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    Russian Science: Discussion Thread

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    George1
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 28, 2015 5:36 pm

    Strong winds hamper meteorite search in Antarctic

    The wind up to 30 meters per second prevents the team of the first Russian meteorite expedition from searching but this has blown the snow from the ice and it will make research work easier

    YEKATERINBURG, December 28. /TASS/. Strong winds are delaying work of the first Russian meteorite expedition in the Antarctic, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences committee studying the phenomena told TASS on Monday.
    "They are located at Russia's Novolazarevskaya station," Professor Viktor Grokhovsky said. "Strong winds up to 30 meters per second prevent them from searching but this has blown the snow from the ice and it will make research work easier," the professor noted, adding that the team hoped to resume its activity in two days.
    The expedition set off for the 12 million-ruble ($166,000) project on December 14 and will return to Russia in mid-January.

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/847350


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Wed Dec 30, 2015 6:56 am

    Siberian scientists have grown the world's first "defective" diamonds for photonic computers
    Scientists at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS (Novosibirsk), the world's first artificial diamonds grown special for photonic computers, reported the press-center of the Novosibirsk TASS Director of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS Nikolai Pokhilenko.

    "This year, we have learned to grow crystals with Ge defect centers. This is very important stuff. We first raised it, behind us went to the Americans, the Germans. This material is to create a new generation of computers, so-called photonic computers ", - he said.

    At the center of the diamond, scientists have put in place carbon atom of germanium. The name "defective", according to scientists, are any diamonds that contain anything other than carbon.

    His development of the scientists gave to colleagues at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS to create complex devices.

    A feature of photonic computers is that they do not work on the base of electronics and on the basis of photons which should provide much greater speed than conventional devices - about 10 million times. Such a computer, according to the scientist, makes it possible to create artificial intelligence. Another feature of photonic computer is able to work at temperatures ranging from 0 to 900 degrees.

    "If you compare the speed of movement of the snail and of supersonic missiles - about the same as comparing the speed of a conventional device that will be created on the basis of this material," - added Pokhilenko.

    "Modern microprocessors based on gallium arsenide or silicon make it possible to generate, amplify frequencies of the order a few tens of megahertz, and then not working. And they can come in the terahertz range, in petagertsovye. This is very different speed, "- he said.

    This is very important. Rostec's involvement and plus these universities (guaranteed to be contracted by Rostec) is what I have been saying that Russia needs to do for years: Not catch up but go a different direction. As evident through China, a country cannot simply play catch up and then somehow reach same spot or advance further without its own R&D and assistance from the outside sources doing the same (Japan and S.Korea with the US and UK as example). This is a different approach; looking at a method that goes beyond standard conventional devices and using another idea to obtain same or greater results. In doing so, Russia doesn't have to play catch up at all, but instead, develop its own technology and know-how in order to create the devices that are needed to fill the same rolls as the conventional devices do, and do it at their own game in its own. The question is the take off of such a development. Guaranteed it is being looked at specifically for the military industrial complexes and certain industries (Rosatom would also gain a lot over this): But what about none government industries? It will require companies like T-Platforms, Kraftway and such to become interested in it, which I imagine they will if the results are there. KRET and such believe so and are currently working on it. Does this mean to stop conventional methods as well? No. Because that is still a demanded market. But with this, this could supplement it with a whole different and new line of systems. Will it come out for civil use? Probably not, at least not even close to soon. But this could be Russia's alternative attempt at supercomputing/quantum computing.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Sun Jan 17, 2016 3:21 am

    Russian scientists return with 2 meteorites from Antarctic expedition

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/850014


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Zivo on Sun Jan 17, 2016 3:47 am

    sepheronx wrote:Siberian scientists have grown the world's first "defective" diamonds for photonic computers
    Scientists at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS (Novosibirsk), the world's first artificial diamonds grown special for photonic computers, reported the press-center of the Novosibirsk TASS Director of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS Nikolai Pokhilenko.

    "This year, we have learned to grow crystals with Ge defect centers. This is very important stuff. We first raised it, behind us went to the Americans, the Germans. This material is to create a new generation of computers, so-called photonic computers ", - he said.

    At the center of the diamond, scientists have put in place carbon atom of germanium. The name "defective", according to scientists, are any diamonds that contain anything other than carbon.

    His development of the scientists gave to colleagues at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS to create complex devices.

    A feature of photonic computers is that they do not work on the base of electronics and on the basis of photons which should provide much greater speed than conventional devices - about 10 million times. Such a computer, according to the scientist, makes it possible to create artificial intelligence. Another feature of photonic computer is able to work at temperatures ranging from 0 to 900 degrees.

    "If you compare the speed of movement of the snail and of supersonic missiles - about the same as comparing the speed of a conventional device that will be created on the basis of this material," - added Pokhilenko.

    "Modern microprocessors based on gallium arsenide or silicon make it possible to generate, amplify frequencies of the order a few tens of megahertz, and then not working. And they can come in the terahertz range, in petagertsovye. This is very different speed, "- he said.

    This is very important.  Rostec's involvement and plus these universities (guaranteed to be contracted by Rostec) is what I have been saying that Russia needs to do for years: Not catch up but go a different direction.  As evident through China, a country cannot simply play catch up and then somehow reach same spot or advance further without its own R&D and assistance from the outside sources doing the same (Japan and S.Korea with the US and UK as example).  This is a different approach; looking at a method that goes beyond standard conventional devices and using another idea to obtain same or greater results.  In doing so, Russia doesn't have to play catch up at all, but instead, develop its own technology and know-how in order to create the devices that are needed to fill the same rolls as the conventional devices do, and do it at their own game in its own.  The question is the take off of such a development.  Guaranteed it is being looked at specifically for the military industrial complexes and certain industries (Rosatom would also gain a lot over this):  But what about none government industries?  It will require companies like T-Platforms, Kraftway and such to become interested in it, which I imagine they will if the results are there.  KRET and such believe so and are currently working on it.  Does this mean to stop conventional methods as well? No.  Because that is still a demanded market.  But with this, this could supplement it with a whole different and new line of systems.  Will it come out for civil use? Probably not, at least not even close to soon.  But this could be Russia's alternative attempt at supercomputing/quantum computing.

    Admittedly, I haven't been following this closely, but how are these Russian breakthroughs different than the photonic memory, and photonic processors developed in the west? A few days before this report:

    Microprocessor Integrates Silicon Photonics


    http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=58119

    "Using the silicon-germanium parts of a modern transistor to build the photodetector took advantage of germanium's ability to absorb light and convert it into electricity. "

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Sun Jan 17, 2016 4:12 am

    I am not sure.  But I imagine it is because Russia is looking into the entire process being domestic to be able to reach the same point.  Although, this is interesting that the west is also looking into it as well.  But while it seems to be specific the use of the photonics in microelectronics, it seems Russia has a wide array of ideas as to how photonics in microelectronics will be used.

    What I find interesting in that article is the lack of the photo of the processor itself and screenshots of its tests (which it was tested according to the article). Not saying it didn't happen, but I am curious about this achievement.

    Will be interesting to see what the total outcome will be. Russia has KRET/Rostec funding the research while US has DARPA to do it. I imagine as well Russia's equivalent of DARPA is also funding it. It was much like the supercolliders. All this massive news about US and European super colliders, yet the Russian one no word. Then all of a sudden, there are like three of them in Russia already operational. Russia seems to just lack the PR sector of it all.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  kvs on Sun Jan 17, 2016 5:28 am

    What!? Photonic processors? Please, stop the inanity. There are no photonic processors out there. Period. Unless
    one thinks that a few transistors doing a bit of Boolean logic are "processors". Materials science research is central
    to the whole photonics development effort. It will enable processors and the necessary density of components.

    http://news.berkeley.edu/2015/12/23/electronic-photonic-microprocessor-chip/

    The above is a gimmick and not a genuine photonic processor. It merely uses light for external IO. Big f*cking whoop.
    How about actually making all the transistors photonic.

    http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1327330

    Photonic transistors are at the demonstrator stage and not the IC production stage.

    I recall how there was so much masturbation in the west that Russians couldn't even build portable phones. But
    New Scientist (back in the 1990s when it was still a sober publication) did a piece on how Soviet material science
    allowed the shrinking of critical components enabling portability.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Sun Jan 17, 2016 5:33 am

    I figured as much.

    Here is photonic Switch:
    Researchers from the Moscow State University have created a super-fast photonic switch

    I seriously see lack of PR on Russian end though. That is indeed their own faults that people have such a bad perceived viewpoint of Russian tech even within Russia itself. But what is funny is that Russia has had quite a few breakthroughs in both Photonics use in microelectronics and Quantum Computing. Not many have such breakthroughs, but Russian breakthroughs get nearly 0 publicity.

    Russian physicists made a new step towards the creation of a quantum computer

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Sun Jan 17, 2016 5:42 am

    Scientists in Russia have created a mechanism for low-cost and high precision nanogravirovki



    MOSCOW, January 15 - RIA Novosti. The Russian scientists from MIPT, ICP them. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow State University, and established a mechanism of laser deposition patterns on the glass with a resolution of 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, according to the press service of the MIPT. Focusing the laser was made using small glass spheres that act as lenses. This mechanism allows cheap and fairly easy to apply complex patterns on a glass surface to obtain a spatial resolution of less than 100 nanometers.

    The proposed method will quickly and cheaply create nanoscale sensors and microchips. As scientists say, it is much cheaper and technologically easier its competitors, despite the fact that allows the application to set the computer drawings on the glass surface with an acceptable resolution.

    To demonstrate this method was applied to the glass abbreviation Institute of Chemical Physics (ICP) with high resolution (about 100 nanometers). Nanogravirovka, in particular, is used to create high-precision circuits in microfluidics: engraved on the channels may leak hydraulic fluid, connecting the various parts of the circuit, and the size of such a scheme, the smaller the higher the resolution of the engraving.

    A femtosecond laser used by scientists capable of applying complex two- and three-dimensional structures on the surface of a transparent material. Resolution - the minimum size of the details of such a structure - is always a problem in this kind of problems, since it is limited to the bottom (for physical reasons) wavelength laser. The higher the resolution, the smaller the structures applied, and more interesting and sought-after technology in these structures.

    To improve the resolution is often used near-field effect. This process involves focusing a laser beam, using as a "lens", metallic nanoparticles or microspheres dielectric layer. However, these methods complicate the application as the "lens" are fixed in space.

    In their paper, the authors propose a different approach: using a beam of light in a fluid creates a kind of a trap, which is placed with glass beads. The advantage of this method consists in focusing that the "trap" may be moved, thereby moving the "lens" in space and focusing the laser to the desired area of ​​the glass.

    However, a "hold" with a laser beam on the surface is not enough. Exposure to laser leads to the formation of hillocks and no depressions. These hillocks not smooth enough and wide, but the effect of alkali at a temperature of 90 ° C makes the bumps in the smooth holes have a smaller width. If such a two-step structuring achieved resolution below 100 nanometers (nm), then a one-step, when the surface is treated with only a laser, not accuracy is obtained below 150-200 nm, depending on the complexity of the structures.

    As a result, the whole technology of drawing is as follows. Initially the glass surface is irradiated with a femtosecond laser. The laser pulse is focused by means of glass bead, which is guided by an optical "trap", beforehand in a predetermined area of ​​the glass. On a surface of glass formed broad lumps which are then, after surface treatment with an alkaline solution, converted to smaller pits and more streamlined shapes.

    In addition to direct structuring technology, the dependence of the resolution was investigated, ie. e. the size of craters on the laser power. The results show that, for greater accuracy more effective to use a small sphere, whereby resolution can reach below 100 nm.

    The minimum width of the crater thus obtained was 70 nm.

    For the practical application of this method in addition to the high resolution, you must also take into account the complexity of applying the full machining structures. It is shown that can be applied fairly complex structures using the described technique. For this purpose, the glass surface was coated abbreviation Institute of Chemical Physics - ICP (Eng .: Institute of Chemical Physics).

    "Creating a thin grooves and channels can be used in the production of" microfluidics "and various" nanozavodov ", which are used in chemistry and biology," - says co-author, graduate student of the Faculty of General and Applied Physics MIPT, Alexander Shakhov.

    In the development of small accurate sensors working with liquid - "channels" is applied to a liquid by such techniques. The paper also proposed a fast enough and cheap mechanism for nanostructuring. This approach may in particular allow a rapid and uncomplicated technologically create cheap instruments and sensors by applying a complex pattern of thin grooves and channels through which hydraulic fluid will flow.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Zivo on Sun Jan 17, 2016 7:04 am

    OK I did a bit of research, I think I got it. It's apples and oranges with regard to previous link I posted, that system is more conventional. The Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS's development is more revolutionary.

    Ultra pure synthetic diamonds can have gaps in their crystalline atomic structure, and if you insert one germanium atom into one of these gap it emits a single photon. Basically, you can code a carbon diamond to emit specific photons with predictable wavelengths with these germanium atom "impurities". What's huge about this, is that a diamond based quantum processor could operate at room temperature.

    Here's a good article that covers the concept:

    These Diamonds Don’t Just Sparkle, They Fluoresce!

    http://www.asianscientist.com/2015/10/in-the-lab/tokyo-tech-germanium-defects-diamonds-sparkle-fluoresce/

    While the translation of the Russian article is unclear, what it sounds like is that the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy created synthetic diamonds with a consistent dispersion of the "gaps" in which germanium atoms can be placed. I think, but I'm not certain that these specific diamond's are what was used in the above study.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sun Jan 17, 2016 7:45 am

    Zivo wrote: Admittedly, I haven't been following this closely, but how are these Russian breakthroughs different than the photonic memory, and photonic processors developed in the west?

    Can't say for sure, but all I know is that KRET has working prototypes in actual military applications, which is a completely different animal in itself, which suggests significantly more maturation in development. According to KRET, they developed working prototypes of photonic based 2nd-gen AESA, aptly labeled ROFAR, in which the technology generally see's a 2-3 fold reduction in weight, a 10 fold increase in resolution and scanning speed, and a several magnitude increase in ECM resistance. Keep in mind that's the working prototypes, not the final product. According to KRET the final products (a whole plethora of photonic based equipment is being developed), the finalized ROFAR design will see a several dozen-fold increase in resolution and scanning speed. The resolution increase has been so significant that KRET is currently developing  truck-mobile equivalents of OTH radars, and here's a model of the aforementioned complex in development (credit to x_54_u43):




    ...Here's my original post on the breakthrough:

    http://www.russiadefence.net/t2547p330-russian-radar-systems#92339

    Here's even more new information on the subject by KRET's very own Vladimir Mikheev, including how ROFAR's will also have a significantly smaller infrared emission signature, among other things:

    https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fvpk.name%2Fnews%2F147516_vladimir_miheev_nashi_uspehi_neskolko_podtolknuli_amerikanskii_vpk.html&edit-text=&act=url

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Zivo on Sun Jan 17, 2016 7:57 am

    ^ KRET scares the fuck out of me.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Thu Jan 21, 2016 6:36 am

    Photonics: from the laser to the "radar sight"

    Currently photonics in Russia involved about 850 companies. Most of them are concentrated in the Moscow region, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk and the Volga region. One of the largest manufacturers in this field is KRET.

    Today KRET and the Foundation for Advanced Studies (FPI), together create the element base radiofotoniki for radio astronomy, radar and other areas. The corresponding agreement was signed by the company in early 2015. The project "Development of an active phased array based radiofotoniki" includes research on the basis of the concern and the development of universal technology, which will be the basis for radar and electronic warfare systems of the new generation.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Tue Feb 09, 2016 1:02 am

    Russians claim to know a lot about science though read little about it — survey

    Education, nuclear energy and space exploration suffered from the greatest decline in interest



    MOSCOW, 8 February. /TASS/. Russians do not show much interest in the information about science and technology, however, being convinced of their awareness about the topic, tells the survey conducted between 1996 and 2015 by the Moscow-based Higher School of Economy.

    Public interest in scientific issues was permanently growing between 2006 and 2011. This trend reversed dramatically in 2014 showing the decrease of interest to all the fields except international policy and IT. Education, nuclear energy and space exploration suffered from the greatest decline in interest.

    This attitude toward science among Russians remained generally positive during the whole period of observations: the majority of Russians keep believing that science does more good than harm. Some 42% of Russians are fairly well informed about science and technology advances. For this indicator, Russia ranks 11th compared with 28 countries in Europe, where a similar survey was conducted.

    At the same time 27% of Russians stated that they are not interested in information about science and technology being asked the question about the sources of such information. This indication puts Russia to the 5th place from the end compared to the European Union. The share of those who read popular science press in Russia is four times less than in Europe in general.

    "Russians largely advance the positive attitude to science: even with declining level of interest in scientific issues the image of science itself generally positive. On the other hand, they are not very actively involved in the popular science discourse ", says Konstantin Fursov, the head of the monitoring of the project.


    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/855232


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Fri Feb 12, 2016 2:27 pm

    All radioactive sources withdrawn from Russian Antarctic stations

    "They were brought to the Russian Antarctic stations in the 1960s-1970s to provide for the work of meteorologists and geophysicists," Russia’s Antarctic Expedition Head Valery Lukin said

    MOSCOW, February 12. /TASS/. Russia and the United States have jointly withdrawn all radioactive sources from the Russian polar stations in the Antarctic, Russia’s Antarctic Expedition Head Valery Lukin said on Friday.

    "We have withdrawn 4 RITEGs [radioisotope thermoelectric generators] and 4 ionizing radiation sources. These were the last and there are no more radioactive sources at the Russian Antarctic stations," Lukin said.

    "They were brought to the Russian Antarctic stations in the 1960s-1970s to provide for the work of meteorologists and geophysicists," he said.

    All these radioactive sources have been collected and withdrawn from the Russian Antarctic stations over the past few years "thanks to cooperation between the Russian and American Antarctic Expeditions. And this was quite an uneasy logistical effort because a vessel cannot reach the territory of our country without a call [at ports on the territory of other states]," he said.

    "That is why, intensive talks were held with the governments of Germany and Argentina, at which territory we were allowed to call with radioactive sources. This work was successfully completed and these sources were transferred to the relevant organization for disposal," said Alexander Frolov, head of Russia’s Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Rosgidromet).

    Apart from radioactive waste, the Russian Antarctic stations also accumulated a large amount of everyday and other waste. Specifically, Russian research and expedition vessels annually withdraw about 300 tons of garbage from the Antarctic.


    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/856258


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Book. on Sun Mar 27, 2016 4:47 am

    Power Galore: New Collider to Make Russia Leader in High Energy Physics
    17:42 26.03.2016 (updated 20:32 26.03.2016)

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/russia/20160326/1037019163/russia-collider-energy.html#ixzz444DmdjZF

    Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Faсility (NICA) - a new accelerator complex designed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna - will put Russia at the forefront of the global quest for new sources of high energy.

    In an interview with Rossiya-24 TV, Vladimir Kekelidze, the head of the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Dubna, said that the NICA collider will be able to recreate a special state of matter in which our Universe stayed shortly after the Big Bang — the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

    “We are venturing into a whole new field of science. This is more than just building a collider – it is a new era in the development of high energy physics here in Russia,” he said.

    The $545 million NICA project is going to be an international  project where scientists from 24 countries will be working together to create new materials and devise advanced methods of cluster therapy, radiobiology, electronics, space research, of reprocessing nuclear waste and creating safe sources of energy.

    The initial launch of the NICA collider is slated for 2019 and full-capacity operation is scheduled to start in 2023.



    @nica.jinr.ru

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Tue Mar 29, 2016 5:42 am


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    Russia's contribution to science

    Post  kvs on Thu Mar 31, 2016 12:30 am

    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/RadioAstron_Observations_of_the_Extremely_Hot_Heart_of_Quasar_3C_273_999.html


    RadioAstron Observations of the Extremely Hot Heart of Quasar 3C 273


    Supermassive black holes, containing millions to billions times the mass of our Sun, reside at the centers of all massive galaxies. These black holes can drive powerful jets that emit prodigiously, often outshining all the stars in their host galaxies.

    But there is a limit to how bright these jets can be - when electrons get hotter than about 100 billion degrees, they interact with their own emission to produce X-rays and gamma-rays and quickly cool down.

    Astronomers have just reported a startling violation of this long-standing theoretical limit in the quasar 3C 273. "We measure the effective temperature of the quasar core to be hotter than 10 trillion degrees!" comments Yuri Kovalev (Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia), the RadioAstron project scientist.

    "This result is very challenging to explain with our current understanding of how relativistic jets of quasars radiate."

    However, the incredibly high temperatures were not the only surprise the RadioAstron team has found in 3C 273. The team also discovered an effect never seen before in an extragalactic source: the image of 3C 273 has substructure caused by the effects of peering through the dilute interstellar material of the Milky Way.

    "Just as the flame of a candle distorts an image viewed through the hot turbulent air above it, the turbulent plasma of our own galaxy distorts images of distant astrophysical sources, such as quasars," explains Michael Johnson of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), who led the scattering study.

    He continues: "These objects are so compact that we had never been able to see this distortion before. The amazing angular resolution of RadioAstron gives us a new tool to understand the extreme physics near the central supermassive black holes of distant galaxies and the diffuse plasma pervading our own galaxy."

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Tue May 31, 2016 11:19 am

    Siberian Scientists Create New System for Monitoring Neurosurgeries

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20160531/1040520735/siberia-scientists-monitoring-system-neurosergeries.html#ixzz4ADuuWYXJ


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Tue Jul 12, 2016 4:42 pm

    Russian scientists develop electromagnetic cannon to study Universe

    SHATURA (Moscow Region), July 12. /TASS/. The tests of a railgun developed by scientists of the United Institute of High Temperatures at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) will help study matter at extremely high temperatures and pressure and understand how the Universe is organized, RAS President Vladimir Fortov said on Tuesday.

    Fortov made this statement during the electromagnetic cannon’s trials at the practice range of the Shatura branch of the United Institute of High Temperatures.

    Universe setup and satellites’ safety


    "Our task is to try to obtain such high pressures in laboratory conditions with the help of such systems and study the behavior of matter at extremely high temperatures and pressures," Fortov told journalists.

    "This is needed to understand how the Universe is organized because 95% of the Universe’s entire visible matter stays precisely in a strongly compressed and heated state. We’re trying to obtain the states of matter with many millions of atmospheres with the help of these systems," Fortov said.

    "The second direction used here is the need to study the strikes by meteorites and comets against the surface of the Earth and satellites in order to protect these space vehicles from the impact of high-velocity particles," the scientist said.

    "This is also an uneasy task as the strikes of celestial bodies like the Tunguska meteorite develop the velocities of dozens of kilometers per second. Therefore, one of the tasks we’re dealing with is to determine a crater shape and develop a protective system that would protect space vehicles from space debris, comets and meteorites," Fortov said.

    Electromagnetic cannon

    A railgun is an electromagnetic cannon using rails to accelerate a projectile through the electromagnetic effects. The pressure in the railgun is comparable with the pressure at the bottom of the Mariana Trench and amounts to over a thousand atmospheres.

    According to Fortov, "frequently, when something goes differently from what is expected, screws are torn apart."

    This is what happened on Tuesday during the demonstrative trials of a railgun at the practice range when two fastening pins broke away from the device’s bandage after a projectile weighing 2 grams was launched with a velocity of 3.2 km/s.

    Nonetheless, the RAS president said that scientists were "on the right track" and the equipment was working at its maximum capacity, adding that the device would have been fully repaired by the evening.

    Russian scientists are currently working on reaching the hypersonic mode of speeds. Thus, similar railguns have helped reach a speed of 11 km/s with a projectile weighing about 1.5 grams.

    The efforts to develop an electromagnetic cannon have been under way throughout the world in the past 45-50 years. Today China is actively working on this technology. In particular, about 150 articles on this issue were published in China last year, Fortov said.

    Intensive work in this area is also being conducted in the United States where a railgun weapon was mounted on a ship about a year ago. The United States said at the time that this technology could accelerate a projectile weighing 10-20 kg to 2.5-3 km/s, Fortov said.

    As the RAS president said, the Russian Academy of Sciences is dealing only "with the physical issues," studying the destruction mechanics, which has relation to fundamental science.


    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/887778


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    George1
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Sat Aug 06, 2016 3:02 am

    Darius I stele found in southern Russia may become world sensation

    The stele has an inscription in the ancient Persian language. The approximate assessment dates the find to the first half of the 5th century B.C.

    KRASNODAR, August 4. /TASS/. Archeologists doing excavations in the area of antique town of Phanagoria in the Temryuk district of Russia’s southern Krasnodar territory have discovered fragments of a marble stele carrying an inscription of the ancient Persian King Darius I, the press service of the Volnoye Delo foundation said in a press release on Thursday.

    The find has good chances of becoming a world sensation, said the foundation run by businessman Oleg Deripaska.

    "The decoded inscriptions state someone made them in the name of the Persian King Darius I," the press release said. "The stele has an inscription in the ancient Persian language. The approximate assessment dates the find to the first half of the 5th century B.C."

    Apart from the stele, the archeologists have found in the acropolis the remainders of ancient fortress walls, which in itself is an important even in classical archeology, the foundation said.

    The stele was found in the seams that can be attributed to the 5th century B.C. The text contains a word unregistered before and roughly interpreted as the place name Miletus, one of the biggest cities in Ionia, a region known as Asia Minor now.

    "Miletus stood at the head of the so-called Ionian uprising of Greek city states against Darius I," the press release said. "It was suppressed in 494 B.C.".

    "Researchers believe the king put up a marble stele in the city after his victory over the Greeks," it said. "The monument had a text on it - for instance, reporting on the king’s triumph. Later on, a fragment of the overturned and broken stele got to Phanagoria - quite possibly, as ballast on a ship that called into the Phanagoria port, since there is no natural stone of the kind on the Taman peninsula.

    At present, the stele is undergoing scrutiny at the restoration laboratory of the Phanagoria Research and Cultural Center.

    Darius I (b. 550, d. 486 B.C.), a Persian ruler from the Achaemenian dynasty considerably expanded the territory of his country with the aid of wars against the Getae, Thrace, Lemnos, Imbros, and Macedonia. He was buried in the mausoleum built on the cliffs at Naqsh-e Rustam near Persepolis on his order and decorated with sculptures.


    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/892592


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    Project Canada
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Project Canada on Wed Aug 10, 2016 2:35 am



    Discovery Made by Russian Scientists Will Help Stabilize Fusion Reactors

    Research associates at the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) Department of Plasma Physics have made a discovery that will help protect fusion reactors from plasma damage, thus ensuring their reliable operation, the university press service said.

    MOSCOW (Sputnik) — Thermonuclear units are designed to utilize fusion reactions, like those that occur on the sun, to generate electric power. If successful, the project will give humankind an almost inexhaustible energy source. The largest project in this area is the ITER international thermonuclear reactor, which is being built in France.

    One undesirable process that can occur at such plants is the so-called unipolar arc between thermonuclear plasma and the reactor's first wall. This can cause the destruction of the reactor wall and contaminate and cool the plasma, which is unacceptable in the case of controlled thermonuclear synthesis. The mechanism that generates unipolar arcs is not completely understood yet, so research related to this problem is a priority.
    Interaction between the plasma and tungsten, which is part of the first wall of a fusion reactor, causes the metal surface to be covered with a huge number of filaments with a diameter of several dozen nanometers and lengths up of to one micron. Scientists call them tungsten fuzz.

    Dmitry Sinelnikov, a research associate at the Department of Plasma Physics, on an internship program at Nagoya University in Japan, discovered that the emergence of unipolar arcs is followed by snowflake-like structures forming on tungsten fuzz. Additional experiments were carried out at the MEPhI department to ascertain how such structures predetermine the qualities of tungsten fuzz under the impact of high-voltage electrical fields. It turned out that these snowflakes largely influence the impact of an electrical field.

    "Apart from their external beauty, snowflake-craters can help provide better understanding of the mechanism of the arc's movement across the surface," Sinelnikov said, as quoted by the press service.

    The scientists believe that further study of this phenomenon will help prevent the occurrence of harmful unipolar arcs in fusion plants, thus helping ensure their stable operation.

    http://sputniknews.com/science/20160809/1044083885/discovery-russian-scientists-stabilize-fusion-reactors.html


    George1
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Thu Dec 01, 2016 8:37 am

    Four new elements added to Mendeleev's periodical table

    More:
    http://tass.com/science/915690


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