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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

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    Mike E

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Mike E on Wed Oct 22, 2014 1:42 am

    kvs wrote:The Briz-M stage has been the source of most of the Proton failures over the last 15 years as far as I can
    recall.  There is always some assembly issue.  By now they should have shot every diversant in the production
    facility.   The Bulava was also failing because of bizarre assembly problems.   Seems to me like Russia needs
    to solve compromised staff problems at its production facilities instead of actual technical faults.
    It has been... Thankfully, its long operation span has allowed constant improvements not only to its design, but production as well. You are correct though, most problems are something small that was the result of one person doing one thing wrong when building the rocket (or stage, in this case). That being said, every space program deals with this problem on a consistent basis.
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    Mike E

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Mike E on Wed Oct 22, 2014 3:59 am

    The Ekspress satellite has reached its calculated orbit successfully! http://en.itar-tass.com/non-political/755702

    Interesting report on radiation of all topics... http://en.itar-tass.com/non-political/755623
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    Rmf

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Rmf on Sun Nov 16, 2014 6:32 pm

    Mike E wrote:
    GarryB wrote:Will be cool in 20-30 years time when we can start planning to send a nuclear propelled rocket literally to the stars.

    A nuclear powered rocket that can operate for years mounted on a large space ship with some sort of magnetic scoop on the front several kms long that drags in loose hydrogen atoms in free space and of course any dust particles and suck them in the front of the ship to be heated and accelerated out the back like a big scramjet.

    Huge potential.

    Of course the problem is that 20 years after you launch it you develop a new propulsion technology that is ten times faster so you launch that and it beats the first spaceship you sent....  jocolor
    Yeah, it would be awesome if such a craft could pass Voyager 1 within my (our) lifespan. 

    That would weight a ton, and while it would drag in molecules (very few of them), it would add to cosmic drag. In general, there are too few particles in space for that to be feasible... 

    No potential... Though regular nuclear propulsion does have a lot of it...

    Yep! But who said that is a bad thing?
    future is in space vehicles with as less propellant as possible, and moon launches using maglev track to speed them up using also earth as a slingshot.
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    Viktor

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Viktor on Tue Nov 25, 2014 10:33 pm

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    Rmf

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Rmf on Wed Nov 26, 2014 5:18 pm

    just a quick translate -
    they will build and put a modular space station in moon orbit ,about 25tonns weight.

    so no station on the moon yet, but 1 step closer to more permanent basing.

    russian moon shot will be of a  moon landing -and more important -> staying.
    reducing risks and having intermedial bases in between.

    space station around earth - space station around the moon ,could they use a umbilical thether for transport?
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    Mike E

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Mike E on Thu Nov 27, 2014 1:20 am

    Moon missions are going to be interesting long term... A decent bit of the Moon's orbit (itself) is outside of the magnetosphere, which makes the station vulnerable to long-term radiation.
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    Mike E

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Mike E on Mon Feb 02, 2015 8:57 am

    Well it's been a while...

    Tests are in action regarding the huge new SKA sats which is exciting... A 48 meter antenna in space? 

    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/ska.html
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    Rmf

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Rmf on Fri Feb 06, 2015 12:10 am

    problem with radars is they have to be close to earth for scanning and big antenna creates drag.
    also power consumption means big solar panels and that creates additional drag quickly decaying orbit.
    they used nuclear powerred batteries before...
    but there is some changes now with rotating panels which offer least ressistance postition although less power.
    also antenas are mesh type which is less draggy but still effective.
    also with ion propulsion metods now station keeping is easier and longer.
    russia need many new radar satelites, resurs was great to awake establishment to its potential.
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    Big_Gazza

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Big_Gazza on Fri Feb 06, 2015 11:10 pm

    Rmf wrote:problem with radars is they have to be close to earth for scanning and big antenna creates drag.
    also power consumption means big solar panels and that creates additional drag quickly decaying orbit.
    they used nuclear powerred batteries before...
    but there is some changes now with rotating panels which offer least ressistance postition although less power.
    also antenas are mesh type which is less draggy but still effective.
    also with  ion propulsion metods now station keeping is easier and longer.
    russia need many new radar satelites, resurs was great to awake establishment to its potential.

    Agreed, 100%.  My dream is for Russia to develop a network of long-lived high-resolution radar surveillance satellites that can provide continuous and overlapping 24/7/365 coverage of the worlds oceans to allow every USN asset to be tracked realtime and firing solutions continuously available to anti-ship ballistic missiles and air/ground/sea launched cruise and AShMs.  Track the yankee b@$tard$ wherever they may be, and let them know that Russia can shove a hypersonic missile down their engine intakes at the simple push of a button.

    I'm sure there are also many altruistic and wholesome applications of the technology (ie search and rescue) but securing the nation (and the world) against the endless geopolitical agression of our Western aristocracy is the highest priority.

    PS: Actually my dream also to USE the capability when the yankee b@$tard$ provide a justification.  I long to turn on the TV and see the teary ashen faces of US corporate newsreaders when the images of USN carriers are shown, capsized and on fire, with their screws turning lazily in the air as they head inexorably to the bottom.  That would truly be a Moet Chandon moment...
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    Rmf

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Rmf on Sun Feb 08, 2015 12:11 am

    russia had the radars like legenda constellation for pure military purpose to cover great oceans , and locate usa carriers either by elint passive means or active radar satelites with small nuclear batterries and reactors.
    but radar satelites can be very usefull for many civilian aplications depending on their wavelenght used.
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    collegeboy16

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  collegeboy16 on Sun Feb 08, 2015 4:36 am

    Big_Gazza wrote:

    Agreed, 100%.  My dream is for Russia to develop a network of long-lived high-resolution radar surveillance satellites that can provide continuous and overlapping 24/7/365 coverage of the worlds oceans to allow every USN asset to be tracked realtime and firing solutions continuously available to anti-ship ballistic missiles and air/ground/sea launched cruise and AShMs.  Track the yankee b@$tard$ wherever they may be, and let them know that Russia can shove a hypersonic missile down their engine intakes at the simple push of a button.

    I'm sure there are also many altruistic and wholesome applications of the technology (ie search and rescue) but securing the nation (and the world) against the endless geopolitical agression of our Western aristocracy is the highest priority.

    PS: Actually my dream also to USE the capability when the yankee b@$tard$ provide a justification.  I long to turn on the TV and see the teary ashen faces of US corporate newsreaders when the images of USN carriers are shown, capsized and on fire, with their screws turning lazily in the air as they head inexorably to the bottom.  That would truly be a Moet Chandon moment...

    damn, violent much? just tell them the coords and bearing of their carrier groups- i doubt any admiral worth his salt would be willing to martyr all his men.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Wed Feb 25, 2015 10:11 am

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    KomissarBojanchev

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    Russian space planes MAKS and Kliper

    Post  KomissarBojanchev on Sat Mar 21, 2015 5:39 pm

    Russian space planes MAKS and Kliper. In the 90s and early 2000s boths of these potentially incredibly useful projects got shelved due to lack of funding. Why isn't there any talk about reviving them. Is angara going to be the only initiative? If so then russia is behind all private space companies.And  don't tell me about russian engines on US rockets. as proof that there is nothing to improve.   IMO it is of paramount importance that these 2 programs get restarted ASAP before 2020 so russia can remain a leading space power.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Sat Mar 21, 2015 9:48 pm

    KomissarBojanchev wrote:In the 90s and early 2000s boths of these potentially incredibly useful projects got shelved due to lack of funding. Why isn't there any talk about reviving them. Is angara going to be the only initiative? If so then russia is behind all private space companies.And  don't tell me about russian engines on US rockets. as proof that there is nothing to improve.   IMO it is of paramount importance that these 2 programs get restarted ASAP before 2020 so russia can remain a leading space power.

    MAKS was a military unmanned spacecraft like US Boeing X-37. Kliper was supposed to be the successor of Soyuz manned spacecraft but it was cancelled. PPTS will be the replacement
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Sun Mar 22, 2015 3:14 pm

    Proton, Russia's Legendary Space Launch Vehicle

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    kvs

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  kvs on Sun Mar 22, 2015 7:18 pm

    That graphic is sub-par. Sputnik seems to be staffed by the same lamers as English RIAN. The nacelles are rendered wrong and
    the total number of launches is 401 and not 377. Total failures are 46. The 11.5% failure rate is mostly due to the f*cking Briz-M
    upper stage and I would put these failures in a separate category. There was also one clear case of sabotage. This is the recent
    spectacular failure in 2013 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeS8GvLh1Jo). This and the ridiculous Briz-M failure rate are probably
    the same sort of "failure" by dirty tricks.

    They plan to use the Briz-M garbage on the Angara. Expect the same problems if they have not cleaned house.


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    Big_Gazza

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Big_Gazza on Sun Mar 22, 2015 10:22 pm

    Agree with kvs, and I'll add that most of those failures happened early in the Protons development. Over the last 35 years, proton has been very reliable, with most of the failures in this period being related to upper-stage (eg Briz) or payload problems, with the occasional human-factor thrown in.

    Briz has had its share of problems, but they rarely seem to be caused by design issues - more like poor workmanship or outright malfeasance. Any Russian launch to geostationary orbit is always going to be more contorted than an ESA launch (from equatorial French Guiana) or NASA (from Florida) due to the latitude of Baikonur and the requirement of Briz to make more engine firings to change orbital inclination and deliver the payload. Briz has to work hard to acheive mission success and there is very little room for error or performance shortcomings (like a premature burn shutdown).

    Hopefully Krunichev have thrown enough resources in to fix the labour problems, and the FSB has managed to weed out those bastards who have been taking payments to throw a spanner in the works. Saboteurs are the lowest form of life and should be shot...
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Mon Mar 23, 2015 6:08 pm

    First launch of upgraded Soyuz spacecraft may take place March 16, 2016

    The manufacturer plans to increase the solar cells’ power capacity and equip the spacecraft with new close-up, docking and attitude control engines

    MOSCOW, March 23. /TASS/. The first upgraded version of Russia’s Soyuz-MS spacecraft may be launched to the International Space Station in a year from now, a source in the space rocket industry has told TASS.

    "According to early estimates, the first launch of upgraded Soyuz may take place on March 18, 2016," the source said.

    TASS has no official confirmation of these plans.

    According to earlier reports the first launch of an upgraded Soyuz with a crew of Russia’s cosmonauts Alexey Ovchinin and Oleg Skripochka and NASA’s Jeffrey Williams on board was scheduled for May 30, 2016. Syrgey Ryzhkov and Andrey Borisenko, of Russia, and Robert Kimbrough, of the United States, are the standby crew.

    The Soyuz spacecraft’s manufacturer, space rocket corporation Energiya plans to increase the solar cells’ power capacity, and equip the spacecraft with new close-up, docking and attitude control engines, which will make it possible to approach and dock to the ISS even in case of one of the engines’ failure, and to guarantee normal re-entry and descent with two defunct engines.

    The spacecraft will be equipped with advanced communication and direction-finding systems. The spacecraft motion control and navigation systems will undergo the greatest changes. The new version will be equipped with GLONASS sensors. During the parachute descent phase and after the descent module’s touchdown the GLONASS/GPS coordinates will be transmitted to mission control via the satellite search and rescue system Cospas-Sarsat.
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    Rmf

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Rmf on Mon Mar 23, 2015 9:37 pm

    Big_Gazza wrote:Agree with kvs, and I'll add that most of those failures happened early in the Protons development.  Over the last 35 years, proton has been very reliable, with most of the failures in this period being related to upper-stage (eg Briz) or payload problems, with the occasional human-factor thrown in.

    Briz has had its share of problems, but they rarely seem to be caused by design issues - more like poor workmanship or outright malfeasance.  Any Russian launch to geostationary orbit is always going to be more contorted than an ESA launch (from equatorial French Guiana) or NASA (from Florida) due to the latitude of Baikonur and the requirement of Briz to make more engine firings to change orbital inclination and deliver the payload.  Briz has to work hard to acheive mission success and there is very little room for error or performance shortcomings (like a premature burn shutdown).  

    Hopefully Krunichev have thrown enough resources in to fix the labour problems, and the FSB has managed to weed out those bastards who have been taking payments to throw a spanner in the works.  Saboteurs are the lowest form of life and should be shot...

    what we have to remember is that , briz -m is/was a pure military project , designed as satelite killler , it was ment to fly solo on its own using advanced computer and precision multi- exaust (vernier) engine which can fire many times , with multiple droppable small tanks and many fireings to change its orbit and hunt enemy satelites.

    it was not ment to cary and piggyback a payload (which can be as heavy as briz) on top of itself , that ment many modification to briz ,to remove military instruments anti satelite net and discs ,so it became more civilian briz-m or -km.
    it replaced third stage block D , and offered more payload especially to GSO , mulitple payloads ,  and incertion of satelites into almost any orbit.

    it has many tanks small ball like oxygen tanks are dropped one by one after exausted by engine fireing ,central fuel tank and donought fuel tank which is dropped ,many fuel lines and connections ,and center of gravity is constantly changing, developing briz-m was no easy task.
    even today many pople dont know briz-m is controled from military command and final satelite insertion is done with them in charge.
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    Big_Gazza

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Big_Gazza on Tue Mar 24, 2015 1:22 am

    Rmf wrote:
    Big_Gazza wrote:Agree with kvs, and I'll add that most of those failures happened early in the Protons development.  Over the last 35 years, proton has been very reliable, with most of the failures in this period being related to upper-stage (eg Briz) or payload problems, with the occasional human-factor thrown in.

    Briz has had its share of problems, but they rarely seem to be caused by design issues - more like poor workmanship or outright malfeasance.  Any Russian launch to geostationary orbit is always going to be more contorted than an ESA launch (from equatorial French Guiana) or NASA (from Florida) due to the latitude of Baikonur and the requirement of Briz to make more engine firings to change orbital inclination and deliver the payload.  Briz has to work hard to acheive mission success and there is very little room for error or performance shortcomings (like a premature burn shutdown).  

    Hopefully Krunichev have thrown enough resources in to fix the labour problems, and the FSB has managed to weed out those bastards who have been taking payments to throw a spanner in the works.  Saboteurs are the lowest form of life and should be shot...

    what we have to remember is that , briz -m is/was a pure military project , designed as satelite killler , it was ment to fly solo on its own using advanced computer and precision multi- exaust (vernier) engine which can fire many times , with multiple droppable small tanks and many fireings to change its orbit and hunt enemy satelites.

    it was not ment to cary and piggyback a payload (which can be as heavy as briz) on top of itself , that ment many modification to briz ,to remove military instruments anti satelite net and discs ,so it became more civilian briz-m or -km.
    it replaced third stage block D , and offered more payload especially to GSO , mulitple payloads ,  and incertion of satelites into almost any orbit.

    it has many tanks small ball like oxygen tanks are dropped one by one after exausted by engine fireing ,central fuel tank and donought fuel tank which is dropped ,many fuel lines and connections ,and center of gravity is constantly changing, developing briz-m was no easy task.
    even today many pople dont know briz-m is controled from military command and final satelite insertion is done with them in charge.

    Interesting.... didn't know most of that, so thanks for the info Smile
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Wed Mar 25, 2015 8:45 pm

    Russian Defense Ministry needs new heavy carrier rocket — space agency

    A new carrier rocket capable of lifting cargos of 35-37 metric tons is to ensure the ministry’s needs to orbit heavy military satellites

    MOSCOW, March 24. /TASS/. Russia needs to create a new carrier rocket capable of lifting cargos of 35-37 metric tons for the Defense Ministry, a high-ranking official from the Federal Space Agency Roscosmos said Tuesday.

    The current fleet of launch vehicles does not ensure the ministry’s needs to orbit heavy military satellites, head of Roscosmos’ scientific and technical board Yury Koptev told journalists.

    "There are a number of projects in the interests of the Defense Ministry where we don’t ensure putting payload into target orbit, and we have to remove some apparatuses," Koptev said.

    The Roscosmos official said the new Angara-A5V rocket with an oxygen-hydrogen third stage will be able to put into geostationary transfer orbit 12-12.5 tons of payload, whereas an Angara-A5 with a hydrogen upper stage - only seven tons.

    According to a Roscosmos assessment, the cost of building a new modification of the Angara-A5V carrier rocket will be 37 billion rubles ($638 million).

    "This development will cost approximately 37 billion rubles," he said, adding that he entire program to create Angara-A5V with account for construction and fitting out all ground infrastructure for the carrier will cost 150 billion rubles ($2.6 billion).

    Delta Heavy, a promising US heavy lift launch vehicle, is expected to deliver cargos of 12-14 tons to the geostationary transfer orbit, the European Ariane 6 - 10-11 tons, and the Chinese heavy rocket up to 10.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Wed Apr 08, 2015 11:54 pm

    RSC Energia may offer Roscosmos the Sea Launch project
    Russian Aviaton » Wednesday April 8, 2015 16:55 MSK

    RSC Energia is considering the possibility of selling Sea Launch project to Roscosmos or a foreign company; the project may also be terminated due to bankruptcy, TASS reports with reference to a source familiar with the situation.

    “Among possible scenarios: selling the project to another country or an investor, “nationalizing” the project by means of upgrading the facilities for launching Russian launch vehicles (first of all Angara-A3) instead of US ones,” the source said.

    He also added that these scenarios might be integrated. For example, a foreign investor may fund the project and the facilities upgraded for launching Angara LVs may be located in one of the interested countries, he explained. The third scenario is bankruptcy, he added.

    Earlier RSC Energia President Vladimir Solntsev said that three scenarios of further development of Sea Launch project are being elaborated. He promised that the scenarios would be presented to Roscosmos “soon”; after that one of them would be submitted to the government.

    Sea Launch Company established in 1995 is the largest commercial international project for developing and operating a “floating spaceport” used to launch Zenit-3SL rockets with DM-SL upper stage manufactured by RSC Energia.

    95% of the company’s shares are owned by Energia Overseas Limited (subsidiary of RSC Energia (Russia)), 3% - by Boeing, 2% - by Aker Solutions (Norway). The company is headquartered in Nyon (Switzerland).

    The activities of the Sea Launch have been frozen.
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    flamming_python

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  flamming_python on Thu Apr 09, 2015 12:29 am

    George1 wrote:RSC Energia may offer Roscosmos the Sea Launch project
    Russian Aviaton » Wednesday April 8, 2015 16:55 MSK

    RSC Energia is considering the possibility of selling Sea Launch project to Roscosmos or a foreign company; the project may also be terminated due to bankruptcy, TASS reports with reference to a source familiar with the situation.

    “Among possible scenarios: selling the project to another country or an investor, “nationalizing” the project by means of upgrading the facilities for launching Russian launch vehicles (first of all Angara-A3) instead of US ones,” the source said.

    He also added that these scenarios might be integrated. For example, a foreign investor may fund the project and the facilities upgraded for launching Angara LVs may be located in one of the interested countries, he explained. The third scenario is bankruptcy, he added.

    Earlier RSC Energia President Vladimir Solntsev said that three scenarios of further development of Sea Launch project are being elaborated. He promised that the scenarios would be presented to Roscosmos “soon”; after that one of them would be submitted to the government.

    Sea Launch Company established in 1995 is the largest commercial international project for developing and operating a “floating spaceport” used to launch Zenit-3SL rockets with DM-SL upper stage manufactured by RSC Energia.

    95% of the company’s shares are owned by Energia Overseas Limited (subsidiary of RSC Energia (Russia)), 3% - by Boeing, 2% - by Aker Solutions (Norway). The company is headquartered in Nyon (Switzerland).

    The activities of the Sea Launch have been frozen.

    Terminate the project, sell off the assets and move onto better things.

    The idea had its run, to continue further would require further investment and co-operation with Ukrainian agencies and aerospace companies; however that sort of thing is no longer feasible now, which makes the project no longer feasible either and undoubtedly yet another source of potential pain and wrangling that is just not in any shape, way or form - worth it.
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    Big_Gazza

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Apr 09, 2015 4:36 am

    flamming_python wrote:
    George1 wrote:RSC Energia may offer Roscosmos the Sea Launch project
    Russian Aviaton » Wednesday April 8, 2015 16:55 MSK

    RSC Energia is considering the possibility of selling Sea Launch project to Roscosmos or a foreign company; the project may also be terminated due to bankruptcy, TASS reports with reference to a source familiar with the situation.

    “Among possible scenarios: selling the project to another country or an investor, “nationalizing” the project by means of upgrading the facilities for launching Russian launch vehicles (first of all Angara-A3) instead of US ones,” the source said.

    He also added that these scenarios might be integrated. For example, a foreign investor may fund the project and the facilities upgraded for launching Angara LVs may be located in one of the interested countries, he explained. The third scenario is bankruptcy, he added.

    Earlier RSC Energia President Vladimir Solntsev said that three scenarios of further development of Sea Launch project are being elaborated. He promised that the scenarios would be presented to Roscosmos “soon”; after that one of them would be submitted to the government.

    Sea Launch Company established in 1995 is the largest commercial international project for developing and operating a “floating spaceport” used to launch Zenit-3SL rockets with DM-SL upper stage manufactured by RSC Energia.

    95% of the company’s shares are owned by Energia Overseas Limited (subsidiary of RSC Energia (Russia)), 3% - by Boeing, 2% - by Aker Solutions (Norway). The company is headquartered in Nyon (Switzerland).

    The activities of the Sea Launch have been frozen.

    Terminate the project, sell off the assets and move onto better things.

    The idea had its run, to continue further would require further investment and co-operation with Ukrainian agencies and aerospace companies; however that sort of thing is no longer feasible now, which makes the project no longer feasible either and undoubtedly yet another source of potential pain and wrangling that is just not in any shape, way or form - worth it.

    Agreed.  Any project that puts cash into the pockets of the Banderistan regime (or helps maintain its ability to build rockets) is unacceptable.  It would be nice to see Sea Launch operating with Angara-A3 as a replacement but A3 development isn't proceeding, at least for the time being.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

    Post  George1 on Tue Apr 28, 2015 2:17 am

    Russia's new rocket will be named Fenix — source

    The new medium-class carrier rocket is planned to replace the Soyuz rocket family

    MOSCOW, April 27. /TASS/. Russia’s space agency (Roscosmos) plans to begin in 2018 the development of a medium-class carrier rocket to replace the Soyuz rocket family the creation of which had started during the USSR times when Sergey Korolev was the country’s chief rocket engineer, a rocket and space industry source told TASS on Monday.

    "Roscosmos is to prepare the technical design specification for the medium-class carrier rocket during 2016-2017. In 2018, it is planned to begin the experimental development work on this rocket named Fenix," he said.

    According to the source, in the period from 2015 to 2018 Roscosmos plans to spend more than 30 billion rubles (almost $600 million) on the project.

    Another source in the industry told TASS that the initiative of the new rocket development belongs to the Samara-based Progress rocket space center. According to preliminary data, it will be a one-piece carrier rocket with the capacity of carrying at least 9 tons of payload to a low-Earth orbit, that is, it will take a niche between the existing Soyuz and Zenit rockets. The Samara enterprise proposes to use liquefied natural gas as fuel, but also considers the standard kerosene and hydrogen option. In the future, Fenix is planned to be used as a module for creating carrier rockets of larger capacity. The groundwork of the Frigate upper stage manufactured by the NPO Lavochkin Research and Production Association may be used for the new rocket’s booster.

    According to the source, the creation of a new medium capacity rocket was necessitated by the fact that in the future the national space program will use the Angara modular rocket. However, if a contingency occurs during the launch of a light-class version of Angara, the launches of the entire family of the carrier rockets will have to be suspended until the investigation is over, the source said. It is necessary to develop a new rocket as a reserve to ensure orbiting of small and medium payloads, he added.

    Roscosmos chief Igor Komarov said previously that a new draft of the Federal Space Programme for 2016-2025 included the works for the creation of a new-generation medium-class carrier rocket.

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