Training and fighting competition
Training and combat aircraft Yak-130 - a rare example, after the collapse of the Soviet Union created a new military aircraft coming into production: the first series of Yak-130 for the Defense Ministry had already assembled. With the new aircraft and OKB Yakovlev Corporation Irkut "count up to 50% of the world market with capacity 4,5 thousand cars.
MiG against Яка
Few of the projects of new aircraft in the Soviet aircraft industry came to the stage of mass production. Training and combat aircraft Yak-130 can be such a rare example. The plane began to design in January 1991 when the name of OKB Yakovlev engaged to participate in the Competition Defense to develop training package for military pilots. By this time, the main training aircraft of Soviet Air Force was Czechoslovak L-39 - in the Soviet Union flew around 2 thousand of these machines. But by the end of the 1980's L-39 is outdated. For further developed in the 1960's trainer aircraft has been impossible to absorb a fourth-generation fighters, and before L-39 began to develop the resource. In the competition for the right to develop the new machines, announced in late 1990, in addition to OKB Yakovlev design bureau Sukhoi participated, Mikoyan and Myasischeva. Before the production came only two projects out of four - the Yak-130, developed jointly with the Italian trainer aircraft manufacturer Aermacchi, and MiG-AT OKB Mikoyan name, created with the participation of the French Snecma and Turbomeca. Experimental models of both aircraft performed its first flight in 1996, they became parties to tender for the Russian Air Force training aircraft. MiG-AT has a good chance to win, but the aircraft was planned to equip the French engines and avionics. Yak-120 in the original version also flew on the engine, DV-2C, the rights to which belong Slovakian manufacturer Povazske Strojarne, but the plane already in the series, it was decided to install the engine AI-222-25, developed Zaporizhzhya MBC "Ivchenko-Progress" (final assembly of motor MMPs produced in Moscow "Cheers").
In 2002, Russian military aircraft have summed up the tender for the main training and combat aircraft, announcing the winner of the Yak-130, deeming it a great advantage of thrust-to-weight and high maneuverability. An important factor was that the Yak-130, as opposed to purely trainer MiG-AT, originally created as a training and combat, able to take part in hostilities. In such a plane in the early 2000's and needed the Russian Air Force. In addition, the design of the machine was taken into account the possibility of establishing on the basis of light striking the aircraft.
By 2002, the OKB Yakovlev three years engaged in the project independently. In 1999, when it came to concrete negotiations on deliveries of the aircraft air forces of Russia and European countries (this was the aim of the project Aermacchi), the Russian bureau had to go away with an Italian partner. Aermacchi purchased from OKB Yakovlev Yak-130 documentation and based on it made a very similar aircraft of its own M-346 Master. Company entered into an informal agreement on the division of markets for their cars: Yakovlev Design Bureau was given to the markets of CIS countries and the traditional markets of Soviet weapons, and Aermacchi - NATO countries.
Project MiG-AT, after the defeat of the Russian Air Force tender received little further development. Since the late 1990's airplane OKB Mikoyan interested in a number of foreign clients, including Venezuela, as well as, according to BG, United Arab Emirates, and even Poland. But beyond the preliminary negotiations, the case has not gone: the lack of state orders MiG-AT by the Russian armed forces discouraged potential customers.
First in the sky
Russian Air Force took the first tentative order for the production of Yak-130 in 2002. The first flight version was constructed at the Nizhny Novgorod plant "Sokol" and made its first flight in 2004. In 2005, the Defense Ministry had signed a firm contract for the supply of the installation of a series of 12 aircraft - they were to be delivered in 2006-2007. Subsequently, the contract was extended until 2010. Implementation of orders has slowed significantly occurred in 2006, the first loss of the Yak-130: one of three built aircraft crashed during a test flight. At an altitude of 12 km pilots lost control of a plane, they had to shoot, but the machine was lost.
Production of the aircraft was instructed to Nizhny Novgorod Aircraft "Sokol" (in forming the United Aircraft Corporation plant entered its composition), which built and experimental samples. However, the "Falcon" will be gathered only that the first batch of machines - in the future production is planned to move to Irkutsk Aircraft owned by a corporation Irkut in 2002 was also the owner of OKB Yakovlev. Originally the Irkutsk factory supplied for the Yak-130 wing only. The contract for the 12 Yak-130 Russian Air Force has not yet been extended, but the plane is included in the State Arms Program Russia for 2007-2015, which is scheduled to supply 60 machines to 2015. In the long term need in the Air Force Yak-130 experts Irkut "estimate of 300 cars.
Since the beginning of the crisis in the market began to appear from time to time rumors of problems with financing and possible disruption of the timing of order MoD. In Irkut "assure that the order is executed on schedule. In early August, "Sokol said that the first serial aircraft built for the Air Force, assembled and already in the process of putting the customer. However, doubts about the course of ordering the Air Force was a manufacturer of engines: the President "Motor Sich" Vyacheslav Boguslav said that the Defense Ministry stopped funding the program Yak-130 because of lack of funds in the budget - in the warehouses "Motor Sich" has already accumulated 22 sets of engines of the AI - 222-25, and another 10 - to Moscow's "Salute". At the same time, according to Mr Boguslaeva, forced the MoD to extend the life of the existing L-39. "Irkut" immediately rushed to refute the information: the corporation has announced that funding for the Yak-130 program from the Defense Ministry of Russia is in full accordance with the schedule and all of the installation of aircraft engines are provided. BG in Irkut "reaffirmed that the funding is discontinued and the supply will run on schedule.
At the MAKS-2009 the Yak-130 will be presented in two versions: one aircraft configuration for the Russian Air Force, and one - in the export version, with instruments, graded in the British system of measures. Yak-130 was created in the expectation of large export orders, this has contributed to and co-operation "Yakovlev" with the Italians. Including, and therefore the designers decided to go towards a training combat aircraft: the world market purely training machines every year, demand is less. While the success of Yak-130 on the international market compared with the achievements on the home: there is one order for 16 aircraft for Air Algeria. The contract was signed in 2006 during a visit to Algeria, the president of Russia Vladimir Putin. Implementation of the Algerian contract immediately got Irkutsk Aircraft. In June, Le Bourget, which also exhibited the Yak-130, the president of Irkut "Oleg Demchenko said that 6 of the 16 aircraft will be delivered to Algeria in 2010.
Algeria is still the only foreign customers of Yak-130. However, in Irkut "say that during 2008-2009, the corporation has already received over 200 pre-applications for aircraft. The volume of the world market for training aircraft in Irkut estimated at 4.5 thousand. The Corporation expects that the Air Force in 2010, world's will in the active fleet replacement training machines, most of which are outdated and do not meet the requirements of training pilots for fighter aircraft and five "4 +" generation.
Manual Fifth Generation
Most trainer aircraft, is now facing the world's armed forces, in fact developed the latest in 80 years. Along with the Czech L-39 (they still are in service of the Air Force, previously served as members of the Warsaw Pact) is based fleet of military training aircraft make up the British BAE Hawk (flying about 900 copies), the American T-38 (more than 1 thousand .) and the German-French Alpha Jet. Even at the end of last century, the most serious potential competitor to the Yak-130 in export markets was considered a Hawk. But in recent years the British aircraft takes the position, despite its strengths - reliability and availability of a large number of modifications. In March, one of the largest operators Hawk, the Indian Air Force to desist from further purchases of aircraft, referring to problems with spare parts and service - before such a story with a Hawk could not even imagine.
Of course, not all competitors Yak-130 obsolete. In the countries of NATO strong his "double" Italian M-346. Aermacchi in 2003, joined the company Alenia Aeronautica, a 2008 m-marketing agreement entered into with the American Boeing, providing for joint promotion of M-346. In the next decade, the company will be able to jointly participate in the tender for the replacement of more than 500 T-38 training in the U.S. Air Force armament. Rival M-346 in the Americas tender is likely to be yet another new generation of aircraft - T-50, developed by the South Korean Korea Aerospace Industries in conjunction with the American Lockheed Martin. Both aircraft received major orders from the Air Force of their native countries - Italy and South Korea. The first time these cars met in a tender for the delivery of 48 training aircraft to the UAE at the beginning of the year. Won the M-346. A third aircraft, which in theory could become a competitor for the Yak-130 - Chinese L-15, he, like the M-346, has much in common with the Russian plane. Chinese advice OKB Yakovlev, they used the same engine Ukrainian AI-222-25, only needed for supersonic speeds forced update. And finally, the fourth potential competitor - Czech L-159T1, created on the basis of L-39.
More on all of the Yak-130 on performance, not surprisingly, like Italian M-346, although it is expensive ($ 15-20 million to $ 10-15 million for the Yak-130). In Irkut "recall agreement OKB Yakovlev with Alenia Aermacchi, under which the Yak-130 can not be sold to the countries of NATO, M-346 - in the CIS countries. But in third countries between the patterns of spread of competition. Both aircraft are participating in the tender for the supply of training and combat aircraft in India. In some markets the dignity of M-346 - the standards of NATO and a good engine - can lead to defects: not all countries want to buy a plane with American parts. The second aircraft, which could become a competitor for subsonic Yak-130 - an inexpensive Czech L-159 - are not experiencing the best of times: due to low demand for aircraft of the previous generation, and uncertainties with the maintenance of the production model is now frozen, while in the Czech Republic, laid a small aircraft bloom.
Korean T-50 called a direct competitor of the Yak-130 is even harder: the aircraft was created specifically for the maneuvers at supersonic speeds and has the appropriate specificity - the high cost (more than $ 20 million) and higher fuel consumption: about three times greater than that of the Yak-130. Chinese L-15 supersonic aircraft, too. His prospects still difficult to assess because of the time the program trainer aircraft of China lags behind competitors: flight-tested the new model began only in 2006, and the question of mass production machinery is not yet clear. In Irkut "notes that the reputation of the Chinese aircraft industry leaves much to be desired, as is Chinese aircraft about the same as Russian.
Given the situation on the market, "Irkut" is called a strategic goal to take to the Yak-130 and 50% of the world market. Obviously, the political and military reasons, some markets (for example, the majority of NATO countries) will be closed for the Russian aircraft. The priority markets for a corporation called Russia, CIS, Asia, Africa, Latin America. The example of Algeria shows that the main clients are the CIS countries and the traditional importers of Soviet and Russian weapons - Developing countries that were in the Soviet sphere of influence. At the same time, it is clear that to gain such a large market share need to move the aircraft to third countries. Therefore, the nearest big test for the Yak-130 will be tender to supply 56 training aircraft the Indian Air Force, announced in March. Offer to participate in the tender received and OKB Yakovlev, and almost all of its competitors: Alenia Aeronautica with the M-346, Korean Aerospace Industries with T-50, a Czech Aero Vodochody with L-159, BAE Systems Hawk, and even with the Mikoyan Design Bureau with the MiG - AT.
What is a Yak-130
Two training-combat aircraft Yak-130 is designed for training pilots of tactical aircraft. The aircraft is a monoplane with the classical scheme sredneraspolozhennym arrow wing and horizontal tail tselnopovorotnym. Developed before the influx of the wing provide the opportunity for sustained controlled flight angles of attack up to 40 °. He is one of the main components of training complex that includes also an integrated system of objective control, teaching computer classes, procedures, and specialized flight simulators. According to aerodynamic design and flight performance subsonic flight of Yak-130 is similar to modern jet fighters. Reprogrammable system Yak-130 allows you to simulate virtually any existing aircraft generation "4 +" and "5", both Russian and foreign production. Characterized by high autonomy-based, including the ground airfields.
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