So in the evolution of calibres over time it would appear that 14.5mm might be removed and replaced by 30mm. With 12.7mm being kept as is.
Lets be clear the 30 x 165mm high velocity round from the bmp-2/3 and anti aircraft guns might be kept or replaced.
You could replace the 14.5mm calibre with the 30mm round which is much bigger and much more powerful with better armour penetration and better HE effect, but it is more expensive and more recoil issues for the platform.
Replacing it with the 23 x 115mm round means more rounds carried, increase in HE power, but reduction in Armour piercing performance unless a new APFSDS round is developed. Ammo will be cheaper and much more compact and recoil will be much reduced.
Of course for HE effect they could just go for the new 40mm Balkan grenade launcher, or the new 57mm model with very potent projectiles.
In terms of your list, for ground forces:
240 mm Mortar only and only reserve
203 mm Heavy land artillery in reserve too
152 mm Standard medium/heavy artillery calibre + improved tank calibre
125 mm Tank calibre
120 mm Most widespread mortar calibre for vehicles
057 mm Grenade launcher calibre and high velocity IFV and AAG
030 mm Cannon calibre where enemy armour is not expected
012.7 mm Standard HMG and heavy sniper calibre
009 mm 9x21mm pistol and SMG calibre and 9x69mm heavy sniper round for 1.5km range.
007.62 mm would replace this with 6 x 49mm new calibre for sniper rifles and MGs.
005.45 mm standard assault rifle and LMG calibre.
I would add 82mm for portable light mortars and 40mm for automatic grenade launchers like the Balkan.
For the all branches list:
Talking about all the branches of the Russian Armed Forces, I tend to think that by 2050 it will be more like this:
240 mm Land based mortar in reserve only.
203 mm Heavy cruiser artillery calibre and reserve land calibre
152 mm Destroyer artillery calibre and land standard artillery calibre and big tank calibre
130 mm Frigate calibre
125 mm Tank calibre
120 mm medium widespread mortar calibre
100 mm Corvette/frigate calibre
076 mm Corvette calibre
057 mm IFV and AAG and Corvette calibre but can be used on larger vessels as CIWS with guided shells.
045 mm Grenade calibre for navy, otherwise not needed.
030 mm CIWS and aircraft fighter weapon and some land use
023 mm land and air use.
014.5 mm ground and sea use
012.7 mm ground and sea use
009 mm small arms for pistols, SMGs, and long range sniper rifles
007.62 mm replace with 6 x 49mm round.
005.45 mm Assault rifle and SMG calibre.