Russian ground forces. Glorious path, reform and future
1 October Russia celebrates the Day of the Land Forces. This is - a professional holiday of servicemen and civilian personnel of the oldest of the armed forces of our country. Despite the fact that the history of the Russian army has more than one century, the Land Forces Day - a holiday of the young. This year, it just celebrated its tenth anniversary. May 31, 2006 President of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Commander Vladimir Putin signed a decree № 549 "On the establishment of professional holidays and memorable days in the Russian Federation Armed Forces." In accordance with this document, the Day of the Land Forces was appointed on 1 October. That date, by the way, is not chosen by chance. 466 years ago, October 1, 1550, the Grand Duke of Moscow and All Russia Tsar Ivan the Terrible issued a verdict "on the premises in Moscow and the surrounding counties chosen by thousands of service people." This decree of the king laid the foundation for the formation of regular ground forces in Russia.
The history of modern Russian land forces rooted in the Soviet period. It was after the Second World War was the final formation of the Land Forces as a separate branch of the armed forces of the USSR. In 1946, the first commander of the Land Forces of the USSR was appointed Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov. The ground forces of the Soviet Union were the most numerous and popular part of the USSR Armed Forces. The basis of their power were infantry and tank forces.
Russian Ground Forces of the Armed Forces - is the successor of glorious traditions and ways of fighting the Soviet Army troops. The official date of the creation of the Land Forces of the Russian Federation is a May 7, 1992. Automatically in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and includes part of the Armed Forces of the USSR connection, management, institutions, military education institutions, which were placed before the declaration of Russia's independence in the territory of the RSFSR. In addition, in their composition includes units and formations, institutions, were under Russian jurisdiction, but stationed in the Transcaucasian Military District, were part of the Western, Northern, North-Western Group of Forces, the Black Sea Fleet, the Baltic Fleet, the Caspian Flotilla, 14th Guards army, military units, living abroad in Germany, Mongolia, Cuba and some other foreign countries. The total number of personnel was more than 2.8 million. Man. Almost immediately after the formation of the Russian Armed Forces started large-scale reduction of personnel.
Already in 1992 the Ground Forces had served more than 1 million. People, and a year later, in 1993, the troops of the Land Forces, there were 900 thousand people. Reduction of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the 1990s were systemic. The ranks of the army had left tens of thousands of highly qualified professionals - officers and warrant officers. Many of them were very young people. The stock of fire officers, recently graduated from military academies. Some of them passed to the police, in the new power structure - the Ministry of Emergency Situations, the security services, many - in creating security companies, but most simply gone "to the citizen", where and realize themselves in various professions.
Almost from its inception, Russian ground forces had to participate in a number of armed conflicts in the former Soviet Union. The most long and tragic of these was the restoration of constitutional order in the Chechen Republic. After two Chechen campaigns have been tens of thousands of officers, warrant officers, sergeants and soldiers of Russian land forces. Motorized infantry, tank crews, artillerymen, signalers, engineers and representatives of all other types of troops that were part of the Land Forces, took part in the fighting in the North Caucasus. Thousands of soldiers have given their lives there. At the same time, counter-terrorism operation in the North Caucasus have become invaluable school of combat experience for a new generation of Russian soldiers, although, of course, would be the best reason for the acquisition of such experience in modern Russian history was not. Hundreds of soldiers were awarded high state awards for showing their courage and heroism. Unfortunately, many awarded posthumously ...
When there is peace in Chechnya, and the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus has gained much smaller scale than in the past, it seemed that a period of peace begins in the Russian army life. But in 2008, ground forces came to help the people of South Ossetia. In this armed conflict, which has gone down in history as "the August 2008 war," the military again showed high professionalism, skill in combat missions.
Changes in the global and domestic political situation dictated the need to modernize and Russian Ground Forces. It was obvious that the ground forces, as well as all the Russian Armed Forces in general, require a large-scale reform. Of course, the reform of the Russian army was not without linings and met as an endorsement, and sharp criticism from professional and military, and the general public. Especially criticized the actions of Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov, who until his appointment was purely a civil man, who had extensive experience in management only in the business and the tax authorities. That Minister Anatoly Serdyukov and General of the Army Nikolai Makarov, who held at the time Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces, called among the main organizers and leaders of the grand reform of the Russian armed forces, took place in 2008-2012.
By the beginning of military reform in the Russian Land Forces had served 322,000 soldiers. In the 15 years that have elapsed since their creation, the number of this kind of Armed Forces of Russia declined by about 600 000 people. Almost four times reduced the number of divisions of ground troops - from 100 in 1992 to 24 in 2008. However, the reduction of the Armed Forces was not accompanied by any large-scale organizational and structural changes that would fundamentally distinguish them from the Soviet Army. This became a major problem, complicates the management of the Armed Forces today.
So, by 2008, of the Russian Ground Troops were three armored, mechanized infantry, sixteen, five machine-gun and artillery divisions, twelve separate motorized and infantry brigades, two military bases divisional structure. However, according to experts, of these 24 divisions only five divisions and the 201st military base deployed in Tajikistan, have been fully deployed. Of these five, three divisions were stationed in the North Caucasus Military District. Most divisions of ground troops had only one or two regiments deployed. That is, in fact, only a small part of the Land Forces of the country could be attributed to the combat readiness of the forces. The other compounds intended, if necessary, by mobilizing dokomplektovat. At the same time, many military experts, it was clear that such a structure does not meet the challenges of our time, which dictate the need to constantly combat-ready forces capable of quickly solve tasks.
In short the essence of military reform that took place in 2008-2012., Was the modernization of the Russian armed forces and their transformation into force constant combat readiness, capable at any time carry out an order anywhere in the world. As subsequent events showed in the Crimea or in Syria, in many respects the country's leadership actually managed to achieve their goals. As a result, reforms were carried out large-scale reduction of the central military command and control, reduced the number of officers, warrant officers was abolished institute and perfect a partial transition to the contract basis. However, not all of these decisions were subsequently recognized as adequate to the needs of the Russian armed forces. In particular, a large-scale criticism underwent liquidation warrant Institute. In fact, the Russian ensign served not only in warehouses, canteens and checkpoints. Most of them were still high-class specialists, with a large office, and often combat experience. Elders mouth and battery, platoon commanders, technicians - is it possible to say that all they needed to reduce or translated into the category of non-commissioned officers? In addition, the establishment of the institution of professional NCOs faced with many organizational difficulties.
Correct begun Anatoly Serdyukov military reform was to his successor in the post of Defence Minister General of the Army Sergei Shoigu. In particular, even in 2013, the institute announced the return of warrant officers in the Russian armed forces. July 1, 2013 was enacted the new staffing positions which appeared to warrant officers. This is only commanding and technical positions, for example - the commander of a platoon commander of the service or the combat vehicle, a company technician or head of the radio station, etc.
As you know, during the leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation Anatoly Serdyukov has been carried out, and translation of the Russian army in the brigade base. The Army has eliminated the army, corps and divisional units. The authors attributed this decision to reform the need to increase the mobility and efficiency of troops. In 2009, 23 divisions of ground forces were disbanded. There was only one machine-gun and artillery division in the Kuril Islands, as well as the 201st military base. Instead divisions were created 40 deployed brigades and brigade-size military bases. By the end of 2009, 85 teams have been created. It was possible to achieve the 95% - 100% of their staffing, which made all the teams in terms of combat readiness. Reserve component of the Land Forces were the military bases where military equipment was stored. On this basis, it was possible to deploy additional connection if the need arises.
However, in 2013, was actively discussed as part of the revival of the land forces divisions. Soon after that it's not just a rumor, it makes sure the whole country. Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu has revived the illustrious and Kantemirovskaya Taman Division. In July 2016 Shoigu announced the formation of a part of the ground forces of four new divisions. Thus, the Russian army returns usual divisional structure, at the same time, without giving up the brigade. The need for the creation of new divisions dictated by the political situation itself. After the coup in Kiev and the beginning of the armed conflict in the Donbass region, on the border with Russia, a new restless neighbor, from which we can expect any. As shown by attacks in the Crimea Ukrainian saboteurs, from a neighbor we can expect and armed provocations. In order to cover the strategic directions and new divisions are formed. One of them will be located in the territory of the Rostov region, where already building military camps and range facilities for it.
Russian ground forces. Glorious path, reform and future A major achievement in strengthening the combat capability of the Land Forces began deliveries of new military equipment. In recent years the Russian Army a serious upgrade. For service received air defense systems S-300-B4, MANPADS "Verba", "Tor-M2", "Buk-M2" and "Buk-M3"; interspecific artillery complex "Coalition-SV" reactive MLRS new generation of "Tornado-S", the system of volley fire "Tornado-G", a self-propelled anti-tank systems "Chrysanthemum-S", the PTRC, "Iskander", which is in service already several Russian ground crews troops.
Thus, almost a quarter of a century of its existence, the Russian Army have been difficult, and full of victories and bitter way. Currently, they are the backbone of the Russian armed forces. According to open sources, in 2016 were about 395 000 people in the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation. Thus, the number of troops in comparison with 2008 has increased significantly. The structure of the Land Forces includes 11 armies deployed on the territories of the four military districts - Western, Southern, Eastern and Central. The structure of the Land Forces include mechanized infantry, tank troops, missile troops and artillery, air defense troops, special forces. They consist of a combined arms armies, mechanized infantry and tank divisions, machine-gun and artillery division, armored, mechanized infantry, air assault brigades, covering teams, military bases, units and formations of missile troops and artillery, air defense, special forces.
Chief of the Russian Ground Forces is currently Colonel-General Oleg Salyukov (pictured). An experienced commander, Oleg Leonidovich Salyukov occupied this high office May 2, 2014. Prior to his appointment to the post of commander in chief Salyukov from 2010 to 2014. He served as Deputy Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and in 2008-2010. He commanded the troops of the Far Eastern Military District. In 2006, even when he was chief of staff of the Far Eastern Military District, Oleg Salyukova was awarded the rank of "Colonel-General." In 2014, 2015 and 2016. Colonel-General Salyukov commanded a military parade dedicated to the Victory Day and was held on the Red Square in Moscow.
The holiday Ground Russian military troops, veterans troops, freely hired civilian personnel only wish valiant service and good spirits, health and success in all your endeavors, and most importantly - do without casualties.
Author: Ilya Polonsky