Rmf wrote:Big_Gazza wrote:Agree with kvs, and I'll add that most of those failures happened early in the Protons development. Over the last 35 years, proton has been very reliable, with most of the failures in this period being related to upper-stage (eg Briz) or payload problems, with the occasional human-factor thrown in.
Briz has had its share of problems, but they rarely seem to be caused by design issues - more like poor workmanship or outright malfeasance. Any Russian launch to geostationary orbit is always going to be more contorted than an ESA launch (from equatorial French Guiana) or NASA (from Florida) due to the latitude of Baikonur and the requirement of Briz to make more engine firings to change orbital inclination and deliver the payload. Briz has to work hard to acheive mission success and there is very little room for error or performance shortcomings (like a premature burn shutdown).
Hopefully Krunichev have thrown enough resources in to fix the labour problems, and the FSB has managed to weed out those bastards who have been taking payments to throw a spanner in the works. Saboteurs are the lowest form of life and should be shot...
what we have to remember is that , briz -m is/was a pure military project , designed as satelite killler , it was ment to fly solo on its own using advanced computer and precision multi- exaust (vernier) engine which can fire many times , with multiple droppable small tanks and many fireings to change its orbit and hunt enemy satelites.
it was not ment to cary and piggyback a payload (which can be as heavy as briz) on top of itself , that ment many modification to briz ,to remove military instruments anti satelite net and discs ,so it became more civilian briz-m or -km.
it replaced third stage block D , and offered more payload especially to GSO , mulitple payloads , and incertion of satelites into almost any orbit.
it has many tanks small ball like oxygen tanks are dropped one by one after exausted by engine fireing ,central fuel tank and donought fuel tank which is dropped ,many fuel lines and connections ,and center of gravity is constantly changing, developing briz-m was no easy task.
even today many pople dont know briz-m is controled from military command and final satelite insertion is done with them in charge.
Interesting.... didn't know most of that, so thanks for the info