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    Russian Science: Discussion Thread

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    victor1985
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  victor1985 on Thu Sep 03, 2015 10:13 am

    [quote="George1"][b][size=13]Siberian scientists develop unique equipment for US thermonuclear reactor[/size]

    The work was done under a multimillion-dollar contract between the Siberian institute and US company Tri Alpha Energy (TAE)[/b]

    NOVOSINIRSK, September 2. /TASS/. Scientists from the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) of the Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) have developed unique equipment for a prototype environment-friendly thermonuclear reactor being designed in the United States, Alexei Vassilyev, scientific secretary of the RAS Siberian division, said on Wednesday,

    The work was done under a multimillion-dollar contract between the Siberian institute and US company Tri Alpha Energy (TAE), the scientific secretary said but declined to specify the full cost of the delivery.

    "We have cooperated for years. We have a number of contracts. We continue developing equipment for the company," he said.

    According to the RAS Siberian division’s official publication, Science in Siberia, the equipment was successfully used in experiments involving TAE’s S2-U plasma facility. This produced impressive results of confining plasma at a temperature of 10 million degrees.

    TAE, a private California-based company, is developing an original thermonuclear fusion facility of its own. The system that TAE is using allows it to combine the advantages offered by linear magnetic traps and tokamaks.

    The design is expected to embody the environmentally friendly neutronless thermonuclear reaction of fusion of a proton nucleus and a boron isotope with the release of three alpha particles.

    The NPI-TAE cooperation is not limited to deliveries of research equipment under commercial contracts. The institute is a major scientific center for development of linear thermonuclear systems having much in common with TAE’s concept. NPI personnel have been proactive in experiments conducted with the use of the S2-U facility, while US physicists actively participate in joint work at NPI’s unique open-ended magnetic traps.[/quote]


    great so all this mumbo jumbo so call war between russia and usa is a fake
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    George1
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Fri Sep 11, 2015 1:16 pm

    Russia Starts Building World’s Largest MBIR Fast Neutron Nuclear Reactor

    The construction of the world's most powerful MBIR multipurpose fast neutron research reactor officially started in the Russian city of Dimitrovgrad on Friday.

    DIMITROVGRAD (Sputnik) – The Russian State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors has given a site on its territory for the MBIR, which is expected to be put into operation by 2020.

    The MBIR will be the most powerful among all existing and planned research reactors in the world. The heat capacity of the new reactor, which will primarily use sodium as a coolant, will be about 150 megawatts.

    Unlike today's reactors, which slows down neutrons, the new reactor will allow them to run fast, producing much less waste and potentially breeding new fuel in the process.

    The unique characteristics of the MBIR will enable it to solve a wide range of research tasks in support of the creation of new, competitive and safe nuclear power plants, including fast neutron reactors that would close the nuclear fuel cycle.

    The reactor will be used in the production of radioisotopes for various purposes, and to carry out research for medical purposes.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20150911/1026864956.html#ixzz3lQZmiWJR


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    TEhS-3 Mobile Nuclear Power Plant

    Post  Morpheus Eberhardt on Tue Sep 29, 2015 11:44 am

    TEhS-3 Mobile Nuclear Power Plant





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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Nov 02, 2015 1:59 pm

    Brazil and China interested in Russia's heavy ion collider project — minister

    The heavy ion collider project dubbed NICA is underway at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna

    MOSCOW, November 2. /TASS/. Brazil and China are showing "substantial interest" toward the heavy ion collider project NICA in Dubna in the Moscow Region, Russian Minister of Education and Science Dmitry Livanov told Rossiya 24 TV channel on Monday.

    "There is substantial interest to the project dubbed NICA underway at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We are confident that both Chinese partners and partners from Brazil will become participants in this project," Livanov said.

    He added that BRICS countries implement projects "that can be interesting to our scientists," in particular, radio observatories in China and South Africa.

    "This is movement towards each other. We have many joint projects, potentially very interesting for all countries, and a great potential for broadening cooperation," the minister concluded.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Tue Nov 03, 2015 8:55 pm

    Experts begin examination of Russian Emperor Alexander III tomb



    Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill asked the Russian government for permission to carry out a comparative genetic analysis of the remains of Nicholas II and his father Emperor Alexander III

    ST.PETERSBURG, November 3 /TASS/. Russian experts started examining the tomb of Russian Emperor Alexander III in the Peter and Paul Cathedral located in the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg on Tuesday, Vladimir Solovyov, senior forensic investigator of the main criminal investigation department of the Russian Investigation Committee, told journalists.

    "We have started examining the emperor’s grave," Solovyov told journalists adding it was too early to name the exact date of exhumation of the remains of Alexander III, the father of last Russian Emperor Nicholas II.

    Bishop of Kronstadt Nazariy, the vicar of the Holy Trinity Alexander Nevsky Lavra, had served a litiya before the works began.

    In autumn 2015, investigators resumed a probe into the death of Russian Emperor Nicholas II and his family who were executed in July 1918 as part of criminal proceedings initiated in 1993 when a common grave was found in the outskirts of Yekaterinburg, Russia’s Urals region.

    The remains of Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna were exhumed late in September 2015. Forensic experts also took blood samples from the clothes of Emperor Alexander II.

    In October this year, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill asked the Russian government for permission to carry out a comparative genetic analysis of the remains of Nicholas II and his father Emperor Alexander III. According to the Russian Orthodox Church, positive results of that examination will give clear evidence to the authenticity of the remains of Nicholas II and his family.

    A working group set up to deal with this matter will soon publish the results of the genetic study of the remains of Emperor Nicholas II, including a skull fragment examined as part of additional forensic study, and his wife Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna.

    The last Russian Emperor Nicholas II and his family were shot dead in Yekaterinburg in the summer of 1918. The remains of almost the entire family except for the emperor’s two youngest children - Crown Prince Alexey and Princess Maria - were found in July 1991 and were buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg in the summer of 1998.

    In 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church canonized Nicholas II and his family as martyrs who took a sacrificial death. The bone fragments of Tsesarevich (crown prince) Alexey and Princess Maria were found in 2007 and have been kept at Russia’s State Archives since then. The authorities are planning to bury them in the Peter and Paul Cathedral.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Fri Nov 06, 2015 12:10 pm

    Research vessel of Russian Navy heads for Antarctica — defense ministry

    During the expedition the experts will study sea areas and hydro-meteorological factors, will register changes of the sea bed to make corrections to navigation and international sea maps

    MOSCOW, November 6. /TASS/. For the first time in recent 30 years a Russian research vessel — The Admiral Vladimirsky — has left from north-western Krnostadt to the Antarctica, spokesman of the Defence Ministry on the Navy Igor Dygalo said on Friday.

    "Today, on November 6, 2015, the Navy’s research vessel The Admiral Vladimirsky has left Kronstadt for the Antarctica," he said. "During the expedition of 2015-2016, the vessel will cover the route of over 30,000 sea miles to return to Kronstadt in April of 2016."

    Chief Commander of the Russian Navy Viktor Chirkov said during the expedition the experts will study sea areas and hydro-meteorological factors, will register changes of the sea bed to make corrections to navigation and international sea maps.

    "They will take land, metrical and magnet shooting, meteorology, aerology, hydrology, hydro-chemical, hydro-optic and other surveys in sea areas neighbouring the Antarctica," the chief commander said.

    During the expedition, The Admiral Vladimirsky will cross the Atlantic, the Gibraltar and Suez Canal. Further on, crossing the southernmost latitude, it will reach the Indian Ocean along the Seychelles and Madagascar, will bypass the southern part of Africa and will approach the Antarctica.

    The expedition will stop at ports of Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Mozambique, the South African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Portugal, and will visit Madagascar.

    Deputy Head of the Defense Ministry’s Department of Navigation and Oceanography Oleg Osipov told TASS "the expedition will last for over five months, and its key scientific objective is to verify sear maps of three seas of the South Ocean — the Sea of Cosmonauts, the Sea of Lazarev and Commonwealth Sea, where Russia is responsible for hydrography."

    The Antarctic waters are divided into zones of responsibility of various countries, which are authorised by the international community to make hydrographic research there for navigation security reasons. Russia worked in its sector — the Sea of Cosmonauts, the Sea of Lazarev and Commonwealth Sea — to the 1980s.

    "At that time the proximity was 150-300 meters, while now the new technologies make it 10-30 meters," he said adding the verified maps would be by ten times more exact than the old ones. The work on the maps is due between January 9 and March 6, 2016.

    The expedition has four groups — hydrographic, hydrologic, hydro-meteorological and a radio navigation. The latter will study how radio waves are crossing the Antarctica. The expedition will feature 692 people, including crews of vessels and aircraft. The program unites 56 scientific projects from the near-Earth space to processes within the Earth.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Nov 09, 2015 12:55 pm

    Russia loses territory equal to Andorra annually — geology expert

    The process is connected with melting of the permafrost area and eroding of the northern seas’ coasts, a scientist says

    NOVOSIBIRSK, November 9. /TASS/. Due to melting of the permafrost area and to eroding of the northern seas’ coasts Russia is losing every year the territory, which is equal to the territory of Andorra (468 square kilometers), and the process cannot be stopped, a scientist of the Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences told TASS on Monday.

    "Every year due to melting of the permafrost along coasts of northern seas we are losing a territory, comparable with the territory of Andorra," the scientist said. "The shores in the south also change due to eroding, but the process is much quicker in the north."

    He explained, the coastal line is destroyed to the distance of one-two to ten meters, which depends on many factors, including the character of the coastal line, the storms and on the term of ice covering seas.

    The permafrost border in Russia is now moving rapidly northwards.

    "This border, where our scientists are monitoring it, for the past 40 years has moved 30 kilometers to the north, which is quite a lot," he said.

    The melting would mean further rise of temperatures, thus, for example, if the climate norm is exceeded by 1-2 degrees, the warm fertile land in Russia’s southern Stavropol or Krasnodar will have a shortage of water, and agriculture would have to move northwards to the level of Voronezh.

    "Most favourable territories will thus move 200-300 kilometers to the north," the scientist said.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Wed Nov 18, 2015 11:12 am

    Siberian scientists plan to clone extinct cave lions


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  AlfaT8 on Wed Nov 18, 2015 7:01 pm

    George1 wrote:Siberian scientists plan to clone extinct cave lions

    I'm tired of these resurrection claims, call me when they actually succeed. Rolling Eyes
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Werewolf on Wed Nov 18, 2015 7:07 pm

    AlfaT8 wrote:
    George1 wrote:Siberian scientists plan to clone extinct cave lions

    I'm tired of these resurrection claims, call me when they actually succeed. Rolling Eyes

    I am pretty sure they already succeeded with several species but are very reluctant to share any information.
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  max steel on Thu Dec 03, 2015 4:35 pm

    Laser Power: Russia Develops Energy Beam for Satellite Refueling


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  higurashihougi on Thu Dec 03, 2015 4:55 pm

    Werewolf wrote:
    AlfaT8 wrote:
    George1 wrote:Siberian scientists plan to clone extinct cave lions

    I'm tired of these resurrection claims, call me when they actually succeed. Rolling Eyes

    I am pretty sure they already succeeded with several species but are very reluctant to share any information.

    It's not like the genome is simple. And sample DNA from dead carcasses are quite fragmented.

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Vann7 on Sat Dec 05, 2015 4:31 pm

    AlfaT8 wrote:
    George1 wrote:Siberian scientists plan to clone extinct cave lions

    I'm tired of these resurrection claims, call me when they actually succeed. Rolling Eyes

    Same.. they should stop talking about what they will do.. and just do it..
    Since many years they have been talking and talking about cloning but nothing happens.
    Less talk and more action.
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 07, 2015 1:58 pm

    First Russian meteorite expedition bound for Antarctica

    The group will search for traces of meteorite substances

    YEKATERINBURG, December 7. /TASS/. Russia's first meteorite expedition leaves for Antarctica next week to search for traces of meteorite substances, a team member told TASS on Monday.

    "The expedition of the Urals Federal University will set off on December 14. We will change flights in Moscow, Dubai and Cape Town," Ruslan Kolunin said, adding that the group’s equipment was sent to the South African city in October.

    An Il-76 plane will take the group to Novolazarevskaya, a Russian Antarctic research station at Queen Maud Land. After that, they will travel some 250 kilometres to the research site.

    The $150,000 expedition will last for 20 days, returning to Russia in mid-January, which is midsummer in Antarctica.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 07, 2015 1:59 pm

    Bones of ancient flightless bird found in Urals

    Remains of the so-called Elephant bird, which could run like an ostrich and was some 80 centimetres tall, have been discovered in Russia's Orenburg region

    ORENBURG, December 7. /TASS/. Bones of a flightless bird living some 70 million years ago have been found in Russia for the first time, an official at the All-Russian Paleontological Society said on Monday.

    Remains of the so-called Elephant bird, which could run like an ostrich and was some 80 centimetres tall, have been discovered in the Orenburg region in the south Urals, Vladimir Yefimov told TASS.

    "Previously, remains of such birds were found only in America," he said. "We’d like to compare our discovery with those from there."

    An ancient seabird, Ichthyornis, was discovered in this region earlier in the year, proving theories that a huge sea stretching from the southern Urals to the Arctic existed 70 million years ago.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Tue Dec 08, 2015 11:32 pm

    Ancient bacteria from Antarctica to go in space on board bio satellite 2020

    The samples from the Arctic are at least one million years old

    MOSCOW, December 8. /TASS/. Russian scientists are planning to put in orbit on board a space satellite a variety of microorganisms that have spent millions of years in permafrost layers in the Arctic and the Antarctic. They hope this may take them closer to answering the question if Martian conditions are or ever were livable and if yes, to what extent, the science supervisor of the experiment due in 2020, research fellow at the Institute of Physical, Chemical and Biological Soil Studies, Yelizaveta Rivkina, told TASS.

    "The purpose of the experiment is to see if certain life forms can last long enough in conditions different from those we have on the Earth. For instance, on Mars. We would like to see if bacteria can survive in such environments. Isn’t it possible that on some distant planet we may suddenly discover something what we had brought there ourselves a long while ago?" Rivkina said.

    She foresees a slight possibility inter-planetary space probes may have brought some life forms to other planets. One of the tasks of the experiment is to prove whether bacteria from the Earth can survive in conditions similar to those existing on Mars.

    Bacteria and other protozoa, for instance, infusoria and amoebae, were selected for the space flight in the oldest permafrost layers in the northern hemisphere - the area of the Kolyma lowlands, in Northeastern Siberia, and in Antarctica’s Wright Valley, Pearse Valley and Table Mountain.

    The samples from the Arctic are at least one million years old.

    "We plan to put in space both the original samples - to see how survivable the biota is - and separate microbiological cultures derived from the permafrost samples," Rivkina said.

    The samples from the Arctic are one million years or more. More accurate data regarding the age of the probes from Antarctica are not available at the moment. The expedition that gathered them focused on finding permafrost layers aged about 30 million years.

    "The expedition’s original purpose was to identify the oldest permafrost sample on Earth," Rivkina said.

    The experiment has been authorized by the Russian Academy of Sciences’ council for space as part of the program for research and experiments to be staged on board the Bion-M N.2 satellite, to be launched in 2020. The satellite will be propelled to an altitude of 800-1,000 kilometers above the Earth’s surface - twice higher than the International Space Station. The satellite will remain in flight for 30 days.

    Bacteria were the first living organisms on Earth. They emerged about 3.9-3.5 billion years ago.


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Sat Dec 19, 2015 3:33 am

    The new particle accelerator launched in Obninsk
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Sat Dec 19, 2015 6:06 pm

    In Novosibirsk, launched a new collider
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Mon Dec 21, 2015 11:57 pm

    In Novosibirsk, opened a new high-tech center for biotechnology

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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Thu Dec 24, 2015 5:15 am

    Siberian researchers use power of patient’s immune system to treat cancer
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  kvs on Thu Dec 24, 2015 5:21 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:Siberian researchers use power of patient’s immune system to treat cancer

    This is a major breakthrough. If the trained cells are introduced back into the body successfully the immune system will learn from them.
    The immune system is adaptive and antibody creation resembles evolution, the successful antibodies are the ones that "procreate"
    and become the dominant "species". There is chemical communication between different immune system elements. These trained
    cells will propagate the information.

    I bet this will not be covered by the NATO MSM whatsoever. I also expect some NATO based "startup" to try and rip off this idea.
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 28, 2015 5:36 pm

    Strong winds hamper meteorite search in Antarctic

    The wind up to 30 meters per second prevents the team of the first Russian meteorite expedition from searching but this has blown the snow from the ice and it will make research work easier

    YEKATERINBURG, December 28. /TASS/. Strong winds are delaying work of the first Russian meteorite expedition in the Antarctic, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences committee studying the phenomena told TASS on Monday.
    "They are located at Russia's Novolazarevskaya station," Professor Viktor Grokhovsky said. "Strong winds up to 30 meters per second prevent them from searching but this has blown the snow from the ice and it will make research work easier," the professor noted, adding that the team hoped to resume its activity in two days.
    The expedition set off for the 12 million-ruble ($166,000) project on December 14 and will return to Russia in mid-January.

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/847350


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  sepheronx on Wed Dec 30, 2015 6:56 am

    Siberian scientists have grown the world's first "defective" diamonds for photonic computers
    Scientists at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS (Novosibirsk), the world's first artificial diamonds grown special for photonic computers, reported the press-center of the Novosibirsk TASS Director of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS Nikolai Pokhilenko.

    "This year, we have learned to grow crystals with Ge defect centers. This is very important stuff. We first raised it, behind us went to the Americans, the Germans. This material is to create a new generation of computers, so-called photonic computers ", - he said.

    At the center of the diamond, scientists have put in place carbon atom of germanium. The name "defective", according to scientists, are any diamonds that contain anything other than carbon.

    His development of the scientists gave to colleagues at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS to create complex devices.

    A feature of photonic computers is that they do not work on the base of electronics and on the basis of photons which should provide much greater speed than conventional devices - about 10 million times. Such a computer, according to the scientist, makes it possible to create artificial intelligence. Another feature of photonic computer is able to work at temperatures ranging from 0 to 900 degrees.

    "If you compare the speed of movement of the snail and of supersonic missiles - about the same as comparing the speed of a conventional device that will be created on the basis of this material," - added Pokhilenko.

    "Modern microprocessors based on gallium arsenide or silicon make it possible to generate, amplify frequencies of the order a few tens of megahertz, and then not working. And they can come in the terahertz range, in petagertsovye. This is very different speed, "- he said.

    This is very important. Rostec's involvement and plus these universities (guaranteed to be contracted by Rostec) is what I have been saying that Russia needs to do for years: Not catch up but go a different direction. As evident through China, a country cannot simply play catch up and then somehow reach same spot or advance further without its own R&D and assistance from the outside sources doing the same (Japan and S.Korea with the US and UK as example). This is a different approach; looking at a method that goes beyond standard conventional devices and using another idea to obtain same or greater results. In doing so, Russia doesn't have to play catch up at all, but instead, develop its own technology and know-how in order to create the devices that are needed to fill the same rolls as the conventional devices do, and do it at their own game in its own. The question is the take off of such a development. Guaranteed it is being looked at specifically for the military industrial complexes and certain industries (Rosatom would also gain a lot over this): But what about none government industries? It will require companies like T-Platforms, Kraftway and such to become interested in it, which I imagine they will if the results are there. KRET and such believe so and are currently working on it. Does this mean to stop conventional methods as well? No. Because that is still a demanded market. But with this, this could supplement it with a whole different and new line of systems. Will it come out for civil use? Probably not, at least not even close to soon. But this could be Russia's alternative attempt at supercomputing/quantum computing.
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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  George1 on Sun Jan 17, 2016 3:21 am

    Russian scientists return with 2 meteorites from Antarctic expedition

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/850014


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    Re: Russian Science: Discussion Thread

    Post  Zivo on Sun Jan 17, 2016 3:47 am

    sepheronx wrote:Siberian scientists have grown the world's first "defective" diamonds for photonic computers
    Scientists at the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS (Novosibirsk), the world's first artificial diamonds grown special for photonic computers, reported the press-center of the Novosibirsk TASS Director of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS Nikolai Pokhilenko.

    "This year, we have learned to grow crystals with Ge defect centers. This is very important stuff. We first raised it, behind us went to the Americans, the Germans. This material is to create a new generation of computers, so-called photonic computers ", - he said.

    At the center of the diamond, scientists have put in place carbon atom of germanium. The name "defective", according to scientists, are any diamonds that contain anything other than carbon.

    His development of the scientists gave to colleagues at the Institute of Semiconductor Physics and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS to create complex devices.

    A feature of photonic computers is that they do not work on the base of electronics and on the basis of photons which should provide much greater speed than conventional devices - about 10 million times. Such a computer, according to the scientist, makes it possible to create artificial intelligence. Another feature of photonic computer is able to work at temperatures ranging from 0 to 900 degrees.

    "If you compare the speed of movement of the snail and of supersonic missiles - about the same as comparing the speed of a conventional device that will be created on the basis of this material," - added Pokhilenko.

    "Modern microprocessors based on gallium arsenide or silicon make it possible to generate, amplify frequencies of the order a few tens of megahertz, and then not working. And they can come in the terahertz range, in petagertsovye. This is very different speed, "- he said.

    This is very important.  Rostec's involvement and plus these universities (guaranteed to be contracted by Rostec) is what I have been saying that Russia needs to do for years: Not catch up but go a different direction.  As evident through China, a country cannot simply play catch up and then somehow reach same spot or advance further without its own R&D and assistance from the outside sources doing the same (Japan and S.Korea with the US and UK as example).  This is a different approach; looking at a method that goes beyond standard conventional devices and using another idea to obtain same or greater results.  In doing so, Russia doesn't have to play catch up at all, but instead, develop its own technology and know-how in order to create the devices that are needed to fill the same rolls as the conventional devices do, and do it at their own game in its own.  The question is the take off of such a development.  Guaranteed it is being looked at specifically for the military industrial complexes and certain industries (Rosatom would also gain a lot over this):  But what about none government industries?  It will require companies like T-Platforms, Kraftway and such to become interested in it, which I imagine they will if the results are there.  KRET and such believe so and are currently working on it.  Does this mean to stop conventional methods as well? No.  Because that is still a demanded market.  But with this, this could supplement it with a whole different and new line of systems.  Will it come out for civil use? Probably not, at least not even close to soon.  But this could be Russia's alternative attempt at supercomputing/quantum computing.

    Admittedly, I haven't been following this closely, but how are these Russian breakthroughs different than the photonic memory, and photonic processors developed in the west? A few days before this report:

    Microprocessor Integrates Silicon Photonics


    http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=58119

    "Using the silicon-germanium parts of a modern transistor to build the photodetector took advantage of germanium's ability to absorb light and convert it into electricity. "

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