"Karakurt" against "Buyan-M"
On Thursday, the shipyard "Pella" (St. Petersburg) were solemnly laid two small missile ship (MRK) new project 22800 "Karakurt." The main advantage of these very modest in size, but powerful enough combat units (with a displacement of only 800 tons) - will be installed on each of the eight high-precision cruise missiles, long-range "Caliber-NK" which have already proved their effectiveness in Syria. Another set of weapons - for the same number of supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles "Onyx" (firing range - up to 500 kilometers).
Missile combat capability "Black Widow" is not exhausted. Yet they will be the 100-mm or 76-mm universal automatic artillery, air defense missile-gun complex "Carapace M" or "Palm." The length of each ship - 60 meters, width - 9 meters draft - 4 meters. Speed - up to 30 knots. Cruising range - up to 2,500 miles. From which it follows that prospective IRAs, as well as their predecessors of the project in 1234, to be used mainly in the area near the sea.
Order of the Chief of the Navy, both the future of the ship have already received the terrible name - "Typhoon" and "Hurricane." It is in the tradition of our famous "battalions of bad weather", which are based in the past decade and accounted for are small missile ships the previous generation - "cloud", "Storm", "Mirage", "Roll forward", "swell" ...
"Typhoon" and "Hurricane" in the Battle of the Black Sea Fleet in turn expect to enter 2017 and 2018. Total planned construction of a series of ten such IRAs. In addition to the Black Sea, they are waiting for, as stated by the General Staff of the Navy, the Baltic and Pacific fleets. Northern Fleet reason in that list was not. Perhaps because there, in the harsh conditions of the Arctic, going forward or notebook and the completion of more impressive dimensions.
In short, it would seem, in all respects good news. Our sailors have long been waiting for at least some replenish their heavily outdated formations of surface ships. But there are some circumstances that suggest that the new Russian small rocket ship is not so simple.
A dozen of even the most remarkable RTOs "Karakurt" not even four, but only three Russian fleet - is very small. Total of three, but somewhere - four units in the huge sea theater of operations. What is it, for example, to the Pacific Ocean? Especially when you consider that far from their bases like little ships alone to fight simply can not. Otherwise, with their not very strong air defense system on the sea or ocean floor can not be earlier than have time to shoot their own "Caliber" and "Onyx".
Of course, the problem of understanding in the Main Staff of the Navy. And recently there have built a completely different plans. In any case, in the summer of last year, Russian Navy Commander Admiral Viktor Chirkov, responding to a question about the size of a future series of "Black Widow", said clearly: "A minimum of 18 units."
But then, apparently intervened strict uncle of the Ministry of Finance and began to cut to the quick shipbuilding program. Given svirepeyuschego economic crisis, well, if they have done this with "Black Widow" for the last time.
Second. One of the main shortcomings of the Soviet Navy has always been raznotipe warships designed to solve the same problems. For example, at one time the neighboring berths 7th operative squadron and the 2nd Division in Severomorsk ASW were large anti-submarine ships of projects 1134a, 1155, 57a, 61 and 1135 (only from the beginning of the 90s the last two were called guard). Built at different times, they had a very different weapons, radar and sonar stations, many other instruments and mechanisms. That entailed a complex tabletop planning, expensive and unwieldy logistics, a huge range of lubricants and ZIPov simply immense coastal training facilities.
Our opponents are likely never did. The US Navy if we begin a series of cruisers, destroyers or frigates, the rivet them in the set, and "as a blueprint." For example, the frigate "Oliver Perry" from 1977 to 1989, the Americans had built 51 destroyers type "Arleigh Burke" from 1988 to the present time have made 62 and going to come down to the water still 13.
We in the Soviet times the money on the Navy did not regret not considered, so could not afford any extravagance. But now something? Now, why do we need so many projects of the same small missile ships?
Well, we derive the brackets built in the Soviet Union in 1234 MRC Project "The Gadfly" of various modifications with antiship cruise missiles P-120. In the end, they are running out of time, in service to all of our four fleets of ships just a dozen and they need a replacement.
She seemed to be on its way in the form of small missile ships of the project 21631 "Buyan-M." Ever, three of which ("Uglich", "Svijazhsk" and "Great Ustyug") on October 7 for the first time in the history of the Caspian Sea triumphantly hit with cruise missiles "Caliber-NK" on targets in Syria. "Brawlers-M" around the world were immediately recognized as a very successful and modern: no one but we have not yet managed to cram so terrible (in fact - a strategic!) The weapon in such a tight ship's hull.
In addition to "Uglich", "Svijazhsk" and "Great Ustyug" Zelenodolsk floated even their colleagues - small missile ships "Serpukhov" and "Green Dol". Both are sent to Sevastopol, we have just completed a test and entered the Battle of the Black Sea Fleet. And on the wall at the Sebastopol Mine enemy in Syria, "caliber" is not shot out, apparently because firing in this case would have to be through unfriendly to us recently Turkish territory.
But in Zelenodolsk for the Black Sea continue to build four "Buyan-M" - "Vishny Volochek", "Orekhovo-", "Ingushetia" and "Graivoron." Moreover, "Ingushetia" the plan is to get the fleet in 2017, and "Graivoron" - in 2018. That is precisely when in St. Petersburg are going to finish building laid out there this week, "Typhoon" and "Hurricane." With the same eight cruise missiles "Caliber-NK" and "Onyx" on each. For the same 41-th brigade of missile boats BSF.
Once again stepping on the same rake? Maybe it's worth determine what needs Black Sea Fleet - "brawlers-M" or more seaworthy, according to baseline characteristics, "Black Widow"? And the construction of any series for savings stop? Well, or severely limit, the remaining money by investing in the most suitable ships? Given the fact that "brawlers-M" was originally intended only for swimming in shallow Volga and in the Caspian Sea. And for this, even equipped with water jets, which no one would never have occurred to establish IRAs if someone presupposes that they will have to plow the stormy Black and Mediterranean seas, and not much more affectionate Volga and the Caspian Sea.
And one more thing. How do we do if there is proven in combat and struck the world of "Buyan-M" suddenly took another and "Black Widow"? Moreover, he took a rush job? For the same Chirkov just a few months ago, I promised to bookmark the brain and the first serial MRK project only in 2016. Engineers and designers with the preparation as it became clear today, were forced to meet, at least for a few months before. Why did it happen?
The thing is that, apparently, bad our business with the construction of six frigates of Project 11356 (so-called "admiral's Series") in the Kaliningrad factory "Amber". The sanctions imposed by Ukraine, led to the fact that it built in the city of Nikolayev turbine engines received only half of the planned for launch vehicles ("Admiral Grigorovich", "Admiral Essen" and "Admiral Makarov"). More on three frigates ("Admiral Butakov", "Admiral Istomin" and "Admiral Kornilov") will have to set their own, native. That must also create almost from scratch. For such complex naval units in Russia never did.
Propulsion Engineering from Rybinsk and St. Petersburg are doing their best, but before 2020, with a promise not to keep up with replacing. An appropriately delayed and the last three "Admiral." Here is their something and decided as soon as possible to replace the "Black Widow." Small missile ships, in which everything down to the last rivet Russia, to bring to mind can be much faster than the frigates, which are four times more displacement.
Actually, this is Admiral Chirkov and said July 1 this year: "To help us keep pace with the construction of the ship, to replace, for example, Project 11356 proceed to the construction of a new series - small missile ships, corvettes with cruise missiles on board - Project 22800 ".
Fine, but how much will complete the replacement? The extent to which small warship near sea area in general is able to replace a large frigate built for the ocean? Neither of seaworthiness, or in range and duration of swimming, nor on electronic and anti-aircraft weaponry, they are not comparable. Antisubmarine weapons to the "Black Widow" is not at all. And it is on frigates. There are even ASW helicopter.
A similar one thing: Missiles. That for him everything is done.
On missile frigate of Project 11356 "Caliber-NK" exactly the same as on the "Black Widow" or "Buyan-M" - eight. And considering that the maximum range of 2.5 thousand kilometers virtually any target in Europe or the Middle East, these cruise missiles can hit without leaving the Sevastopol bay, nautical, cruising range and other performance characteristics highly leveled.
So, it may be extremely costly capital ships long-distance oceanic zone to us now and does not need it? Can Do "Black Widow" and "Buyan"?
We can not do. Not least because that in addition to Europe and the Middle East in the world there is still America. So replacing still get time.