com
    Wheel version of the "Marker". Source: russian.rt.com

    Based on the above circumstances, an image of a promising robotic patrol complex is emerging, which could perform two main functions: bypassing the territory, including hard-to-reach, along a given route and monitoring the area. This would help relieve security units by minimizing the use of human resources, as well as enhance their capabilities with the help of machine vision - thermal imagers and high-definition television cameras.

    And it seems that the developers from "Android Technology" were able to implement these ideas in their project called "Marker".

    Robotic complex "Marker"

    The development of the "Marker" began in 2018, when the NPO "Android Technique" together with the Advanced Research Foundation announced the creation of a new multifunctional robotic complex, which will be strikingly different from existing models by the wide use of neural networks and great "independence" when choosing actions in one or another a different situation.

    In general, of course, such epithets can be attributed to robotics for any purpose - minimizing human participation in machine control is useful everywhere, especially in the military sphere. Indeed, the novelty passed many tests with different equipment, where it showed high combat qualities. Its aiming system was even paired with a remote control device on the sight of small arms.- where the shooter pointed his machine gun, the barrel of the Marker machine gun turned there. In general, there were plenty of innovations.

    A frame from the video demonstrating the synchronization of the Marker system with the target designator on small arms. Source: zen.yandex.ru
    A frame from the video demonstrating the synchronization of the Marker system with the target designator on small arms. Source: zen.yandex.ru

    However, the most promising direction of using the "Marker" is protection. For this, the product was tested in the possessions of Roskosmos - in the territories adjacent to the Vostochny cosmodrome. Moreover, the Russian Railways and the National Guard almost immediately became interested in the novelty.

    But why did he get so much attention?

    It is logical to assume that in order to perform security functions, an unmanned vehicle must literally have a huge power reserve. The perimeters of large protected objects, as mentioned earlier, are very large, so charging or refueling a land drone after a couple of detours of the territory is not a particular pleasure.

    To give greater autonomy, the developers from Android Technology used an original hybrid power plant in their product. Previously, some media claimed that it was based solely on an electric motor. In fact, the heart of the car is a diesel engine with extremely low fuel consumption, which does not exceed 3 liters per 100 km. It works in a combined mode with electric traction. This tandem gives the Marker a really impressive power reserve - about 60 hours of continuous movement without refueling. However, electric motors can also be used separately, but the battery charge in this case is enough for an hour of driving.

    Tracked "Marker" with combat equipment. Source: zen.yandex.ru
    Tracked "Marker" with combat equipment. Source: zen.yandex.ru

    A high cross-country chassis helps the robot to crawl through the most impassable places. It is carried out in two versions: three-axle wheeled and caterpillar. The choice of propeller depends on the conditions in which the machine will be used. Its equipment also affects, which will vary from optoelectronic modules with thermal imagers and television cameras, if the product is planned to be used for surveillance and reconnaissance, to machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades, as well as optionally one or two UAVs. In this combat performance, the robot can perform not only a security function, but also conduct fire damage to enemy manpower, as well as light equipment. Although the arsenal does not end there, since the platform also provides for the installation of an anti-aircraft module with a radar to combat drones.

    Wheel platform "Marker". Exposition of the forum "Army-2022". Source: m.gazeta.ru

    Nevertheless, despite the listed advantages of the Marker, its main feature lies in electronics. It was not in vain that it was said about neural networks and some independence of the robot. When creating it, engineers tried using machine learning - neural networks - to teach electronic brains to detect and identify objects that fall into the field of view without human intervention. And this concerned not only such banality as not to let the "Marker" confuse a saboteur with a dog running past.

    In fact, the learning process was more thorough. The electronics of the product was able to identify targets, prioritize them according to the level of danger, and even choose the most advantageous combat positions. However, the decision to open fire must be made by a person - the automatic choice of one or another action does not apply to this. In addition, neural networks help the robot to independently choose the route of movement by analyzing data from on-board video cameras, a thermal imager and lidars.

    Wheel "Marker" is being tested in the area of ​​the Vostochny cosmodrome. Source: m.tvzvezda.ru
    Wheel "Marker" is being tested in the area of ​​the Vostochny cosmodrome. Source: m.tvzvezda.ru

    As a result, "Marker" has become a completely autonomous system that does not require constant monitoring by the operator. It is enough for him to set the control points of the route, along which the car will move, avoiding obstacles. At the same time, the observation of the area also takes place automatically - in case of detection of danger, the electronics itself will notify the operator and provide him with a choice of actions, including the use of weapons. That is, the saying “a soldier is sleeping - the service is on” is fully realized: the robot itself rides for days, patrols, and if it finds someone, it will wake it up. Exaggerated, of course.

    prospects

    In October 2021, the Marker was tested at the Vostochny cosmodrome, where its capabilities for independent movement in unfamiliar terrain, patrolling, detection and identification of intruders were studied in detail. In general, as confirmed by the developers and employees of Roskosmos, the results of running the machine were positive. In addition, experiments were carried out with the combat interaction of robots, which, acting as a group, automatically identified targets and gave them priority, distributing them among themselves for effective destruction.

    In general, the product of Android Technology fully fits into the concept of a security robot, but its potential is not limited to this. The role of both a combat unit and a reconnaissance officer, or even a crawler, who, using neural networks, will be able to detect damage or malfunctions on railway tracks, pipelines, and so on, may well suit him.

    But the main thing in this case, of course, is not the body, but the brains. The neural network system worked out on the Marker can be applied on the same tanks with some changes.and other combat vehicles, where it will automatically help the gunner and commander to find targets and prioritize them according to danger. Roskosmos' statements have become more ambitious, in which Marker electronics are presented as a promising direction for the production of smart spacecraft.

    In general, the potential is really there. The main thing is that there would be money at least for a security option, and then you can think about space.

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    Post  Hole Sat Aug 20, 2022 5:10 pm

    Russian Army Robots - Page 24 0001102
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    Some models of future versions

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    Post  Hole Sat Apr 01, 2023 12:07 pm

    Russian Army Robots - Page 24 Scree634
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    Marker with Kornet missiles

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    Post  Hole Sat Apr 01, 2023 12:07 pm

    Russian Army Robots - Page 24 Scree637

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    Post  Isos Sat Apr 01, 2023 12:30 pm

    I don't feel like it would be valuable on the front line. Easy to destroy, its field of view and situational awerness is quite bad and prone to jamming.

    But can be good from stand off positions to watch from higher positions over the battlefield.

    Also would be good for a Sosna variant as an AD system this way you keep the crew safe in a car nearby or hiden in a building.

    A two part vehucle can be also more valuable. On that tracts the other with missiles. A missile will take out only one part and you can reuse the other. Modularity.

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    Post  lyle6 Sat Apr 08, 2023 4:17 pm

    You don't get it. Russia's unmanned platforms are designed to operate in support of manned units; not stand-alone. The current technology is simply too immature and expensive to allow autonomous platforms yet. As such their limited individual capacities for situational awareness, survivability, etc is not that big of a deal when employed as part of an integrated group.

    In fact they actually tried it - making a sophisticated UGV that can act autonomously on the battlefield. The Uran-9; it was decked in sensors and firepower to beat even most manned vehicles. And yet it failed in combat conditions spectacularly. To make it work would require further billions in Rubles when more effective alternatives exist.

    Instead in combat these unmanned vehicles would serve as slaves to the manned combat elements. UGVs and UAVs would work to extend and close up gaps in the unit's vision while decreasing exposure of the manned contingent. They will be in the line of fire, exposed to all kinds of enemy attack and losses would be expected.

    Thus, there is a very good incentive to make these things as expendable as possible. Strip down all the extra features nobody wants, get a design working on as bare bones of capability.

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    Post  Hole Sat Apr 08, 2023 4:25 pm

    The operating systems of robots will need another 5 years, at least, to become more mature and reach the capacities of a manned vehicle.
    Currently a robot like the Uran-9 has no problems in attacking a tank or shot at infantry, but it would get stuck in a trench or ravine easily.

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    Post  ALAMO Sat Apr 08, 2023 4:43 pm

    New post  lyle6 Today at 4:17 pm

    You don't get it.


    Because that would require some historical background of the previous Soviet attempts.
    And those are hardly known.
    Soviets made a "robotic" tanks an AGE ago.
    Those were radio steered and tasked for principal duties such as delivery of IED, ammo transport etc.
    Yet the technology was too premature. Radio control worked in a very limited range and terrain, and was easy to block.
    Germans made a step back, and implemented a quite successful Goliath remote controlled tracked vehicle, but curved its mission to be solely an IED carrier. And they have used cable signals, deliberately limiting the range&missions.
    In the 70s, Soviets push the limits up again, making a working remote radio controlled T-72 that could, in theory, perform all the duties that tank did - driving, targeting, shooting.
    The problem was, the whole system was limited by the technology of picture transmission, and a TV-grade signal was the best that could have been achieved.
    It was useless.
    If someone is too young to remember that, just take a random lurke into YT materials presenting 70s TV shows.
    The point is, that Soviets were flexible enough just to experiment, and not pushing  the premature concepts that proven weaknesses.
    Same here.
    They are widely using AI/remot controlled vehicles for pioneer tasks and mine clearance, experimenting with the other concepts.
    If those will prove fault, they will just move along to the next projects.

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    Post  The-thing-next-door Sat Apr 08, 2023 7:03 pm

    lyle6 wrote:In fact they actually tried it - making a sophisticated UGV that can act autonomously on the battlefield. The Uran-9; it was decked in sensors and firepower to beat even most manned vehicles. And yet it failed in combat conditions spectacularly. To make it work would require further billions in Rubles when more effective alternatives exist.

    The Uran-9 is still being developed, only western shills like red effect are claiming that it has been a dissapointment.

    If it has any problems it is that the chassis is too light to support enough armour to make it fully immune to AP bullets and that it is too small to be used on rough terrain. The latter problem can easily be solved by using the BMP-3 based robots for cross country work and relegating the Urans to relatively flat terrain.

    And while the Uran-9 may not be an ideal platform, the closest the west has come to it are some mockups of cargo bots with autocannon bolted onto them. By those standards the Uran-9 is excellent.

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    Post  GarryB Sun Apr 09, 2023 10:25 am

    With there being no crew on board they can reduce the armour to places that actually need it... fuel storage areas, weapon mounts, and ammo locations and engines.

    I would say pick out a platform you have lots of and use that, which will probably be BMP-1s... both the BMP model but also all the engineer and support versions which will be becoming obsolete now.

    Versions of he MTLB as well should be available.

    A few remote weapon stations on them and tons of ammo and they should be good to go.

    Being a robot it could be sent in first, but it could also be sent to the high ground and provide overwatch with sniper rifle and machine gun support.

    On of the models above looks like it has an array of 40mm underbarrel grenade launchers mounted on the back of it... if you could somehow load the new 40mm grenades from the Baikal it would probably reach more than 400m the underbarrel model reaches... but it is a bigger round and in the Baikal can reach 2.5km with a barrel so that mount might reach maybe 800m perhaps.... the rows could have letters and the columns numbers and you could programme in the different types of rounds you load into it so you could choose from multiple different ammo types and change between them without having to change a belt feed.
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    Post  lyle6 Sun Apr 09, 2023 2:54 pm

    The-thing-next-door wrote:
    The Uran-9 is still being developed, only western shills like red effect are claiming that it has been a dissapointment.

    If it has any problems it is that the chassis is too light to support enough armour to make it fully immune to AP bullets and that it is too small to be used on rough terrain. The latter problem can easily be solved by using the BMP-3 based robots for cross country work and relegating the Urans to relatively flat terrain.

    And while the Uran-9 may not be an ideal platform, the closest the west has come to it are some mockups of cargo bots with autocannon bolted onto them. By those standards the Uran-9 is excellent.
    The Uran-9's main problem is its too advanced for its time. The remote control is just there for tests, the real version would act independently and as a group with other UGVs.

    And they failed because shooting and moving is about the sum total of what they can do. They can't really "think" on how to achieve more complex tasks on their own. They can't pursue objectives without a human handholding them every step of the way.

    Basically their AI is on the level of videogame mooks. Useful as bullet sponges for set pieces, not so much as viable agents in war. This is not the developers fault, the technology simply isn't there yet.

    Not really a problem though, since the Russians know this well in advance and are pouring real money augmenting manned platforms with integrated sensor networks.

    I mentioned before that in the T-14 because of the line abreast cockpit you have seamless communication between the crew enabling very efficient load sharing. The extensive automation of combat functions further reduces the workload on the crew. What this meant was the gunner and driver can mostly run the vehicle by themselves while the commander focuses on situational awareness and battlefield management with either being able to step in to help if they are needed.

    That includes taking command and control of the drone swarm of UGVs and UAVs that would be operating with the Armata strike team. The commander can be looking at a drone and if he sees that a Marker ATGM carrier is within range he can then order the UGV to dispatch the threat - all without exposing the tank and the more valuable human lives it protects.

    A real gamechanger in every sense of the word.

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    Post  GarryB Mon Apr 10, 2023 3:40 am

    Another factor is that this might not be great yet against a peer enemy, but against guerillas it might be ready... in places like Afghanistan these small light weight vehicles should be much better able to operate on mountains and their optics and sensors mean you could send it to high ground and have it over watch your position.

    One of the reasons the Soviets used 30mm grenade launchers and HMGs and even 23mm towed cannon was because often you could see much further than you could shoot with small arms.

    Sitting on the side of a mountain you can see a small group of enemy forming up on the side of the mountain opposite so having long range weapons like Kord and SPG-9 recoilless rocket launchers, as well as 23mm and 30mm cannon and 30mm grenade launchers means you can start engaging them at ranges they can't do much in return to you.

    Having a small vehicle you could drive to the crest of a nearby hill that has thermals and a stabilised 30mm cannon and perhaps some old obsolete ATGMs from old stocks like AT-5 missiles that reach out to 4.5km with the accuracy to hit individual vehicles is valuable in such places and such conflicts.

    Remember Robots are already in use as security for bases in Russia.

    The potential is significant and the first steps are already being taken.

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