It's no secret that the development of small arms ammunition (PSO), the equipment for their production and utilization of technically and physically obsolete CCP today is very serious. We can not allow the backlog on the quality of domestic PSO from the best world analogues, it is necessary to maintain their competitiveness in the global market. That is why at the recent Russian TSNIITOCHMASH led Minpromtorga Russia with the participation of the CSTO Secretariat, FSVTS Russia and the "Rosoboronexport" has passed meeting of heads of enterprises and research institutes of military-industrial complex, associated with the development, production, testing and disposal of PSO. Today our interlocutor - the general director of Design Bureau of automatic lines to them. LN Koshkin (JSC KBAL "them. LN Koshkin) Nikolay Masliaev familiar with these issues firsthand. After all, the company which he leads, participates in the entire life cycle of rounds - from design and manufacture to disposal.
- Nikolai Mikhailovich, describe the role of rounds of small arms in modern military conflicts and wars.
- Despite the widespread adoption of high technology in military equipment, increasing its firepower and mobility, the outcome of the fighting is largely decide combat units using small arms fire as the most massive and most effective in close combat.
With rounds of small arms was resolved by 30 per cent of the combat missions in the past wars and local conflicts in the contemporary anti-terrorist struggle and the amount they are solvable problems dominated and reaches 90 percent.
The development of small arms is determined, primarily, the development of ammunition. Creating a sample of weapons begins with the development of a new or use it for existing holder.
From the power holder and the device dependent range and accuracy of fire, lethality bullets, and weight characteristics of weapons, construction of the holder, the length and diameter of the cartridge cases to determine the most advantageous principle of automation, ie, it is the primary patron and a leading part in small complex and the basis for an effective weapon.
It would seem that the role of PSO is very important. However, in Russia in the development of weapons programs to date and near-term priority is given to the development of strategic weapons.
- Will not it lead to underdevelopment of the world leaders in the development and production of cartridges?
- Unfortunately, a leader in the production of ultra weapons and weapons of selective actions of Russia today lost. Increasingly, the formation of terrorist use of more efficient foreign-made weapons. Local athletes in international competitions regularly use imported weapons and ammunition.
The existing order rounds of small arms does not allow to develop the technological processes of production, financing development of conventional weapons is carried out on the left. Development of ammunition industry postponed to a later date.
PSO-based hardware development for 30 years. In this machinery of the industry is not updated by domestic equipment.
The age of the bulk in the storage of ammunition exceeds the warranty period of storage in 25 years. Much of it is stored over a designated period of service - 40 years.
Taken since 1992 to supply the Russian army cartridges are created on the basis of existing, and have a bullet, upgraded to increase their disruptive actions. However, shooting accuracy and manufacturability of their production does not meet modern requirements.
The volume of new cartridges for the arming Russia Defense Ministry does not exceed 5 per cent due to a lack of modern technology and equipment for serial mass production.
The volume of new cartridges for the arming of the Collective Security Treaty Organization also does not exceed 5 per cent. Currently, the CSTO countries due to lack of funds virtually ceased development of new systems, small arms, while the NATO countries maintained these developments, taken long-term program for radical changes in the system of infantry weapons.
In short, to outline the serious lag in the development of new cartridges.
- And as to this case in a technically advanced western countries?
- It is actively engaged in the development of new weapons and on their basis of new high-precision shooting complexes.
For example, the U.S. special units are sniper fire on their enemy in Afghanistan for 2, 5 - 2, 8 thousand meters, with the aim of striking first, or, as an exception, the second shot. At 300-600 meters affect small goal 10x15 cm (marmot) one shot. Application of a new cartridge for the serial production of the American M16 rifle to NATO standards (standard deviation of shots at a distance of 600 m is not more than 225 mm) makes it possible to pinpoint the fire on the growth figure in the range 1. 000 m with a probability of up to 100 percent. By the way, banning snipers from approaching closer to the goal of one kilometer in the field laid statute USA.
The domestic small arms do not have the properties of accuracy and grouping. Sniper rifle SVD makes it possible to fire with a performance on a range up to 300 - 500 m. Our troops in the fire fighting will suffer major losses from enemy small arms fire at the range, in 1, 5-2 times larger than the effective range of fire of their shooters.
If the stock, then we can conclude that local patrons did have a number of advantages compared with the cartridges of NATO countries. They are made from nedefitsitnyh and less expensive materials - sleeve - steel instead of brass, pulnaya shell - instead of bimetal tombac, and have a lower cost.
But for a number of characteristics are inferior to patrons of NATO countries. As I said, the bulk of DOD depots in Russia cartridges yields similar patrons of NATO Accuracy of fire and disruptive action, has a large variation of initial velocity bullets out of the use of netermostabilnyh powders.
Here is another point which characterizes the mind, which include the west to improve small arms. Abroad, there are already examples of small arms - MR7A1 (Germany), which do not require cleaning during the entire period of operation.
- What is being done to remedy the situation in the ammunition industry in Russia?
- In TSNIITOCHMASH, KBAL them. LN Koshkin, Tula and to Barnaul ammunition factories often at the expense of own funds held by experienced high-performance development cartridges, which can significantly improve the basic characteristics of small arms.
Between 1992 and currently has developed and adopted by the number of rounds. For pistols: 9x18 mm cartridge 7N25 armor with a bullet, 9x19 mm cartridge 7N21 bullet with iron core, 9x19 mm cartridge with a bullet 7NZO high penetration, 9x21 mm cartridge 7N29 bullet with iron core.
For machines: 5, 45x39 mm cartridge with the 7N10 bullet high penetration, 5, 45x39 mm cartridge 7N22 armor with a bullet, 5, 45x39 mm cartridge with armor-7N24 core, 5, 45x39 mm cartridge with armor-7BT4 tracer bullet.
For rifles: 7, 62x54 mm cartridge with the 7N13 bullet high penetration, 7, 62x54 mm sniper cartridge 7N14 armor with a bullet, 7, 62x54 mm cartridge with armor-7BT1 tracer bullet 7BT mm cartridge with armor 7N26 bullet BP.
Special cartridges: 7, 62 mm pistol cartridge 7N36 for silent and besplamennoy shooting, 9x39 mm cartridge 7N9 sniper bullet to the high penetration, 9x39 mm cartridge 7N12 armor with a bullet.
Total is now armed with the Russian army has more than 120 rounds of small arms nomenclatures.
Also note that due to massive equipment manpower personal protection (body armor of various types), light saturation troops technology, changing forms and methods of combat have increased demands on the efficiency of rounds of small arms, primarily in the improvement of their disruptive actions, grouping and range.
The use of bullets with high disruptive effect for the ultra long-range shooting (1, 5 - 2 km) significantly facilitates the solution of problems related to the elimination of terrorist organizations.
In 2006, KBAL with the participation of Ulyanovsk, Tula, and ammunition plants developed new cartridges with enhanced penetration and improved accuracy. Work in this direction are continuing.
It is clear that to ensure the cartridges need to update the nomenclature of the improvement of technological processes of manufacture of ammunition and special equipment for their production.
To this end, JSC "Design Bureau of automatic lines of LN Koshkin" in the experimental work "Fables", "Package", "Coverage A", "Cartridge H" works to improve the technological processes of manufacturing a new generation of patrons and special equipment for their manufacture and disposal.
KB, together with ammunition plants can in the short term for 3 - 4 years to implement the upgrading of existing production plants in the industry.
Simultaneously, the creation of new industries such as "module" on the basis of modern technological processes and equipment to the actual capacity of a chain of up to 800 - 1. 200 rounds per minute can ensure the production of PSO in an alarming period of rapid flow in the most tense period of large-scale military conflict. Such "modules" is inhibited.
- As you said earlier, the bulk in warehouses bullets crossed warranty periods of storage, and a significant portion of the designated service life. It solved the problem of recycling?
- Store ammunition, less effective foreign equivalents costly economically and strategically effective. In order to update the stock PRS, for example, can revive the mass patriotic movement of Russians to sport shooting experience for CITA, Canada, Australia, where families spend up to 800-1. 000 rounds a week for trainings and competitions. For this purpose, could transform the PSO in the sport-hunting and selling them on the residual value, while renewing their reserves. But, of course, is not fully solve the problem.
To complete the life cycle of our patrons in size in the performance of ROC "gap" in 2007 set up a working manufacturing process recycling caliber rounds 5, 45 mm, 7, 62 mm, 9 mm and a set of special equipment for recycling.
The process provides a separation of the holder at its main elements, the collection of powders, thermal demercurization primers consisting of cartridge cases with environmental, fire and explosion safety.
Individual elements of the holder (collet) can be used again in the production of ammunition for sporting and hunting weapons or sold (lead) as a recycle, and powder sent to the recycling of specialized chemical enterprise.
Further work on optimizing the chemical demercurization primers.
Placing the production of recycling cartridges, because of its specificity, is acceptable to the specialized enterprises, for example, in one of the existing plants in Russia, or cartridge directly from bases and arsenals of the Ministry of Defense with the use of a mobile version of the equipment, also developed KBAL them. LN Koshkin.
In short, the utilization of today - the process costly, but the re-use of PSO, including the production of munitions for civilian weapons, would minimize the costs and utilization in a mobile complex, moreover, reduce the cost of transportation and safety of dangerous goods, as well as reduce fire and explosion the entire cycle of recycling.
- What are the prospects for the development of PSO as a specialist, you see?
- I'll say this: I have gunsmiths such a thing as the curve of pressure propellant gases in the barrel channel. So, it shows what the reserve is available to developers of bullets and gunpowder to increase the initial speed of bullets.
If the burning of gunpowder to the law, allowing momentum to get the maximum burning propellant gas, the speed of bullets with the same length barrel can be increased to 1, 3-1, 4 times.
But, of course, to start we need to reform the industry.
In the set up of GC "ROSTEHNOLOGY" holding company "Small arms and ammunition" from the parent organization of OAO Izhmash "is scheduled to implement a program of integrated development of small arms. The program of OAO KBAL them. LN Koshkin "finalized a process for the entire life cycle of the holder of the design to disposal.
Its implementation will improve the quality of stored cartridges by providing timely updates to reduce the unreasonable costs of storage, to minimize the cost of disposal of PSO, establish in 2010 - 2015 biennium. complex plants such as "module" mobilization and ultimately revive the cartridge industry, updating the technological base of cartridge plants KBAL them. LN Koshkin, TsNIITOChMash and, accordingly, to ensure the Russian Armed Forces cartridges meet the highest demands.
Opening the heading "Military-Industrial Complex: the first person, we hope that the opportunity to raise topical issues in the" Red Star "and others will take advantage of general director and chief designer of defense enterprises in Russia.
Права на данный материал принадлежат Красная звезда