I think Iran shares many of the problems common to most other countries of the world . And it also has some particular problems . It also has advantages over other similar nations in the region . Iran is relatively stable . If compared to say Iraq or Syria . But not as stable as say France . Within the context of present situation , I can list I the problems :
(1) Unemployment . I think the major factor is over population . Followed by sanctions . Iran needs to limit it's birth rate in the same way as say China did . Also removing sanctions will allow Iran to improve economy and employment . Russia can help Iran in setting up joint ventures and banks that evade American sanctions . By exclusively trading between two countries .
(2) Democracy . The Iranian revolution achieved victory in terms of becoming an independent state . However political parties are still weak . With no distinct large scale class participation in politics . This is particularly true of the working class . Russia can not interfere in Iranian politics . However through it's contacts with Iran . Using it's media . Setting up parliamentary contact group . It can help Iranian move to more stable and stronger position .
(3) Religion . Iranian are deeply religious . However a few religious laws need to be implemented with consideration of changing social and human conditions . Amputations , stonings need to stop . Sexual deviants need hospital treatment . Those guilty of minor religious misdemeanour need simple fines . Further contact between the two countries can help cultural exchanges . Visits by legal experts . Discussions with Russian religious authority who will face similar problems . And changing laws to be compatible with social conditions .