we can agree that there is a major gap in US-Rus budget where US can't be challenged by Russia: Navy(read the freaking flleet of destroyers and nuclear supercarriers)+USMC and military infrastructures (bases) around the world. And US airforce 3 services combined is simply unchallenged in its number and quality (quality military accademies and training+quality planes (mostly)+quality ammunitions+ all that in seemingly infinite numbers).
I think Rus ground forces are *vastly* superior to US, and both have roughly parity on nuclear deterrent.
Russia is undefeatable on its soil, but its force projection is ridiculous if compared to US. But, the good news is: Russia never pretended to compete with US on that aspect of the military. US needs it because of its geographical isolation, has always been this way since slightly before WW2 and especially after. US emphasis on naval and air assets is showing, and nobody can compete with them.
So the US budget is largely swallowed by this silly (yet necessary if you subscribe to US pov) huge navy (not a single county in the world has the equivalent of 1 (a single one) nimitz supercarrier, and US operates at all times about a dozen of those or the newer class (george bush?)...) And if this wasn't enough, the USMC in itself is larger and more powerful than MOST armies on this planet, with a fleet of small carriers/amphibious ships that in itself dwarfs all combined european naval force projection.
Then it is swallowed by the countless bases that cost a shitload to maintain and operate along with personnel (US miliary personnel is graciously paid, also overall a big part of the budget litterally disappearing in the nothingness, not buying technology or stockpiling weapons)
To finish the airforce itself is a blackhole of money, and again, this is n°1 priority for US, understandably.
Russia has nothing similar to spend each year, so its budget is used in a very different manner, not on worldwide striking capacity and world policing, but on true inside-the borders defense.
Top euro countries with $$ budget "close" to russia are not even capable to fully operate 200 tanks (france, germany, UK).... Russia has at least 2000 tanks active at any time.... Just one example of totally uncomparable paper data that the common fellow cannot grasp and will continue to bark his "russia weak" bullshit.
From what i said right there and what KVS said, i'd say russia's direct converted US-comparable budget is not 490 but maybe closer to 250-300 billions, because you have to remove the 3 USA's specific critical spendings i've mentionned that are mostly unknown to Russia. Yes Russia has a strong navy and airforce nonetheless, but you see what i mean.