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    Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

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    AbsoluteZero

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    Russia develops New Nuke Warhead?

    Post  AbsoluteZero on Sat Jan 29, 2011 5:27 am

    Hi Guys I've been visiting your forums for a long time now but only decided to register today, Anyway I came up with an interesting article from RT.com about a new "Warhead" developed for Russia's Strategic Missile Forces, the article mentions something about the elimination of a "bus" thats been an important component of all MIRVed missile systems, if so, then it would appear that this new system is quite revolutionary indeed..

    Russia has developed a stand-alone nuclear warhead capable of penetrating any existing or projecting missile defense system, informs Interfax news agency.

    ­According to Yury Solomonov, the chief designer of the Moscow Heat Engineering Institute, this unique system was successfully tested last year.

    Unlike the payload of all previously-developed intercontinental ballistic missiles, the new weapon can hit several targets located at great distance from each other.

    This means that the current multiple warhead dispensing mechanism called “bus”, a segment that delivers warheads to the destined drop zone used in all modern missiles, will be eliminated, because in the new system, once the terminal stage vehicle of ICBM booster does its job, the missile separates into warheads with “individual means of delivery to destination.”

    He said that 30 years ago such a system was discussed and labeled science fiction.

    The new innovative technology will “put a full stop on all discussions regarding our countermeasures towards non-existent antiballistic missile defense system of our potential enemy,” Solomonov is cited as having said.

    Now engineers need to adopt the new warhead to the existing ballistic missiles on alert. This work will take several years and will include launches of experimental Topol-E missile and the following modernization of the Topol-M and RS-24 Yars MIRV missiles that will constitute the backbone of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces in the nearest future.

    Source: RT.com
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    Viktor

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Viktor on Sat Jan 29, 2011 10:00 am

    I hope hes thinking of MARV.
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Sat Jan 29, 2011 10:14 pm

    The bus on a standard nuclear missile is like a space shuttle in that it can release objects and can manouver itself in space.
    The MIRV bus basically manouvers so that it is falling toward the target and releases a warhead and then manouvers again to another target and releases another warhead till all the warheads are released to fall on ballistic paths to their targets.

    To get rid of the bus you would need fairly autonomous little warheads that are able to perform significant manouvers on their own.

    In theory it actually makes a lot of sense because flying along a trajectory a bus manouvering to release the first warhead is carrying the weight of all the warheads which means the most fuel is used on the first warhead release. All of a sudden the bus is 300kg or so lighter so the next manouver should be easier etc etc till all the missiles are released.

    By getting rid of the bus and adding manouver capability to the missiles should mean targets much further from the flight path should be able to be attacked because as soon as the last stage has fired the warhead package simply coasts through empty vacuum so releasing a warhead then even flying off at an angle of a few degrees means thousands of kms at 10,000km range. This of course means that each warhead needs to be able to find its target on its own where previously only the bus needed to do that.
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    nightcrawler

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  nightcrawler on Sat Jan 29, 2011 11:13 pm

    This surely will create a bulky system!!
    In theory it actually makes a lot of sense because flying along a trajectory a bus manouvering to release the first warhead is carrying the weight of all the warheads which means the most fuel is used on the first warhead release. All of a sudden the bus is 300kg or so lighter so the next manoeuvre should be easier etc etc till all the missiles are released.
    This advantage will be offset by a rather 'common' launch/control mechanism as is provided by bus; which I think be more capable to pack more warheads than this independent concept
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Sun Jan 30, 2011 5:12 am

    If you want your warheads to manoeuvre during the terminal phase of their flight then they will need thrusters anyway... putting them in a single bus during their flight in space would create an opportunity for an enemy to hit all your warheads in one shot, so I suspect the idea is that instead of one bus as a target that each warhead is released with the last stage to separately and independently home in on their targets to manoeuvre under their own power to greatly multiply the targets needing interception while also widely separating the targets for any interceptor system so that an interceptor missile can't simply use its own bus for multi targeting warheads.

    This will take up more space, but not necessarily that much more weight. An extra layer of warheads could be added on top in an extended fairing.

    I think the greatly increased target numbers is enough of a benefit on its own to justify the choice. If you draw a line over the north pole leading down over the US aimed for... say Florida and you mark 5 targets say 200km either side of the flight path you will see that an interception system in Alaska will likely have a chance to intercept the bus over Canada still holding all 6 warheads whereas with no bus it would be 6 separate warheads before it is even over the north pole.

    6 times the targets with the added bonus that more widely separated targets can be hit and as they are terminally guided the CEP often goes from 200m to less than 50m that harder targets can be engaged where necessary.
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    nightcrawler

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  nightcrawler on Sun Jan 30, 2011 9:11 pm

    I think the greatly increased target numbers is enough of a benefit on its own to justify the choice. If you draw a line over the north pole leading down over the US aimed for... say Florida and you mark 5 targets say 200km either side of the flight path you will see that an interception system in Alaska will likely have a chance to intercept the bus over Canada still holding all 6 warheads whereas with no bus it would be 6 separate warheads before it is even over the north pole.
    Thnx for elaborating; but independent propulsion system now guiding each warhead will not only take more space also will increase weight. In bus configuration here exists nominally powered retro-rockets to manoeuvre warheads at terminal stages; but now they must be powered by larger more powerful independent propulsion systems or may be augmented by some independent guidance systems as opposed to when 'bus' was present to guide them precisely over a ballistic trajectory
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Sun Jan 30, 2011 11:10 pm

    But the MARV warheads need terminal guidance and some way to manouver in space anyway... otherwise it would be easy to defeat them simply by hitting them in space before they enter the atmosphere.

    By making all the missiles autonomous it means you no longer need a bus or its propulsion system or its guidance system either so you increase the weight of the individual warheads but remove the weight of the bus.

    It also means decoys are deployed earlier and so have an effect earlier too.

    TheRealist

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    Russian missiles will fall into a demographic pit - Thoughts on this article

    Post  TheRealist on Mon Sep 03, 2012 3:11 pm

    Russian missiles will fall into a demographic pit

    http://www.rusbiznews.com/news/n1402.html
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Tue Sep 04, 2012 7:59 am

    Rubbish.

    For the last 20 years (pre 2008) the Russian military and the Russian Military Industrial Complex (MIC) was on a go slow with little work for the MIC except for a few export customers.

    Now there is money and there is the export market, which has only increased, but this is compounded by a sudden domestic demand for everything now.

    The shortage is perfectly understandable as before 2008 when there was little demand there was little sense in training for jobs that simply weren't there.

    Fighter pilots were driving cabs in Moscow because there was no need for pilots.

    Now you will find that as the requirements increase that young Russians will be able to make decisions regarding training and education and they will start to fill the vacancies.

    All perfectly normal.


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    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

    TheRealist

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  TheRealist on Tue Sep 04, 2012 12:41 pm

    I find it contradictory in a number of media outlets like Aljazeera and BBC constantly underestimating the Russian military industry. In my view people who underestimate the Russian military would seem to regret in that in the end.

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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Tue Sep 04, 2012 1:12 pm

    How can the UK make Brits feel better about themselves if there is no one to give as an example as being worse off than they are...

    Things are bad here... but at least you don't live in Russia... right?

    Used to be the same in Africa too, but apart from regular famines caused by criminal governments who really don't care about their own people, there is actually more poverty in some parts of Asia... of course there is enormous wealth in Asia too.


    _________________
    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
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    TR1

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  TR1 on Tue Sep 04, 2012 10:45 pm

    TheRealist wrote:I find it contradictory in a number of media outlets like Aljazeera and BBC constantly underestimating the Russian military industry. In my view people who underestimate the Russian military would seem to regret in that in the end.


    BBC reporting about Russia is in general trash.

    Very entertaining though.
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Wed Sep 05, 2012 12:12 am

    The irony is that poms tend to get a bit precious when you turn the old stupid stereotypes back at them.

    Like calling all British people English the way they call all Soviets Russian...


    _________________
    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

    TheRealist

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  TheRealist on Fri Sep 14, 2012 5:15 am

    I'm a bit new on Russian ICBM development but is Russia still relying on Ukrainian components?

    Plus I was reading an article about 4 months ago saying that the Votkinsk plant is unable to produce sufficient amount of missiles because it was outdated and the employees are old and are about to retire. I have to ask if this is the case in the Votkinsk plant?
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  GarryB on Fri Sep 14, 2012 9:45 am

    I'm a bit new on Russian ICBM development but is Russia still relying on Ukrainian components?

    Soviet missiles have components from a variety of former soviet republics as is the case of the SS-18, which has quite a few Ukrainian components.

    The purpose of the new missile is to build a new all Russian missile with no foreign components at all.

    Currently the main US satellite launch vehicle uses Russian rocket motors because they are the best... and are cheaper than they could possibly make them in the US.

    There is no point in spending money to develop all Russian components to replace the Ukrainian components... the new missile they are talking about will weigh 100 tons, which is lighter than the SS-18 which weighed in at about 210 tons, and had a throw weight of about 8 tons to orbit. As a comparison the US Peacekeeper weighed about 97 tons and was a solid fuel rocket and a throw weight of 4 tons. This new missile will be about 7 tons heavier than the American missile and less than half the weight of the SS-18, but with 5 tons throw weight have more than half the throw weight of the SS-18 and a ton more than the US missile.

    Plus I was reading an article about 4 months ago saying that the Votkinsk plant is unable to produce sufficient amount of missiles because it was outdated and the employees are old and are about to retire. I have to ask if this is the case in the Votkinsk plant?

    Not really a huge surprise... considering they have not produced missiles for some time. Now that they have a missile to design and build the extra funding will lead to new machine tools and new workers that actually get to produce something new instead of looking at improvements in maintainence and extending the life span of existing missile types.


    _________________
    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

    TheRealist

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  TheRealist on Fri Sep 14, 2012 1:33 pm

    I was reading in Voice of Russia that the Votkinsk plant is undergoing expansion with new facilities. Correct me if I am wrong? Just curious.
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    GarryB

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    ICBM development

    Post  GarryB on Fri Sep 14, 2012 1:40 pm

    I suspect it would be almost guaranteed now that they will be making this new missile... Smile


    _________________
    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

    Austin

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    Pure Fusion Weapon

    Post  Austin on Tue Nov 13, 2012 1:53 pm

    Had this question in mind of development of Pure Fusion Weapon i.e a Fusion/Thermonuclear weapons that does not need a primary fission trigger based on atomic weapon but something that needs Laser or Explosive to trigger a fusion reaction.

    What is the state of such weapons in Russia , Is it being developed or already developed ?

    Any news on this ?

    Here is a short primer on the subject Pure Fusion Weapons?

    Austin

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    Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Austin on Sat Dec 29, 2012 10:43 am

    Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry: Alive and Kicking
    http://mdb.cast.ru ( December 2012 )

    Aleksandr Stukalin, Kommersant Publising House

    The Big Five

    Russia inherited its nuclear weapons industry from the former Soviet Union. Unlike all the other segments of the Soviet defense industry, the manufacture of nuclear weapons was concentrated on the territory of Russia proper, so none of its key assets were lost when the former Soviet Union split up into its constituent republics.

    Rosatom, the Russian state-owned nuclear industry giant, has a special Nuclear Weapons Directorate, which includes two key divisions: the Nuclear Ammunition Industry Department, and the Department for Developing and Testing Nuclear Ammunition and Military Power Plants. 1

    The development and manufacture of nuclear weapons is consolidated within five key state-owned facilities controlled by the two Rosatom departments:

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Science and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFYaTs-VNIIEF) in the town of Sarov, Nizhniy Novgorod Region;

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center — All-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics (RFYaTs-VNIITF) in the town of Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk Region;

    The All-Russian Automation Science and Research Institute (VNIIA) in Moscow;

    The Elektrokhimpribor combine in the town of Lesnoy, Sverdlovsk Region;

    The Instruments Plant (Priborostroitelnyy Zavod, PSZ) in the town of Trekhgornyy, Chelyabinsk Region.

    Mass production is now concentrated at Elektrokhimpribor and PSZ2. In Soviet times assembly and disassembly of nuclear ammunition was also conducted at the Start Production Company in the town of Zarechnyy, Penza Region – but mass production at the facility ended in 2002. The company remains part of Rosatom’s Nuclear Ammunitions Industry Department, but it has switched to new productions – namely, the Khrizantema (AT-15) anti-tank missile, and components of the Igla-S (SA-24) portable AA missile system. 3

    The remaining Big Five employ about 47,000 people, according to 2011-2012 figures (see Table):

    Company
    Payroll


    RFYaTs-VNIIEF
    18,500

    RFYaTs-VNIITF
    About 8,0005

    VNIIA
    Over 5,0006

    Elektrokhimpribor
    9,4537

    PSZ
    About 6,0008

    In recent years various officials have repeatedly said that the Rosatom subsidiaries make all deliveries under defense procurement contracts precisely on schedule and exactly to the required specifications. In October 2012 Deputy Prime Minister Dmitriy Rogozin, the cabinet member in charge of the defense industry, even quipped that Rosatom was running like a clock and didn’t require any of his supervision.9

    The Russian government has never released figures about its spending on the nuclear weapons industry or the size of the contracts for nuclear weapons. There is every reason to believe, however, that these contracts are very large. The financial figures released by one of the Big Five, VNIIEF, give a rough idea of the kind of money involved. In 2011 the Rosatom subsidiary paid about 4.8 bn roubles in taxes. It also paid about 3.2 bn for various services provided by civilian companies in the town of Sarov in 2009-2010, and 3.5 bn-3.8 bn in 2011-2012. The subsidiary’s procurement budget is about 14 bn roubles.10 By the standards of any Russian defense company, these figures are enormous.

    But the financial fortunes of the Russian nuclear weapons industry have not always been so rosy. That industry was to some extent shielded from the full brunt of the crisis which hit the rest of the Russian defense sector in the 1990s. Nevertheless, it was also affected by major cuts in government spending. The mass production facilities were especially hard-hit. At one point Elektrokhimpribor had run up large debts for electricity and central heating because the government was not disbursing the money owed to the company on schedule. Its payments to the national Pension Fund were also in arrears, and on several occasions the taxman even came knocking on its door. It was forced to look for alternative sources of revenue so as to be able to finance production under defense procurement contracts. For example, it used its SU-20 isotope separation facility (an electromagnetic separator) in Lesnoy to produce stable isotopes, which it sold to Britain’s Amersham and Canada’s Trace. 11

    The financial situation of the Big Five took a turn for the better thanks largely to the rearmament program in Russia’s Strategic Nuclear Forces, which includes new weapons R&D and mass production projects.

    Strategic weapons contracts

    In the 1990s the Russian defense industry began the development of the Topol-M (SS-27) ICBM. This was one of the first programs which helped to revitalize the nuclear ammunitions sector. The nuclear warhead for the new missile was developed at VNIIEF by Design Bureau No 2 (KB-2);12 the project was led by the bureau’s chief designer, Georgiy Dmitriev.13 Elektrokhimpribor then managed to launch mass production so expeditiously that its director-general Leonid Polyakov (who held the job in 1995-2003) and several other senior managers were given the State Prize by President Putin at a special ceremony in the Kremlin. 14 Mass production was also launched (probably some time later) at PSZ in Trekhgornyy. Such a conclusion can be made based on one of the contracts announced by the government in 2007. The official notice inviting bids for the contract said that the winner would be required “to supply equipment to PSZ under the Topol-M program”.15

    In addition to entering into service the new Topol-M ICBMs, the MoD commissioned the development of new re-entry vehicles (RVs) for the R-29RMU (SS-N-23) submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The old RVs were approaching the end of their service life. It was decided to develop a new model based on the design of the re-entry vehicles used on the R-39UTTKh Bark (SS-N-20) SLBMs. The R&D program, codenamed Stantsiya, was conducted in the late 1990s and early 2000s by the Makeyev State Missile Center (GRTs) and VNIITF. 16 A total of 58 RVs built for the Bark missile were tested during 20 launches of experimental missiles. As a result, a team lead by chief designers Aleksandr Senkin and Geliy Zelenkin developed a new warhead for the updated R-29RMU1 SLBM. The RV was of an intermediate yield class and had improved safety mechanisms to prevent accidental or unauthorized detonation. On August 5, 2002 the president signed a decree authorizing the MoD to enter it into service. VNIIA was also involved in the development of the new warhead. In 2003 one of its top managers, Aleksandr Mokritsyn, as well as senior GRTs and VNIITF officials were awarded the State Prize for their part in the project.

    In later years new re-entry vehicles with “improved efficiency and safety features” were used to upgrade the R-29RKU-01 SLBM (the Stantsiya-2 R&D project). The R-29RKU-02 missile underwent joint flight testing in 2005, and entered service in 2006. The new RVs were also used on the new R-29RMU2 Sineva SLBM, which entered into service on July 9, 2007.17 All the remaining Project 667BDRM Delfin (Delta IV class) strategic nuclear missile submarines still in service with the Russian Navy are currently being re-fitted to carry the Sineva missile.

    The next phase in the development of nuclear ammunition came when the Moscow Thermal Engineering Institute (MIT) began to work on new strategic missiles with MIRVed warheads: the land-based Yars ICBM (SS-29, sometimes also designated as the Topol-MR and the Topol-M218), and the Bulava (SS-N-30) SLBM. The warheads for these two missiles were developed by VNIITF19, but six years ago the then VNIIEF chief, Radiy Ilkayev (who held the position in 1996-2008) claimed that his institute “was also involved in developing the re-entry vehicle for the Bulava system”.20

    The new RV is currently in service with the Yars ICBM21, which is now being deployed with the Strategic Missile Troops (the MoD has repeatedly said that the deployment of the single-warhead Topol-M missiles has already been completed). Meanwhile, the Bulava has yet to enter into service with the Russian Navy. Very recently it was revealed that in 2003-2010 the mass production design bureau of the Elektrokhimpribor combine was “working on the designs of the Bulava ballistic missile”.22

    The fact that the Bulava payload section performs adequately was confirmed during its flight tests back in October 2010, once the telemetry data had been processed23 According to the first deputy chief of VNIITF, Rodion Voznyuk, another confirmation came during a salvo launch of two Bulava SLBMs on December 23, 2011. “Performance was deemed to be adequate; three of our products worked as expected and arrived at their destination,” Voznyuk said.24

    As soon as the new RVs arrived, the Navy predictably decided to get them to work with the mass-produced R-29RMU2 SLBM while also retaining complete standardization in terms of the boosters, the payload section, and the guidance system of the missile. To that end the MoD commissioned the Layner R&D program, which began in 2009 and was completed in 2011 by GRTs. Following successful joint flight tests completed in 2011, the R-29RMU2.1 SLBM can now be fitted with 10 low-yield RVs equipped with standard missile defense countermeasures; eight low-yield RVs with enhanced missile defense countermeasures; or four medium-yield RVs (see above) with missile defense countermeasures. The missile can also carry a combination of two types of re-entry vehicles.

    In 2011 an official source mentioned “modern low-yield nuclear ammunition being developed for use with future missiles and for replacing the existing low-yield warheads currently deployed on naval missile systems”. The source in question is “Naval Strategic Missile Systems”, a large volume edited by the head of the Federal Space Agency, Vladimir Popovkin. It says that the new ammunition was developed by VNIITF “using a compact thermonuclear device with improved yield and new automatics designed by VNIIEF”, and that it is “the first nuclear device to use an inertial adaptive detonation system”. It is not clear whether the source refers to a nuclear device developed for the already mentioned new RVs (Layner and similar type) or to some other new product. But the information itself is reliable because the team of editors which worked on the book included the then head of VNIITF, Georgiy Rykovanov (who held the job in 2007-2012).

    Further progress on the nuclear ammunition front will clearly be linked to the development of new strategic missile systems, which is already under way. Speaking in 2011, the commander of the Strategic Missile Troops, Sergey Karkayev, had this to say: “The industry is developing a new missile system with a medium-class missile equipped with a new type of payload section. One of the missile divisions will be armed with this new system by early 2015”.26 Lt Gen Karkayev was probably referring to the latest MIT design, a missile which was tested on May 23 and October 24, 2012. It was described in the reports as “a prototype of a new ICBM”.27

    In his earlier comments to the media, MIT chief designer Yuriy Solomonov described his institute’s vision of new payload designs for future missiles. “In 2010 we made a radically new step in developing a new type of payload section,” Solomonov said. “It is the result of integrating the ballistic type of payload with individual dispensing of warheads, which replaces the old so-called bus design.” He went on to say that a missile designed using this principle “practically ceases to exist as a single whole once the last booster stage has stopped firing”, and that “the task is now to adapt this idea for use with the existing missiles and missile systems”.28

    MIT is not the only company working on new warheads. A new type of payload section was also tested during the launch of the UR-100N UTTKh (the SS-19, designed by the Machinery Science and Production Company) on December 27, 2012. 29 Meanwhile, GRTs has already begun developing a new heavy liquid-fuel ICBM as part of the Sarmat R&D project. 30

    According to recent reports in open sources, VNIITF is currently developing at least two new warheads for SLBMs; the projects are led by the institute’s chief designer, Sergey Andreyev. One of them is “a new-generation nuclear warhead which will enhance the combat readiness of the naval strategic nuclear forces”. As of 2011, the project was at the “research and early design stage”.31

    Other interesting developments

    There is very little information in open sources about the development of nuclear ammunition for the Russian strategic bomber fleet. The only report we are aware of says that in 2003-2010 the mass production design bureau of the Elektropribor combine was “working” with the “designs of a cruise missile for strategic bombers”. 32 It has also been reported that VNIITF has “delivered to the Air Force several types of upgraded aerial bombs” .33 Another tidbit is that in 2007 the Russian government awarded a prize for “participation in the development of a nuclear aerial bomb”, and that one of the people who received that prize was Valeriy Baranov, deputy chief designer and head of department at VNIIA.34 It is not at all clear, however, whether the last two bits of information refer to bombs meant for strategic bombers. As for tactical bombers, it is worth mentioning that a large photo of an Su-34 aircraft is the central feature of the aerospace section in the museum of PSZ products in Trekhgornyy (there are also small pictures of an Su-17, Mig-21 and MiG-23).35 Furthermore, it has been reported that the museum has an actual nuclear weapon for the Su-34 fighter-bomber on display. 36

    There were also some interesting reports released during official events to mark the 100th anniversary of the Russian Air Force. A collection of articles entitled “Russia’s Great Glory. 1912-2012” contained a piece by VNIIEF, which reads as follows: “In 1991 the Air Force began to equip the Tu-160 bombers with the Kh-59 tactical cruise missile. The missile had a nuclear payload designed by VNIIA, with a new-generation nuclear device developed by FGUP RFYatS-VNIIEF…”.37 The existence of a nuclear-armed version of the Kh-59 cruise missile was nothing new – but the article was the first source to say that the missile can be used with the Tu-160 strategic bomber. Another thing to mention is that VNIIEF is also the developer of nuclear ammunition for another two systems currently being deployed in the Russian armed forces – the S-400 (SA-20) SAM system, and the Iskander (SS-26) tactical missile.38 It was also reported that the “engineering designs” of the Iskander missile were “being worked with” at Elektropribor.39

    There is no open-source information about any R&D in the non-strategic naval weapons segment in the 2000s. It has been reported, however, that back in the mid-1990s the Russian government awarded a prize “for the development of versatile nuclear ammunition for torpedo weapons”, and that in 1996 a state prize was awarded “for the development of a radically new type of universal nuclear ammunition with improved safety features for naval missiles and torpedoes”.

    Uniquely among the other Russian nuclear centers, VNIIA has a special section on its website which contains a lot of information about the winners of various prizes and awards. This section has been the source of some rather interesting details. The following prizes won by VNIIA deserve a separate mention:

    A 2000 State Prize for “development and launch of mass production of a new technology which improves the performance of nuclear devices”.

    A 2003 prize awarded by the Russian cabinet for “a project to develop and launch mass production of a standardized system of neutron initiation for all classes of nuclear munitions”.

    A 2004 prize awarded by the Russian cabinet for “A set of physical measurements during non-nuclear-explosive experiments at the Central Testing Range of the Russian Federation aimed at maintaining the nuclear arsenal while also ensuring compliance with limitations imposed by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty”.

    A 2008 prize awarded by the Russian cabinet for the “development of a specialized thermonuclear explosive device”

    A 2009 prize awarded by the Russian cabinet “for creating a new type of nuclear ammunition” and for “developing and creating new instruments for non-nuclear explosive experiments” 40

    Non-nuclear experiments and tests are an important part of the Russian nuclear weapons program. According to Academician Ilkayev, these experiments have been ongoing without any major interruptions at the Central Testing Range and on Novaya Zemlya. “This enables us to research specific issues related to the behavior of some nuclear weapons components, and to keep the testing range itself in an operational state,” Ilkayev said. 41

    In addition to ground tests, the industry continues to flight-test its new products. Another important player in this segment is the Sedakov Measuring Systems Research Institute, a large Rosatom division. In 2002 the institute set up the Flight Tests Information Support Center (ISC), and then introduced the new Special Control Radio Telemetry System (SCRTC), which is already being used during flight tests. According to official ISC information, in 2002-2010 its specialists, working in tandem with the MoD’s testing range personnel, were involved in 47 flight tests which relied on the SCRTC. 42 This figure probably includes the testing of new products (such as the payload of the Bulava missile – see above) as well tests conducted on the existing weaponry to make sure that it remains in good working order.

    This analysis of the Russian defense industry’s nuclear munitions programs in the 2000s is by no means complete because it relies only on open-source information. But it is safe to conclude that the Russian nuclear ammunition design, engineering a manufacturing capability remains intact. Russia’s nuclear weapons programs have been ongoing without interruptions since the break-up of the former Soviet Union. In recent years the government has actually been ramping up these programs, and for the foreseeable future the nuclear weapons industry will remain entirely capable of meeting the requirements of the Russian armed forces.



    1. Structural divisions. Organizational structure of Rosatom // Rosatom website http://www.rosatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosatom/rosatomsite/aboutcorporation/structure/.

    2. 21st Century Encyclopedia. Russian Weapons and Technologies. Nuclear Weapons Industry. — Moscow; Oruzhie i Tekhnologii publishing house, 2007; From NATO to atom // Strana Rosatom. The nuclear industry newspaper, No 2 (47), January 2012 http://www.novovoronezh.ru/mkportal/images/rosatom/strana_rosatom_01_12.pdf.

    3. History of FGUP FNPTs PO Start M.V. Protsenko // PO Start website http://www.startatom.ru/ru/about/kratkaya_istoriya_predpriyatiya/.

    4. Krinitskaya T. Gennadiy Svezhentsev: “We are not reducing the numbers” // Gorodskoy Kuryer (electronic version), August 3, 2012 http://courier.sarov.info/2012/08/03/16447/.

    5. Gorokhova T. Everything is relative // Zarechinskaya yarmarka, No 5, February 3, 2011 http://zar-yarmarka.ru/2011/5/Vse_poznaetsya_v_sravnenii/print.

    6. About the Institute // FGUP VNIIA Dukhov website http://www.vniia.ru/about/index.html.

    7. The combine reports to Rosatom // FGUP Elektrokhimpribor combine. News section. March 28, 2012 http://www.ehp-atom.ru/news/81.html.

    8. Gorokhova T. Op. cit.

    9. Dmitriy Rogozin chairs meeting of the Rosatom Board // Vesti. Corporate newspaper of the Elektrokhimpribor combine, No 19 (114), October 2012 http://www.ehp-atom.ru/public/upload/file/vesti_19_114_oktyabr_2012.pdf.

    10. Krinitskay T. Op. cit.

    11. Kolpakova N. Real action behind every issue // Vestnik (Lesnoy town paper), February 2, 2012 http://vestnik-lesnoy.ru/za-kazhdym-voprosom-realnoe-dejjstvie/.

    12. Morozov V. KB-2: experience and traditions // Nizhegorodskaya delovaya gazeta (special edition), April 2, 2011 http://www.kuriermedia.ru/data/objects/1949/06.pdf.

    13. Perov M. Russian missile weapons.

    14. Leskov S. Lesnoy zaryad // Vestnik atomproma, No 8, August 2010 http://www.rosatom.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosatom/rosatomsite/resources/1448450043606abd97a39f8cc4f0f76f/Vestnik_2010_august.pdf.

    15. Tender announcement “Selection of suppliers of equipment for FGUP PSZ under the Topol-M program” // Tenders and auctions website http://www.alltenders.ru/tender_podrob_new.asp?KodTendera=209446.

    16. Degtyar V. Priceless legacy of chief designer V.P. Makeyev // Konstruktor (special edition), October 25, 2009 http://makeyev.msk.ru/pub/msys/2009/Construktor10.09.pdf.

    17. Naval Strategic Missile Systems. — Moscow: Voennyy Parad, GRTs Makeyev, 2011. —258 pages; ISBN 5-902975-25-0.

    18. Veselovskiy A. Fifty years of guarding the motherland (Golden Jubilee of the Strategic Missile Troops) // Atomnaya strategiya XXI, No 06 (43), December 2009 http://www.proatom.ru/files/as43_01_17.pdf.

    19. Director of the federal nuclear center in Snezhinsk becomes member of the Academy of Sciences // Rossiyskoye atomnoe soobshchestvo website, news section, December 26, 2011 http://www.atomic-energy.ru/news/2011/12/26/29817.

    20. “RFYaTs-VNIIEF to maintain and expand international cooperation” — Radiy Ilkayev // NIA Nizhniy Novgorod, June 9, 2006 http://www.niann.ru/?id=299869.

    21. Naval Strategic Missile Systems. — Moscow: Voennyy Parad, GRTs Makeyev, 2011. —258 pages; ISBN 5-902975-25-0.

    22. Koshcheev A., Zotkin N., Averin V., Savchenko S. A perfect design bureau // Vesti. Elektrokhimpribor combine corporate newspaper, No 19 (114), October 2012 http://www.ehp-atom.ru/public/upload/file/vesti_19_114_oktyabr_2012.pdf.

    23. Highlights of the year. NIIIS // Atom-PRESSA, No 51 (941), December 2010 http://www.profatom.ru/jornals/atompressa/Atompressa_51_10.pdf.

    24. Single day of information // RFYaTs-VNITF website. News section. December 27, 2012 http://www.vniitf.ru/index.php/2010-08-20-07-38-20/2012-07-05-07-40-42/1060-2011-12-27-10-36-41.

    25. Naval Strategic Missile Systems. — Moscow: Voennyy Parad, GRTs Makeyev, 2011. —258 pages; ISBN 5-902975-25-0.

    26. Latest missile to augment the existing Yars and Topol arsenal in 2015 // RIA Novosti, December 16, 2011.

    27. Safronov I. The Bulava surfaces in Plesetsk // Kommersant, May 24, 2012; New ICBM successfully tested in Astrakhan // RIA Novosti, October 24, 2012.

    28. Russia develops unique nuclear warheads which are invulnerable to any missile defenses — chief designer Solomonov // Interfax-AVN, January 27, 2011.

    29. Stilet strategic missile test a success — Russian MoD // Interfax-AVN, December 27, 2011.

    30. Stukalin A. Russian Strategic Missile Troops: at a Crossroads // Moscow Defense Brief, ? 5, 2012.

    31. Naval Strategic Missile Systems. — Moscow: Voennyy Parad, GRTs Makeyev, 2011. —258 pages; ISBN 5-902975-25-0.

    32. Koshcheev A., Zotkin N., Averin V., Savchenko S. Op. cit.

    33. Key dates in the history of the town of Snezhinsk and VNIITF http://img.rg.ru/pril/article/62/94/64/Vazhnejshie_daty_v_istorii_goroda_Snezhinska_i_RFIaC.doc.

    34. VNIIA employees awarded by the Lenin Prize, State Prize and Government Prize // VNIIA website http://www.vniia.ru/about/lauryat.html.

    35. Yakovlev I. PSZ Museum. Photo Gallery // 29.04.2010 http://www.flickriver.com/photos/ilyayakovlev/sets/72157624424183227/ or http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilyayakovlev/4814612098/.

    36. Chvanov M. A closed city with an open heart // Argamak. Tatarstan, No 1 (16), 2011. http://www.srpkzn.ru/argamak-6.pdf.

    37. Russia’s High Glory. 100th Anniversary of the Russian Air Force. 1912-2012 (special edition of the journal) // Nizhegorodskaya Delovaya Gazeta, 2012 http://www.kuriermedia.ru/data/objects/2158/V_slava_Rossii.pdf.

    38. Veselovskiy A. 65 years of glorious history — foundation of stability and growth // Atomnaya Strategiya XXI, No 59, October 2011 http://www.proatom.ru/files/as59.pdf.

    39. [39] Koshcheev A., Zotkin N., Averin V., Savchenko S. Op. cit. [40] VNIIA employees awarded by the Lenin Prize, State Prize and Government Prize // VNIIA website.

    40. http://img.rg.ru/pril/article/62/94/64/Vazhnejshie_daty_v_istorii_goroda_Snezhinska_i_RFIaC.doc.

    41. Emelyanov A. Nuclear umbrella // Rossiyskaya gazeta, June 9, 2006 http://www.rg.ru/2006/06/09/ilkaev.html.

    42. Highlights of the year. NIIIS // Atom-PRESSA, No 51 (941), December 2010 http://www.profatom.ru/jornals/atompressa/Atompressa_51_10.pdf .

    Austin

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Austin on Sat Dec 29, 2012 11:51 am

    ^^^^

    Further progress on the nuclear ammunition front will clearly be linked to the development of new strategic missile systems, which is already under way. Speaking in 2011, the commander of the Strategic Missile Troops, Sergey Karkayev, had this to say: “The industry is developing a new missile system with a medium-class missile equipped with a new type of payload section. One of the missile divisions will be armed with this new system by early 2015”.26 Lt Gen Karkayev was probably referring to the latest MIT design, a missile which was tested on May 23 and October 24, 2012. It was described in the reports as “a prototype of a new ICBM”.27

    In his earlier comments to the media, MIT chief designer Yuriy Solomonov described his institute’s vision of new payload designs for future missiles. “In 2010 we made a radically new step in developing a new type of payload section,” Solomonov said. “It is the result of integrating the ballistic type of payload with individual dispensing of warheads, which replaces the old so-called bus design.” He went on to say that a missile designed using this principle “practically ceases to exist as a single whole once the last booster stage has stopped firing”, and that “the task is now to adapt this idea for use with the existing missiles and missile systems”.28

    The Bold Part is the HOLY GRAIL of ICBM development , AVANGRAD Very Happy
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    Viktor

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Viktor on Sat Dec 29, 2012 12:01 pm

    Austin wrote:The Bold Part is the HOLY GRAIL of ICBM development , AVANGRAD Very Happy

    This new revolution will have engine of its onw?

    I have read many years ago some Russian general speaking about ability to enter and reenter earth atmphosphere many times.

    Such vehicle would have its own most likely scramjet engine.

    Now it Russians have managed to add scramjet engine to each warhead carried well here you go - you have revolution design in delivering

    payload. That would also imply manageable trajectory and guidance during that phase and of course retargeting ability.

    Austin

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Austin on Sat Dec 29, 2012 12:05 pm

    The ultimate warhead puts end to discussions

    Russia has developed a stand-alone nuclear warhead capable of penetrating any existing or projecting missile defense system, informs Interfax news agency.

    ­According to Yury Solomonov, the chief designer of the Moscow Heat Engineering Institute, this unique system was successfully tested last year.

    Unlike the payload of all previously-developed intercontinental ballistic missiles, the new weapon can hit several targets located at great distance from each other.

    This means that the current multiple warhead dispensing mechanism called “bus”, a segment that delivers warheads to the destined drop zone used in all modern missiles, will be eliminated, because in the new system, once the terminal stage vehicle of ICBM booster does its job, the missile separates into warheads with “individual means of delivery to destination.”

    He said that 30 years ago such a system was discussed and labeled science fiction Twisted Evil

    The new innovative technology will “put a full stop on all discussions regarding our countermeasures towards non-existent antiballistic missile defense system of our potential enemy,” Solomonov is cited as having said.

    Now engineers need to adopt the new warhead to the existing ballistic missiles on alert. This work will take several years and will include launches of experimental Topol-E missile and the following modernization of the Topol-M and RS-24 Yars MIRV missiles that will constitute the backbone of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces in the nearest future.


    Austin

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Austin on Sat Dec 29, 2012 12:10 pm

    Viktor wrote:This new revolution will have engine of its onw?

    I have read many years ago some Russian general speaking about ability to enter and reenter earth atmphosphere many times.

    Such vehicle would have its own most likely scramjet engine.

    Now it Russians have managed to add scramjet engine to each warhead carried well here you go - you have revolution design in delivering

    payload. That would also imply manageable trajectory and guidance during that phase and of course retargeting ability.

    Yes each warhead will have it own Engine , Guidance and Warhead and it can move in any direction compared to says RS-24 or Topol-M warhead that can just change Altitude and Trajectory ( Advaced MaRV/BGRV )

    They can also independently target from each other at great distance.

    This really needs Breakthrough in Materials , Guidance & Propulsion , Warhead Design and many other classified subjects , Like Solmonov said its Science Fiction becoming Reality Shocked

    Austin

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Austin on Sat Dec 29, 2012 12:14 pm

    Check what RVSN commander say about RS-24 warhead

    link

    “The capabilities of such combat means were demonstrated to U.S. technical control means during the trials of the Yars ground-based mobile missile system and the Bulava sea-based missile system. It also concerns hypersonic warheads capable of performing altitude and trajectory maneuvers,” he told journalists.

    “The new missiles have characteristics that allow them to stay invulnerable at all sections of their flight,” Karakayev said.
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    Viktor

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    Re: Russian Nuclear Weapons Industry

    Post  Viktor on Sat Dec 29, 2012 8:34 pm

    Austin wrote:Yes each warhead will have it own Engine , Guidance and Warhead and it can move in any direction compared to says RS-24 or Topol-M

    Nice.


    Austin wrote:to says RS-24 or Topol-M warhead that can just change Altitude and Trajectory ( Advaced MaRV/BGRV )


    Can you explain this part? Only altitude and trajectory?

    To change altitude you again need some kind of engine, dont you if you dont want to loose its speed?



    Austin wrote:They can also independently target from each other at great distance.

    This really needs Breakthrough in Materials , Guidance & Propulsion , Warhead Design and many other classified subjects , Like Solmonov said its Science Fiction becoming Reality

    It would be interesting to know:

    1. How guidance is managed
    2. What type of engine does it use
    3. Based on what does it starts to change trajectory

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