Flight tests continue The
new-generation narrow-body mid-range passenger aircraft MS-21-300, for which the PD-14 engine is intended, is already flying up from the airfield of the M.M. Flight Research Institute Gromova in Zhukovsky near Moscow. At present, Irkut Corporation PJSC (the developer and lead contractor of the liner program, which is being implemented by leading enterprises of the United Aircraft Corporation) continues to test the aircraft in order to obtain Russian and European type certificates. All three aircraft on which certification flights are performed, equipped with PW1400G engines manufactured by Pratt & Whitney (USA).
The PD-14 flies in the same place, in Zhukovsky, but so far separately from the MC-21-300: the motor mounted under the wing of the IL-76LL flying laboratory passes the third stage of flight tests. “The third phase of flights is underway, two engines have already been there, almost all altitudes have been checked. A very modern stand, two thousand parameters are dumped to the ground online. The engine flies in Zhukovsky, and here we are (in Perm -“ AviaPort ”) we can watch all the parameters, "said Alexander Inozemtsev, Managing Director and General Designer of UEC-Aviadvigatel JSC at a meeting with reporters in August.
Recall that in June the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation Denis Manturov, in an interview with Zvezda television channel, said that tests of the aircraft with a domestic engine will start in early 2020: PD-14 will be installed on the fifth MC-21-300 in a row. "Now the third car has joined the tests. Until the end of the year we will connect the fourth car to the tests. The PD-14 will be put on the first production, but at the same time on the fifth car by serial number. This work will begin at the beginning of next year. I mean the cycle tests from PD-14 to MS-21, "the head of the department assured.
In the future, customers of the MS-21-300 will be offered both engine options. A. Inozemtsev believes that, in the first place, the choice in favor of the PD-14 will be affected by the lower cost of the flight hour. “Everything will determine the cost of the flight hour. Airplanes, when we filled out the relevant documents with them, admitted that we beat Pratt & Whitney about 3-5%,” A. Inozemtsev stated.
There are no boundaries for perfection
The type certificate issued by the Federal Air Transport Agency (Rosaviatsia) actually confirmed the readiness of the PD-14 for sale and operation in our country. “After almost a quarter century of inactivity, we were able to make the engine in ten years, our Western colleagues work in approximately the same way. The certificate is the first paper. This document allows the engine to be mass-produced, put on a plane and transport passengers,” said Inozemtsev.
During the implementation of the PD-14 program, critical technologies were developed and new materials were created, thanks to which the developer, in collaboration with other UEC enterprises and leading industry institutes, managed to catch up with Western fellow engine builders who began developing their motors 10 years earlier. “We haven’t done anything for 25 years, and the Americans were moving forward at that time. In order not to be inferior to Pratt & Whitney, we created and introduced new technologies and materials into production,” A. Inozemtsev emphasized, adding that complexity created 16 critical technologies and about two dozen new materials. So, for example, innovations touched one of the sites of the manufacturer: in preparation for the production of PD-14, the specialists of the ODK-PM foundry mastered the technology of thin-walled casting,
The developer claims that in terms of technical characteristics PD-14 is no worse than its foreign counterparts that are currently in operation, and surpasses them in a number of parameters (in terms of air emissions, noise, and so on). Nevertheless, work on its further improvement continues. In July, AviaPort reported that the Design Bureau sent to Rosaviatsia applications for major changes to the PD-14, necessary to improve the operational characteristics of the motor and increase its competitiveness. By that time, work had already been completed to replace the material of the typical design of the blades of the nozzle apparatus of the second stage of a high-pressure turbine. Also, Aviadvigatel specialists conducted additional lengthy tests of the PD-14 in redline mode (with the maximum allowable values of the main parameters). In total, we are talking about eleven changes: five of them will be introduced this year, three next year, and five more - in 2021. “After the slightest changes, additions to the certificate are made. In other countries, work related to certification and validation of technical specifications usually ends when the last engine is written off,” the head of design bureau noted. “We have a three-year contract (to make changes - AviaPort” ), but the work will not end in 2021. The engine will be improved, we will begin to treat "childhood diseases". associated with the certification and validation of technical specifications, as a rule, end when the last engine is written off, ”the head of design bureau noted. - We have a three-year contract (for making changes - AviaPort), but the work will not end in 2021 either. The engine will be improved, we will begin to treat "childhood diseases." associated with the certification and validation of technical specifications, as a rule, end when the last engine is written off, ”the head of design bureau noted. - We have a three-year contract (for making changes - AviaPort), but the work will not end in 2021 either. The engine will be improved, we will begin to treat "childhood diseases."
Now UEC-Aviadvigatel continues to work on the validation of a certificate of type PD-14 by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). According to current plans, it will be completed next year. “There is such a thing - shadow certification. They (EASA representatives - AviaPort) sit here and look at all our materials. We agree with them in advance that we will not remodel, re-test, and they accept all our Russian materials. This is the validation of the Russian certificate, that is, we do not do any special tests, because we made sure that the entire scope of the work carried out was recognized not only by the EASA, but also by the American FAA (Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Aviation Administration of the USA - "Av Fetch "), - explains Alexander Inozemtsev.
Almost all plants of the United Engine Corporation and other industrial enterprises of the Russian Federation take part in broad cooperation under the PD-14 program. So, for example, the Perm enterprise JSC "ODK-STAR" developed and launched the release of an automatic control system (ACS), which has improved reliability indicators and can work without a hydromechanical reserve (electronics is responsible for all engine operation modes - from start to stop). Only modern Russian components and components are used in the design of self-propelled guns. PJSC "UEC-Ufa Engine-Building Production Association" (UEC-UMPO) is assigned the production of more than 30% of parts and assembly units of the PD-14 engine. In particular, The plant's area of responsibility includes the manufacture of hollow titanium fan blades (such blades were not previously made in Russia), a high-pressure compressor rotor, a separation housing, castings for the drive assembly housing, a central drive and a shaft shaft, as well as the development of design documentation and the manufacture of a low turbine module pressure with a back support. In addition, PJSC UEC-Saturn, Salyut Industrial Complex UEC UEC, Metallist-Samara AO, Obninsk Scientific and Production Enterprise Technologiya named after A take part in the supply of parts and assemblies PD-14 .G. Romashina ", PJSC" Voronezh Joint-Stock Aircraft Engineering Company ", Perm Plant" Mashinostroitel "JSC and other industrial enterprises.
Earlier, UEC did not create engines in such a broad cooperation, so now enterprises are trying to come to common standards, are establishing interaction with each other. "If the level of localization of the production of PS-90 engines (at the OEC-PM - AviaPort site) is 70-80%, then in the PD-14 we only do about 40-45% on our own," said the managing director of JSC UEC-Perm Motors "Sergey Popov. - Cooperation management has acquired a semantic load. Enterprises that participate in cooperation are used to working according to slightly different standards. But in preparation for mass production of PD-14, we are developing relationships that align our standards. We try so that all enterprises were at the level that we and EASA set. "
The entire assembly cycle of PD-14 is carried out on the site of the ODK-PM plant - in workshop No. 53, where the PS-90 engine and its modifications are also assembled (installed on Tu-204, Tu-214, Il-76 and Il-96 aircraft ) The workshop is divided into two parts: PS-90 assembly sections are located on the right side, and PD-14 assembly sections are on the left. The production process is built according to the flow diagram, starting from the assembly of units and ending with the final assembly of the engine, its inspection and registration for testing. For convenience, PD-14 tooling is indicated in bright orange. Due to new technologies, including the manufacture of modules (low-pressure turbine, separation casing, and others), the labor intensity of the assembly in comparison with the PS-90 was reduced by half. When manufacturing a new motor, UEC-PM uses modern digital technologies. There are both mobile and stationary stations with monitors in the workshop, and the installed software allows the assembler to receive all the engine information online, including information about ongoing improvements and upcoming tests. According to the head of the workshop, Ivan Bogdanov, 362 people are working on the assembly of engines here today. Most sections of the workshop work in two shifts five days a week, with the exception of section No. 6 (a total of 60 people work in this section in three shifts). Each collector, as a rule, is assigned to perform a certain operation. “There are people who can do everything, but there are few of them,” said I. Bogdanov. including information on ongoing improvements and upcoming tests. According to the head of the workshop, Ivan Bogdanov, 362 people are working on the assembly of engines here today. Most sections of the workshop work in two shifts five days a week, with the exception of section No. 6 (a total of 60 people work in this section in three shifts). Each collector, as a rule, is assigned to perform a certain operation. “There are people who can do everything, but there are few of them,” said I. Bogdanov. including information on ongoing improvements and upcoming tests. According to the head of the workshop, Ivan Bogdanov, 362 people are working on the assembly of engines here today. Most sections of the workshop work in two shifts five days a week, with the exception of section No. 6 (a total of 60 people work in this section in three shifts). Each collector, as a rule, is assigned to perform a certain operation. “There are people who can do everything, but there are few of them,” said I. Bogdanov. performance of a certain operation is fixed. “There are people who can do everything, but there are few of them,” said I. Bogdanov. performance of a certain operation is fixed. “There are people who can do everything, but there are few of them,” said I. Bogdanov.
After assembly, all engines pass a performance test at the ODK-PM suburban testing station (ZIS) in the village of Novye Lyady (Perm Territory). Reconstruction of test bench No. 1 was completed in December 2017. As part of this project, not only the stand itself was completely reconstructed, but also two halls for preparing engines for testing. The total investment in the project over three years amounted to about 1 billion rubles. Today this stand is the most modern in Russia. Thanks to the adapter technology, it is possible to test different types of engines on it (now ZIS has adapters for PD-14 and PS-90A). “A relatively inexpensive product - an adapter - allows you to test different types of engines on an expensive stand. The second advantage is that all the routine preparatory and final operations are taken to the training room. If at stands Nos. 3 and 4 the preparation of the PS-90A engine takes about 9 hours, then at this stand it takes only 30 minutes. After preparation, the engine moves to the test box, in just a few minutes it connects to the stand at the expense of the quick disconnect connection board, and immediately after that you can start the test process, "explained Nikolai Andreev, Director of Infrastructure Engineering Department of UEC-PM. - The serial stand removes about 200 parameters, but the system allows you to take up to 2000 parameters. Of course, this is not an experienced stand, but, nevertheless, there is such an opportunity. "
In the future, UEC plans to produce up to 50 PD-14 aircraft engines per year. According to S. Popov, the ODK-PM plant expects to reach its design capacity by 2025. At the moment, the capacities of workshop No. 53 allow assembly of only 12 PD-14 engines per year (for comparison, the capacity of the PS-90 assembly site is seven engines per month). While the assembly of one PD-14 takes from 14 to 22 days, depending on complexity. However, a small remark needs to be made here: while all motors are being assembled, partially disassembled and reassembled before shipment to the customer. Therefore, after the transition to a one-time assembly, which will become possible with the beginning of the commercial operation of engines, the throughput will immediately almost double. At the same time, several projects are already being implemented at UEC-PM which will allow to further increase the pace of production in accordance with the needs of customers. In particular, they suggest the allocation of additional space and the purchase of new equipment for the planned increase in throughput. Part of the equipment has already been purchased and installed in the shops of the plant.
Since the start of production development of PD-14, "ODK-PM" together with "ODK-Aviadvigatel" assembled 16 motors. The first 13 of them were intended solely for conducting internal "experiments." These motors have passed a large number of natural tests, including the throwing of birds and ice. Three more engines (Nos. 14, 15 and 16) were assembled by order of Irkut for testing as part of MS-21-300, while they remain in Perm for safekeeping. As of August 2019, motor No. 14, which will be mounted on the left wing of the MC-21-300, was located in the ODK-PM assembly shop, its understudy (No. 15) was on the ZIS, and No. 16 was in the Aviadvigatel ( was installed on an open test stand KB). In addition, last month the manufacturing plant began assembling two more engines for Irkut (Nos. 17 and 18): this work is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2020. The first serial engine will be engine number 19, its assembly will begin next year. “This engine will no longer be supplied to Irkut’s flying laboratories, it will be used for aircraft manufacturing. We must begin assembling this engine next year,” S. Popov said.
In parallel with the work of the Design Bureau to validate the type certificate in EASA, the ODK-PM plant is engaged in certification of PD-14 production according to European standards. At the recent International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS-2019, S. Popov told reporters that the Perm company plans to receive a certificate next year. “In 2017, we applied and for the whole of 2018 we prepared a package of documents for EASA, made a description of the organization, formed documents according to their requirements, translated everything into English. The first audit was held in March this year, the second audit will be held in October-November 2019 “The task that we set for ourselves is to obtain an EASA certificate by the end of 2020,” said the head of UEC-PM.
Everything for the convenience of operators
One of the main objectives of the PD-14 program, which will be phased in the next few years, is to create a high-quality, efficient, and most convenient for customers after-sales service (PPO) system. As AviaPort has already written, UEC will offer operators a comprehensive solution for the supply of a new engine, taking into account the life cycle cost, including software. The corporation previously noted that the modular design of the engine in conjunction with a digital automatic control system, an integrated diagnostic system and the organization of a software system will ensure the successful application of the concept of engine operation in technical condition.
Extensive work on the formation of a software system is already in full swing at once in several directions. To date, a "technical kit" for Irkut has actually been formed, it will include spare parts that may be needed by the corporation at the first stage of operation. “Already there is an understanding of what details will be in demand in the initial period, at the moment this“ technical kit ”is being filled,” S. Popov commented.
At the same time, UEC is negotiating with partners and potential operators. At this stage, issues of creating a pool of replacement engines, which will be managed by the parent company, as well as launching repair shops and training personnel, are discussed. “First of all, in terms of developing the software system, we are working with partners who can support us in this project. We have already met with representatives of S7 Technics and discussed the possibility of their participation in the software PD-14. They have certain capacities at Domodedovo, and their employees already have experience with CFM56 engines (installed on Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 aircraft, AviaPort). This is what we are doing in the field, ”S. Popov said.“ A detailed manual is being developed inside the plants operation, release of technical publications, which will allow changing modules and replacing parts. It will be impossible to do without it after 2022, when the serial operation of the aircraft with the PD-14 engine will begin. ”
The UEC intends to create several centers where the PD-14 engines of various degrees of complexity will be repaired. It is expected that they will be located close to future operators, which will minimize possible downtime. Most likely, the modular repair shop will appear first in the Moscow region, from where the majority of potential customers make flights. “We understand 90% that this will be a Moscow hub, but at Sheremetyevo or Domodedovo it’s not so fundamental. The list of start-up operators is approximately clear: Aeroflot, Red Wings, IrAero had a desire to participate. Also it is necessary to agree who will do the boroscopy, whether it is necessary to train personnel (airlines - “AviaPort”) in replacing the fan blades after bird contact. These are the nuances that are being spoken to with the operators right now, ”S. Popov commented. - The operator should not feel any inconvenience. By the beginning of operation, that is, by 2022, all these elements should be ready. "He added that a large overhaul workshop will appear a little later, the UEC expects to implement this project by 2023-2025.
Finally, for the convenience of customers, UEC plans to launch a special portal where all the necessary information about motors will be presented. “Now the parent company is developing common standards that we can use not only for PD-14, but also other UEC products, including military engines. Creating a portal is a complex work of the parent company, design bureau, UEC-PM and others cooperation enterprises. By combining our efforts, we must create an interface that will allow customers and operators to obtain the information they need both about the condition of the engines being used and about existing commercial offers, "commented S. Popov.
Of course, the organization of an effective software system, including the initial filling of spare parts warehouses and the creation of a pool of replacement engines, requires large financial investments, so the UEC cannot do without state assistance. In August, at a meeting with media representatives, S. Popov noted that the relevant applications for state financing had already been submitted to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, and so far it was allotting about 36 billion rubles in the period until 2030. The final amount of public investment, divided into several stages, will vary slightly depending on the number of engines used. "There is a certain constant - the organization of repair production, the creation of a network of field representatives, an information system, but a certain part of the investments that will be required to fill the reserve pool, will depend on the fleet of aircraft flying with UEC motors, ”S. Popov explained. “I expect this funding to begin next year.”
Looking to the future
In conclusion, we add that in the future KB Aviadvigatel plans to develop several modifications of the PD-14. "For a heavier aircraft, MS-21-400, we plan to make a forced engine, which will be called PD-14M. We will also work on a deformed PD-14 with a thrust of 10 tons for a near-medium-haul aircraft," - shared the plans of A. Inozemtsev .
A family of industrial gas turbine plants will definitely be created on the basis of the PD-14 gas generator - UEC announced this in December 2018. At that time, the corporation’s press service reported that as part of a cooperation program with Gazprom PJSC, designed until 2030, UEC is going to implement a project to develop a family of gas turbine units (GTU) for industrial purposes with a capacity of 6-8 and 12-16 MW. The head of the design bureau confirmed that work on designing a gas turbine with a capacity of 12 MW in the interests of the energy company has already begun.
In addition, the scientific and technical backlog obtained during the creation of the PD-14 will be used in the development of the promising PD-35 large thrust engine. This motor will be installed on wide-body civilian airliners and transport aircraft. It is possible that the Russian-Chinese wide-body CR929 aircraft being created now will also be equipped with this engine (a joint project of the United Aircraft Corporation and Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, mass production should be launched by 2025-2027). The engine demonstrator of PD-35 technologies will be created in 2023, and it will be able to start mass production of ODK-PM in 2028.