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    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft

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    ALAMO


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    Post  ALAMO Mon Apr 01, 2024 2:22 pm

    The irony - it was Kai-Uwe von Kassel who swiped the cases under the carpet for all the time when acting as a MoD.

    Mir wrote:It is now also well known that Lockheed liked to bribe government officials to pick their aircraft for service. The Germans also made the mistake to use the F-104 as an all-weather low level strike aircraft.  In total they lost 116 pilots!

    ... and close to 300 planes - a third of the entire fleet What a Face

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    Post  Mir Mon Apr 01, 2024 7:39 pm

    A little bit more history Smile

    In the 50's the Yakolev OKB started to develop a family of twin engine tactical combat aircraft. There were numerous types developed but I will concentrate on those that actually made it into Soviet service.

    The first successful design of the family was the Yak-25 interceptor. Initially a small batch was produced with the same RP-1 Izumrood  radar that was fitted to Mig-17P/PF's. However in the same year production was shifted to the Yak-25M but the original Yak-25 designation was retained.

    The Yak-25M received the much better  Sokol RP-6 radar that could track targets at greater distances. The radar also had a limited "look-down" capability being able to track targets  flying at 300 meters.  It was armed with 2xN-37L canons, and could reach a speed of 1000 km/h.  Around 480 Yak-25 interceptor were produced and served in the PVO until the 60's.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak25m10

    The American U-2 spy plane inspired the Soviets to develop a similar high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Yak-25 became the basis from witch such an aircraft was developed.  The Yak-25RV was never really equal to the U-2 but it never the less became a major recce asset for the VVS with 155 produced at the Ulan-Ude factory.  

    A Yak-25RV variant (actually 2) also acted as high altitude practice targets. Some were drones whilst other were manned - and others were targets for live firing.  It was also considered as a balloon killer but the design never got off the drawing board.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak25r10

    The next step up was to go supersonic. After  a series of experimental prototypes the Yakolev OKB came up with the Yak-27 design.  However the era of the air-to-air missile just started and the first production variant that was to be an interceptor never entered service as it was only armed with a cannon.  

    The Yak-27R reconnaissance variant  on the other hand found some success and entered service with the VVS as a tactical  reconnaissance aircraft, and had a long service history of 20 years - with 180 built. However the Yak-27 design was quickly superseded by the next generation Yak-28's and was a vast improvement over the earlier twin engine Yaks.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak27r10

    The Yak-28 was developed as tactical bombers from the start. Initially three versions was produces in fairly small numbers mainly due to lack of adequate bombing equipment.  The first version of the Yak-28 had very basic targeting equipment. It was followed by the Yak-28B that had an interim bombing radar, and the radar-less Yak-28L equipped with radio command guidance.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28l10

    This was followed by the far more advanced Yak-28i. The Initsiativa-2  bombing radar had a bumpy start, but after a year's worth of tinkering the issues was finally resolved - and it became an all weather tactical bomber. The new radar allowed for longer detection ranges and was able to track and destroy small moving targets like tanks. A total of 223 Yak-28i's bombers were produced. In many ways this aircraft was quite similar to the British Buccaneer.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28i10

    A tactical reconnaissance version was developed in parallel with the Yak-28i as the Yak-28R.  The bomb bay was replaced with three separate equipment bays that was able to accommodate five  interchangeable sets of reconnaissance equipment. It also included a set of SIGINT equipment. The radar was suitably modified to the Initsiativa-2R. The reconnaissance aircraft was in production from 1966 until 1970, with 183 samples.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28r10

    The exact same number of a  two seater  variant - the Yak-28U - was produced  as a conversion trainer.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28u10

    The Yak-28 was also developed into and electronic warfare version. The Yak-28PP was an important asset for the VVS and was fitted with a comprehensive ECM suite that also included passive elements.  55 Yak-28PP's were produced and served for many years until the early 90's. It was eventually replaced by the Su-24MP but by then podded active jammers could be fitted to any tactical aircraft, rendering these specialist aircraft obsolete.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28p10

    The Yak-28P interceptor was mentioned in a previous post. This interceptor offered a greater range advantage over the Su-9 and Su-11's, but it was also able to use JATO rockets to improve it's already fairly good take-off performance dramatically. This gave the Yak-28P an advantage as it was able to operate from shorter airstrips. Compared to the Su-9 it had a far superior missile armament and also a more advanced avionics suite. A late production Yak-28P's had a much longer nosecone.

    The initial version
    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28p11

    The late production variant
    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Yak28p12

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    Post  Mir Wed Apr 03, 2024 10:51 am

    When the Mig-15 became known it was initially dubbed the "Falcon" in the West, but it was soon changed to the more derogatory "Fagot". This became the standard practice in NATO deliberately allocating less flattering names for Soviet combat aircraft. This tradition continues to this day.

    Let's call it professional jealousy - as many of the Soviet-era combat aircraft proved superior to its Western counterparts. The Mig-15 is a very good example of this.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mig15-10

    As with most - if not all - early jet fighters it wasn't exactly bug free. At maximum speed the aircraft had a tendency to start rolling unexpectedly - nearly causing an accident right over Red Square during the 1950 May Day Parade! Engine flame-outs was also quiet common at first.

    After all the bugs were sorted the Mig-15 started mass production in no less than 9 aircraft manufacturing plants! This was mainly due to the Korean War though. However with the Mig-15 the Soviets showed off its considerable production capabilities to the West during those early years. Due to the huge production numbers the aircraft aptly became known as the "Aluminum Rabbit".

    In 1949 no less than 45 production Mig-15's flew over Moscow during the May Day Parade. This was followed 52 samples shown at Toshino. More was to follow when 90 Mig-15's participated in the November October Revolution celebrations. In the above mentioned May Day Parade in 1950 a massive 139 Mig-15's were displayed! Total Mig-15 production exceeded 13 000 units - with another 4000 in other Warsaw Pact countries!

    The first jet display team was formed in 1950 - flying 5 Mig-15's. The aircraft's upper surface was painted bright red and was known as the "Red Five".

    In typical Western arrogance the Mig-15 was regarded as inferior - but they were soon to be proven wrong!

    The Mig-15's saw its first real combat in China against the Taiwanese nationalists in 1950. At this early stage the Migs were all covertly flown by Soviet pilots, but in PLAAF markings and uniforms. Minor air combat took place but late in the conflict the Mig-15's showed their metal, when PLAAF Migs downed one Sabre and damaged another two.

    The Mig-15 (and the Mikoyan OKB) became famous during the Korean War not long after the above conflict. However until fairly recently much of the Migs success was clouded by the "Imperialist Aggressors". USAF pilots accounts were found to be somewhat one-sided!

    The first Mig-15's arrived in Korea near the end of 1950. Again Soviet pilots flew the Mig-15's but this time in North Korean markings as the Soviets did not want to get involved in a full scale conflict with the West. Soviet involvement also included air traffic control, anti-aircraft defenses, communication and support units.

    The Soviet pilots in their Migs quickly gained air-superiority up until the hasty introduction of the F-86 Sabre. At the same time an intense training program was initiated for Chinese and Korean pilots and they joined the air-battle by mid 1951.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mig15u10

    Soviet pilots had strict rules of engagement and in the beginning even had to speak Chinese over the radio. This was quickly dropped in the heat of battle though! The priority target of the Mig-15 was not the Sabre, or any other fighter aircraft though - it was to hunt and destroy the B-29 bombers that wreaked havoc with their indiscriminate bombing.

    B-29 losses became unacceptably high which forced them to operate at night, but even then they suffered heavy losses when the radar less Mig-15 was used for night fighting. They were accurately guided by ground control units and by means of search lights.  

    During the Korean War the Mig-15 proved a difficult customer and scored a 10:1 kill ratio against opposition aircraft. The Sabre proved to be the only match for the Mig-15, especially late in the war when new variants entered the fray. Despite the introduction of the Sabre, UN forces could not re-establish air superiority during the conflict.

    Unlike the Soviets, the brave but inexperienced Chinese and North Korean Mig-15 pilot's suffered heavy losses against the Sabres.

    The Sabre's main advantage was its integrated gun ranging radar and it had very good maneuverability and the cockpit offered excellent visibility. The Sabre pilots were also equipped with special G-suits. This combination made them a deadly opponent in the hands of experienced pilots.

    The Sabres was very lightly armed with their 6 Browning machine guns though. A lot of bullets had to be fired to down the Mig-15. The Mig with its three cannons (esp. the single 37mm) made light work of any enemy at close range. However the sight and the cannons low rate of fire proved quite problematic at longer ranges. The Mig-15 could also fly at much higher altitudes and had a better climbing rate. The Mig and its turbojet engine had legendary durability and survivability. The Migs were able to get back home with over 200 bullet holes!

    Even during the Vietnam War the Mig-15 proved effective when it was used in low speed dogfights against much faster opponents.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mig15-11

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sun Apr 07, 2024 1:51 am

    Soviet Union style boneyard where old MiGs & Sukhois go to die.  Unlike the arid & dry climate of the Arizona desert boneyards, this climate here is way too harsh to sustain the life of these classic airframes for any lengthy period of time.  And there are a lot of retired airframes that just litter these grounds.  Quite a sight.

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sun Apr 07, 2024 1:59 am

    Stunningly beautiful Vietnamese Su-22 UM3K and M4K. I believe they were recently retired but these were taken a few years ago while in their final active days. Gorgeous.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GKeRuesa0AAcewv?format=jpg&name=4096x4096

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sun Apr 07, 2024 2:14 am

    The most beautiful Su-22Ms ever of the Vietnamese People's Air Force known just as the "White" Su-22Ms.  The B&W photo was taken in the mid-1980's. and the two spectacular-colored ones were taken in 2022 just prior to the aircraft's retirement.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GKdAqkvbUAAHC0b?format=jpg&name=medium

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GKMRfnBbUAA8x0B?format=jpg&name=medium

    Doesn't get any prettier than this.

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    The Vietnamese sure know how to make them colorful.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GKNO1UkbIAAA5T2?format=jpg&name=large

    Speaking of boneyards, this is the Vietnamese People's Air Force MiG-21 graveyard. VPAF MiG-21s were all officially retired in 2015 after a remarkable history of defending and uniting the country.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GJy38IbaUAAfApE?format=jpg&name=small

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    Post  Mir Sun Apr 07, 2024 10:20 am

    Some very pristine looking samples from a country that has been forced to live on another planet.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Nkorea10

    Not bad for a bunch of low life mud dwellers Smile

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sat Apr 20, 2024 3:41 am

    Another behemoth from Soviet times, Mi-10 (no Nato name from me!). Officially introduced in 1963.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GLIkEkuWMAAeLZ2?format=jpg&name=900x900

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mil_Mi-10

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    Post  Mir Sat Apr 20, 2024 11:13 am

    Not a fighter though (just kidding) but the Soviets surely had some incredible large helicopter designs. Some unfortunately never flew - but still.

    My obvious favourite is the V-12 it flew well but sadly never entered production.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mi-v1210

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    Post  Mir Sat Apr 20, 2024 11:30 am

    Two An-22 size projects from Kamov during the 60's! Cool

    Ka-34
    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Ka34-s10

    Ka35
    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Ka35-s10

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sun Apr 21, 2024 7:32 am

    Mir wrote:Not a fighter though (just kidding) but the Soviets surely had some incredible large helicopter designs. Some unfortunately never flew - but still.

    I admit I was aware of the thread title but took a chance on cheating a little. cheers

    The Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane gets a lot of attention for its lifting abilities and size but I think the Mi-10 outdoes it with its elongated fuselage and I'm guessing it also acts as a passenger/crew carrier with all those windows.

    BTW, the thread could be really great if it included other machines since the Soviets built some wild stuff as you noted very nicely in your post. Maybe it could include all flying platforms.
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    Post  Mir Sun Apr 21, 2024 7:11 pm

    @Gomig-21

    Yes it would be good to expand the thread a bit. Perhaps it should be changed to "History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft"?

    On the other hand all Aeroflot aircraft were available for "military conscription". Many military pilots even flew to Europe and elsewhere in Aeroflot dress code during the Cold War! Smile

    Getting back to the Mi-10 - it has much more capacity than the American Skytrane/Thare and besides the long legged version is quite an imposing sight from close-up!

    There were/are tentative plans to produce a Mi-26 in a flying crane version similar in configuration to the Thare but with more than double the capacity at 25 tons compared to 11 tons. The Mi-26 is truly a magnificent machine but I have a special place for the winged Mi-6 from which the Mi-10 was developed.

    Very unusual shot of the Mi-6 coming in to land on the aircraft carrier Kiev!

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mi6-ki10



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    Post  Mir Sun Apr 21, 2024 7:34 pm

    Whilst on the subject of helicopters - The Soviet Military was very reluctant to adopt (new)helicopters in the early years. The Mi-8 took a very long time to get into Soviet military service. It was intended for the military but unusually it served very successfully in civilian service well before it finally made it into the military to replace the ancient Mi-4.

    The now legendary Mi-24 Crocodile was at first frowned upon by the Soviets. They did not like the idea of a slow flying BMP one bit and it took a lot of lobbying and persuasion from the Mil OKB before it was finally excepted by the military.

    The Vietnam War put an abrupt end to the helicopter doubters and from that point onward there was no looking back!

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    Post  ALAMO Sun Apr 21, 2024 7:48 pm

    Mir wrote:
    The Vietnam War put an abrupt end to the helicopter doubters and from that point onward there was no looking back!  

    What is an interesting part concerning the Soviet approach to resolve the things, was a redundancy of theirs.
    Back in the time, the most mass-produced helicopter used in the Soviet Union was ... Mi-2.
    It was outscaled by the Mi-8 only, and because those are still in production.
    But hardly any of those were built in the SU.
    A 99% of it came from Poland.
    They have adopted he same approach for lots of stuff - An-2 enormous supply was coming from Mielec.
    L-29/39 was from Czechoslovakia.
    Ships have been built all around, in all friendly countries - Finland included.

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    Post  Mir Sun Apr 21, 2024 8:06 pm

    Not always the case but sometimes they made the wrong decision by "outsourcing".

    Probably the best example I can think of right now was the Yak-30/32 advanced trainer. The Soviets in stead opted for the much inferior L-29 for political reasons.
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    Post  ALAMO Sun Apr 21, 2024 8:15 pm

    Mir wrote:Not always the case but sometimes they made the wrong decision by "outsourcing".  

    Probably the best example I can think of right now was the Yak-30/32 advanced trainer. The Soviets in stead opted for the much inferior L-29 for political reasons.

    Yeah, but take it from another perspective.
    Soviets were sharing the wealth among the other friendly states rather than sucking them dry.
    Poland lost the competition for a WP advanced trainer back then, but it doesn't meant that no plane was created. It has been - a TS-11.
    It gained a giant success in India, because nobody has tried to hamper the deal back then.
    Close to 500 pcs constructed, with a lot of shared technology and experience between India and Poland.
    Now compare that to NATO, when a member states compete among each other, leading to termination of a huge deals and - let's say clearly - a political humiliation of the others.
    It was never like that back then.
    The sole resolve to that, is to lie to the people young enough not to remember that.
    And scare their parents not to spoil the narrative.
    Freedom and democracy, will it be called.

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    Post  Gomig-21 Sun Apr 21, 2024 10:14 pm

    Mir wrote:@Gomig-21]Yes it would be good to expand the thread a bit. Perhaps it should be changed to "History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft"?

    Works for me.

    Mir wrote:Very unusual shot of the Mi-6 coming in to land on the aircraft carrier Kiev!

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Mi6-ki10

    Very nice.  Funny I was just talking about the Mi-6 with someone who had recently visited the military museum in Cairo.  Although as well-preserved as it is, it seems to be missing at least one, if not a pair of rotors.  Still looks great and those wings are wild.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 1L9A6139-XL

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    Post  GarryB Mon Apr 22, 2024 10:48 am

    Name changed as some of the aircraft show were not fighters... some were interceptors or recon or other types...

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 Asm-ca10

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    Post  Gomig-21 Tue May 07, 2024 5:18 am

    MiG-17 part of a private collection at the recent 2024 Panam City Beach Air Show in Florida. Nothing but beautiful lines on this classic and in that shiny, unpainted metal look.

    History of Soviet Cold War Military Aircraft - Page 6 GM7NFVnWQAAQdgA?format=jpg&name=4096x4096

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