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    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    kvs
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    Post  kvs on Mon Oct 28, 2019 2:12 am

    Regular wrote:
    kvs wrote:

    Impressive brain scanning tech. Without inserting electrodes into the human brain, Russian specialists have managed to construct
    a brain electro-tomography system that allows reconstruction of images seen through human eyes directly from the brain.


    Very interesting, thanks for sharing.

    I was watching some criminal show on russian tv and there was interesting chapter about forensics in Tsarist and early Soviet Union. Back in late Tsarist Russia and early Soviet Union criminals used to have false belief in optography and they tried to damage victims eyes as they thought images can be extracted after the death of a person. Odessan mafia used to be know for taking the eyes.

    I think that post mortem no extraction of data is possible.   But that may depend on how fresh the brain is.   If this system uses
    external EM signals to probe the neural network, then even a "dead" one can still send back information.    That requires the
    neurons to be relatively intact and for no clumping via decomposition.  

    Extracting images from the eyeballs is not likely since there is no storage medium for the "data".  Maybe there is a quantum imprint on
    the retina but there is not EM pattern stored.   The eyes and optical nerves are just ducts for the information flow to the brain.   The
    brain is where storage occurs and that is why the tech shown in the video can work.    They must have figured out how optical images
    are distributed in the brain.   That in turn would have required a rather detailed map of the neural network.  

    To be honest I am surprised that this field has advanced this far.   The days of scifi mind reading (not fictional but practical) seem not
    to be that far off.
    Walther von Oldenburg
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    Post  Walther von Oldenburg on Thu Oct 31, 2019 6:58 pm

    Woud it have practical applications? Having a portable, cheap brain imaging technique would help neuroscience trendemously - current neuroimaging machines based on MRI weight tons and cost millions of dollars so their availability for research is rather limited.
    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible on Fri Nov 08, 2019 6:17 pm

    https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/126547/

    The first photos of server motherboards processors Elbrus-8СВ

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 25 Ai3ggYE
    kvs
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    Post  kvs on Sat Nov 09, 2019 12:26 am

    miketheterrible wrote:https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/126547/

    The first photos of server motherboards processors Elbrus-8СВ

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 25 Ai3ggYE

    This board is meant for the latest of the Elbrus-8 core CPU that has twice the 64 bit floating point performance
    of the previous generation. So MCST has clued into the need for native 64 bit FP.

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    Post  miketheterrible on Sat Nov 09, 2019 1:00 am

    kvs wrote:
    miketheterrible wrote:https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/126547/

    The first photos of server motherboards processors Elbrus-8СВ

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 25 Ai3ggYE

    This board is meant for the latest of the Elbrus-8 core CPU that has twice the 64 bit floating point performance
    of the previous generation.   So MCST has clued into the need for native 64 bit FP.


    next iteration will remove south bridge chip entirely and integrate it into the cpu.
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    Post  GarryB on Sat Nov 09, 2019 4:15 am

    Sorry, it has been 10 years since I was learning about computers at tertiary level... CPU performing south bridge role?

    And where is north bridge?

    (for those not knowledgable about computers the north bridge and south bridge are two IO processor chips that route data on a motherboard... together they are called the chipset. the northbridge is used to route data to the high performance high speed parts of the computer and the Southbridge the slower IO stuff.

    Northbridge is located near the CPU (Brain) and the video graphics (eyes and ears) and RAM chips bits (memory) that needs high speed performance to move a lot of data around quickly, while Southbridge handles slower less urgent stuff like information off hard drives or memory sticks or DVD drives and floppies... it doesn't need to load so fast, whereas for video display and processing data and numbers to generate new data needs high speed.

    If you look on your motherboard Northbridge is a chip... normally with a metal heat sink on it near the CPU and RAM memory so once information comes in from the hard drive it can be moved from memory to the CPU and back and also displayed on the video CPUs quickly.

    Southbridge is the chip further away and it organises the data coming from memory and the CPU to the Hard drive or memory stick or optical disk, or vice versa... it generally does not have to be as fast so it is connected to the slots for the IO devices and drives.)

    In human terms I thought of it as the Northbridge is in the head managing information from your eyes and ears and mouth to the brain and back for both processing and storing information in short or long term, while the Southbridge is in the gut or lower body and manages other things like digestion and food processing and legs and arms and hands to move you around and acquire information or food to power the system.

    Have they dropped the North bridge already and are going to drop the South bridge too?

    I suppose when you have multiple CPUs then it makes sense to use an extra one to do those two jobs...
    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible on Sat Nov 09, 2019 5:21 am

    Northbridge is embedded into the cpu.
    PhSt
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    Post  PhSt on Sun Nov 10, 2019 1:45 am

    Russia capable of becoming a global leader in artificial intelligence - Putin

    MOSCOW, November 9. /TASS/. Russia should become one of the global leaders in the artificial intelligence sector, as the country’s growth in a wide range of sectors, including its defense, depends on that, Russian President Vladimir Putin said at the AI Journey conference in Moscow on Saturday.

    "We should and, I am convinced, we are able to become one of the global leaders in the artificial intelligence field, as it is a question of our future, of Russia’s place in the world," Putin said, noting the advantage of Russian education in maths, physics and other sciences, "as well as in the humanitarian field."

    "Comfortable and safe cities, accessible and high-quality healthcare, education, cutting-edge logistics and a reliable transport system, space and ocean exploration, and finally the country’s defense capabilities… The development of all these sectors largely depends on our success in artificial intelligence both now and in the near future," the Russian leader stressed.

    According to Putin, the rejection of changes might cause depreciation of the country’s capacity.

    "No matter how powerful it is today, tomorrow it could swiftly become outdated and could even equal zero," he added.

    The president thanked those who had contributed to the national strategy of artificial intelligence development.

    "Now it is important to act as quickly as possible, joining efforts of the state, professional community and business, to translate plans into concrete solutions, innovations, and competitive and popular products," Putin said pointing out that federal agencies, state-owned corporations and companies would take on key responsibilities in this field.

    "I believe their ability to provide and strengthen the country’s technological solvency is the most important criterion of their efficiency," the president said.

    A huge potential

    Putin said that application of artificial intelligence technology has a huge potential, noting that it "will make it possible to get rid of inertia and clumsiness of the bureaucratic machine, to increase dramatically the transparency and efficiency of administrative procedures."

    According to the president, it is extremely important for the stability of society, "since only then will people see what and how the authorities do and what they are guided by in decision-making. The AI's capabilities should be aimed at solving the problems of an individual in order to "change the quality and image of the entire system of state governing."

    "It is the most important condition so as to solve those major challenging tasks our country faces," concluded the head of state.

    Russian President also noted, that the artificial intelligence is playing an important role in the technology race among the countries but this invention will hardly be the last one in the history of mankind.

    Artificial intelligence is "a resource of great force," the President said. The one having it in possession will forge into the lead and obtain tremendous competitive advantages, Putin noted.

    "No wonder it is said that the technology race already started across the globe will be the most tough and uncompromising in the history of our civilization. Some people even say that the mankind is creating its last invention. I do not know whether it is so," Putin said with a touch of irony. "Probably, the last one will generally never take place, although it appears there are reasons to think in such way also," he added.



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    Post  GarryB on Sun Nov 10, 2019 6:13 am

    Northbridge is embedded into the cpu.

    On all systems or just servers and mini computers and bigger?
    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible on Sun Nov 10, 2019 7:07 am

    GarryB wrote:
    Northbridge is embedded into the cpu.

    On all systems or just servers and mini computers and bigger?

    These days, all systems have removed them. I dont think I seen a North Bridge for quite some time.
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    Post  GarryB on Mon Nov 11, 2019 1:34 am

    Thanks for the update... not much stands still I guess...

    On a totally different note:

    https://rostec.ru/media/pressrelease/rostekh-lokalizuet-proizvodstvo-pervykh-v-rossii-pyatikoordinatnykh-tokarno-frezernykh-tsifrovykh-st/

    YandexTranslate

    Rostec localizes production of Russia's first five-axis turning and milling digital machines

    08 November 2019
    Press release

    In 2020, rostec will launch the production of Russia's first five-axis turning and milling digital machining centers. TMH-4000 CNC machines according to the technology of the Japanese company Takisawa will be produced by Kovrov Electromechanical plant (KEMZ, part of the holding "high-Precision complexes"). The products will be delivered to customers in Russia and the countries of the Customs Union (CU).

    Camz and Takisawa have signed a joint production contract to assemble six industrial machines in Kovrov by the end of 2021. The first machine will be assembled in April 2020 and presented at the exhibition "Metalworking-2020".

    "The transition to a new generation of digital equipment allows us to significantly increase the volume of high-tech civilian products. We are starting to produce five-axis turning and milling machining centers at KEMZ, analogues of which were not produced in Russia before. One such center is able to replace several three-coordinate machines and significantly reduce the production cycle. The model has already interested potential buyers - these are Rostec production enterprises, as well as companies in the shipbuilding and oil refining industries, " said Oleg Yevtushenko, Executive Director of rostec state Corporation.

    The unique industrial machine is equipped with a system capable of simultaneous interpolation of 5 coordinates. It allows for a single installation without changeover to produce complex parts, including components for aircraft engines, hydraulic units and nuclear reactors, with a processing accuracy of 5 microns. To date, only seven enterprises worldwide produce machines of this type.

    "The TMX-4000 machine is a representative of a new generation of multifunctional machining centers of Takisawa, accumulating its almost 100 years of experience in the field of machine tools. The machine allows comprehensive automation of production through the use of various systems and devices, including the device automatic tool changer (store up to 120 types of tool), automated sensor monitoring tool, system of automatic replacement of tooling, clamping devices and working bodies and multifunctional loading and unloading device and conveyor for finished parts, and much more. The design of the machine reduces the impact on the environment and contributes to energy conservation, " commented Shuhei Oshima, senior Advisor to Takisawa President.

    Takisawa and camz have been collaborating since 2013. The enterprises jointly produce six models and more than 30 modifications of machines that have passed the stages of localization.

    JSC KEMZ – the modern, versatile, diversified enterprise founded in 1898 and specializing in development and production of production of special and civil appointment-Electromechanical and hydraulic systems and components, multifunctional mini-loaders, rollers, the hydrofected lifting platforms of trailer and automobile basing, tractors of the second traction class (under the ANT brand), and also turning, milling and turning-milling processing centers with 3, 4 and 5 axis processing. A strategic partner of the state, a leading enterprise in the field of mechanical engineering. Since 2009, JSC "KEMZ" is part of the state Corporation rostec, in 2012 it was included in the holding of JSC " NPO "high-Precision complexes".

    JSC " NPO "high-Precision complexes" - was formed in 2009 to consolidate the scientific and technical potential of the group of specialized enterprises to create on the basis of innovation and technological modernization of the existing production base of advanced weapons, military and special equipment (vvst) in the field of high-precision systems and weapons complexes of the tactical combat zone. It is a part of rostec group.

    State Corporation rostec is one of the largest industrial companies in Russia. It unites more than 800 scientific and industrial organizations in 60 regions of the country. Key activities-aircraft industry, radio electronics, medical technologyii, innovative materials, etc. the Corporation's portfolio includes such well-known brands as AVTOVAZ, KAMAZ, Kalashnikov Concern, "Russian Helicopters", UEC, Uralvagonzavod, "shvabe", etc. rostec is actively involved in the implementation of all 12 national projects. The company is a key supplier of "Smart city" technologies, is engaged in the digitalization of government, industry, social sectors, developing plans for the development of 5g wireless communication technologies, industrial Internet of things, big data and blockchain systems. Rostec is a partner of the world's leading manufacturers, such as Boeing, Airbus, Daimler, Pirelli, Renault, etc. the Corporation's Products are supplied to more than 100 countries. Almost a third of the company's revenue is provided by the export of high-tech products. ​​
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    Post  Regular on Mon Nov 11, 2019 9:45 am

    Integration trend started in 2012 or so.

    Partial integration is what would you have on todays computers. There's usually just one chipset with combined roles. Southbridge in personal computers never went away - it was promoted - more work, but with the same wage, just different title.
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    Post  PhSt on Fri Nov 22, 2019 4:06 am

    NATO as usual is frothing in the mouth again just because Russia is making efforts to promote domestic software in its local markets. Its funny how NATO is throwing out "Concerns" about surveillance because Russian made software is installed, BIG LOL! But when its NATO made software it is COMPLETELY surveillance free right?? Rolling Eyes  



    Russia bans sale of gadgets without Russian-made software

    Russia has passed a law banning the sale of certain devices that are not pre-installed with Russian software.

    The law will come into force in July 2020 and cover smartphones, computers and smart televisions.

    Proponents of the legislation say it is aimed at promoting Russian technology and making it easier for people in the country to use the gadgets they buy.

    But there are concerns about surveillance and fears that firms could pull out of the Russian market.

    The law will not mean devices from other countries cannot be sold with their normal software - but Russian "alternatives" will also have to be installed.

    The legislation was passed by Russia's lower house of parliament on Thursday. A complete list of the gadgets affected and the Russian-made software that needs to be pre-installed will be determined by the government.

    One of the bill's co-authors, Oleg Nikolayev, has explained how it could help Russian users.

    "When we buy complex electronic devices, they already have individual applications, mostly Western ones, pre-installed on them," he said, according to Interfax news agency.

    "Naturally, when a person sees them... they might think that there are no domestic alternatives available. And if, alongside pre-installed applications, we will also offer the Russian ones to users, then they will have a right to choose."

    But the legislation has faced criticism from manufacturers and distributors in Russia.

    The Association of Trading Companies and Manufacturers of Electrical Household and Computer Equipment (RATEK) has said it will not be possible to install Russian-made software on some devices and that the international companies behind the gadgets may leave the Russian market as a result of the law.

    Others have raised concerns that the Russian-made software could be used to spy on users.

    Russia has introduced tougher internet laws over the last five years, including requiring search engines to delete some search results and calling on messaging services to share encryption keys.

    The latest legislation comes just weeks after the country introduced new controls on the internet through its "sovereign internet" law. In theory, the law gives officials wide-ranging powers to restrict traffic on the Russian web.

    The Kremlin says it will improve cyber security, but critics fear the government will try to create an internet firewall similar to that in China.


    British BULLCRAP Broadcasting Company
    kvs
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    Post  kvs on Fri Nov 22, 2019 6:44 am

    All major distributions of Linux implemented NSA's SELinux functionality without any consultation with the user community even though
    Linux is open source. SELinux is the typical spyware posing as a security measure. I always disable it since it screws up other
    parts of the OS. Even if it is possible to verify what SELinux is doing, 99.999% of the users will not have the time and the knowledge
    how to reverse hack the code. Snowden blew the whistle on US government penetration into people's lives via electronic devices
    and software. Apparently, everyone has forgotten.

    It is a fact that Windows 10 is riddled with NSA spyware and MicroSh*t collaborates with this Orwellian trampling
    of privacy in the name of national security and fighting the phantom foreign bad guys always out to get America because they hate
    its "freedom".

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    Post  GarryB on Fri Nov 22, 2019 7:11 am

    I laughed out loud at my governments justifying banning Huawei from NZ 5th gen market by saying they might include spyware... American Hardware and Software has be confirmed multiple times over to be used for spying on US allies, so if the choice is potential spying, vs confirmed spyware... they have gone with confirmed spyware... the fucken drones.
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    Post  miketheterrible on Sun Nov 24, 2019 7:55 pm

    https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/127326/

    Military laptop processor "Elbrus-1S+"

    Rugged notebook for military were shown in the exhibition "Army-2019". The laptop is developed by the JSC "Izhevsk motor Plant axion-holding".

    Or rather, one of the enterprises included in the holding Izhevsk Institute of complex instrumentation.

    It's called — "Secure portable workstation of officials".

    Here's the thing about this notebook the manufacturer says:

    Secure portable workstation of officials is a computer in the domestic processor Elbrus-1S+, designed for use in communication systems of submarines and surface ships of the Navy, in the field, vehicles, industrial plants in conditions of high electromagnetic interference.Rugged notebook is designed for operation in harsh conditions and use in accordance with the requirements of GOST RV 20.39.304-98 for groups of execution 1.1, 1.2.1, 1.3, 1.10, 2.1.1, 2.3.1.

    The laptop is created in the interests of the communication service. It is made in moisture and dust case. Withstands vibrations up to 4g, single strokes up to 120 g and multiple shocks up to 15g. Able to operate in temperatures from -10° to +55° C.

    It is built on the basis of Russian microprocessor Elbrus-1S+, developed in ZAO "MCST" performance of 24 GFlops.
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    Post  PhSt on Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:19 pm




    Rugged notebook for military were shown in the exhibition "Army-2019". The laptop is developed by the JSC "Izhevsk motor Plant axion-holding".

    Now if only Russia can produce laptops and other electronic units for civilian use that will rival foreign brands like Acer, Dell, Samsung, etc then that would be great
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    Post  miketheterrible on Sun Nov 24, 2019 11:25 pm

    PhSt wrote:


    Rugged notebook for military were shown in the exhibition "Army-2019". The laptop is developed by the JSC "Izhevsk motor Plant axion-holding".

    Now if only Russia can produce laptops and other electronic units for civilian use that will rival foreign brands like Acer, Dell, Samsung, etc then that would be great

    Dell, Acer, Samsung dont make components for computers (well, Samsung does via the DRAM and other memory modules used for video cards, RAM modules and SSD hard drives). The rest are just brands of pre-built machines. If that is the case, they have their own called Kraftway which is huge (they make their own motherboards) and GS Group which makes SSD's and alike.
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    Post  PhSt on Mon Nov 25, 2019 12:11 am


    they have their own called Kraftway which is huge (they make their own motherboards) and GS Group which makes SSD's and alike.

    Kraftway and GS needs to broaden their electronic business portfolios and expand into foreign markets, although there is a chance that these brands will be demonized in the west like what they did to Huawei, there is a lot of room for expansion in Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America
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    Post  PhSt on Wed Nov 27, 2019 2:06 am


    Not good, American software in Russian computers means America gets to profit out of Russia at the expense of Russia's own domestic software developers, not to mention these computers are vulnerable to American hacking through backdoor access.
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    Post  DerWolf on Thu Nov 28, 2019 12:33 am

    Wasnt something being discussed by goverment about switching to Russian softwere by mandatory by mid 2020? I remember to have read smth about this.
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    Post  GarryB on Thu Nov 28, 2019 1:06 am

    I saw an RT documentary that was really really funny... it was regarding the EU and all their anti monopoly laws and rules that they enforce against Gazprom and Russia regarding gas supplies, but when it comes to contracts for governments over operating systems for computers used in governments they go through the motions of holding competitions for software support but in the west Microsoft has no real competition so they just win and recently to save money they stopped holding evaluations and just bought Microsoft software like office etc because they say there is no alternative.

    It was interesting in the German case because it was just after it was shown the US NSA had been spying on German government officials and had been using microsoft products amongst others to do so.

    Huawei should be thankful of US sanctions against US companies working with Huawei... it is probably their only chance to avoid the US getting spy ware in to their products...
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    Post  PhSt on Tue Dec 03, 2019 2:58 am

    Putin signs law on Russian software pre-installation on smartphones, computers

    MOSCOW, December 2. /TASS/. Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a law stipulating the need of preinstalling applications targeted at the Russian audience on smartphones, computers and TV sets with the Smart-TV function. The document was posted on the official website of legal information on Monday.

    The law provides that when selling certain kinds of technically sophisticated goods, consumers should be provided with an opportunity for using such goods with preinstalled Russian programs for computers. The Russian government will determine the list of technically sophisticated goods and the procedure of compiling and maintaining the list of Russian programs to be preinstalled on such goods, along with their pre-installation procedure.

    A bill stipulating liability for the sale of technically sophisticated goods without the preinstalled Russian software has been recently submitted to the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament. The bill suggests fines for violations of prescribed requirements in the range from 30,000 to 50,000 rubles ($466.9 - $778.1) for officials and from 50,000 to 200,000 rubles ($778.1 - $3,112) for legal entities.
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    Post  GarryB on Wed Dec 04, 2019 12:35 pm

    Western companies claim this law will be bad for Russian consumers because western makers of digital systems will leave the Russian market if they can't impose their own software on Russian customers.

    This is such an obvious law... they should have imposed it years ago... these companies put their own software on their products and prevent other software from being used to help them control the market and keep tabs on their customers... forcing them to allow alternative software options is excellent for the consumer... I have a really old Samsung phone that has all sorts of software I never use but can't remove from the phone. The best I can do is just prevent it updating and getting bigger and taking up more space on my phone.

    Forcing them to allow you to use alternative software if you choose should be a basic requirement on all hardware...

    Anyway, I found this article which is rather interesting and amusing... it seems the Russians are going to start importing German nuclear waste again and there are protests coming especially from the west.

    On the face of it I thought... why is Russia taking on that shit, they should let Germany deal with its own rubbish... but this article convinced me otherwise and it is because of the technology knowhow in Russia that it actually makes sense.

    As far as Germany is concerned this depleted Urainium is useless waste, and toxic enough to want to get rid of, but as this article states Russia has the ability to extract useful uranium isotopes from this DU, but also their new reactor types that are called fast neutron reactors... sometimes called breeder reactors... can use depleted Uranium fuel rods and placing them near the pile or reactor core can be recycled into nuclear fuel that can be sold back the customers like Germany... who will pay Russia to take back when it is spent as DU and Russia can place it in their reactors generating electricity for themselves to refuel it up to sell back... the ideal sort of recycling that is worth a lot of money.

    Russia has a large amount of DU that can be converted into valuable fuel rods it can sell and then get paid to take back when they are spent..... it is brilliant.

    https://topcor.ru/12178-zachem-rossija-skupaet-nemeckij-obednennyj-uran.html

    {note link fixed... sorry... accidentally put link about Georgia instead of proper link}

    Here is English translation:

    Why Russia is buying German depleted uranium
    Last week in our country, a wave of protest rallies. Cause of popular discontent was the resumption of German imports to us depleted uranium. People don't agree with the fact that Russia is gradually turning into "radioactive burial ground." In this case, the protesters do not believe the assurances of "Rosatom" that no danger is actually there.

    The week before the pickets "defenders of environment" held in Germany. It is worth Recalling that 10 years ago a similar situation led to the termination of the transaction on the import of the German "nuclear tailings" in Russia.

    But why "Rosatom" resumed "radioactive cooperation"? And so if it really dangerous? For the answer we turn to physics.


    The fact that on its territory, our country imports is not entirely waste. Raw material for the production of nuclear fuel is uranium ore, production of which is conducted in the mines. The latter contains the isotope U-235, which subsequently produced fuel for nuclear power plants.

    However, the content ratio of the isotope in the ore is too low (0,7%). The solution to the problem was the enrichment of uranium, a byproduct of which is depleted uranium considered waste. But despite the "status" of substances, it also contains small amounts of U-235.

    Our country has a technology that is able to extract from depleted uranium quite a lot of valuable isotope. In fact, "waste" this product is only for Europe due to its technological ignorance.

    In the end, it becomes clear that Russia accepts Germany is not waste, but valuable raw material for recycling. At the same time, we send back "doobogascheny" uranium, for which the income received.

    After the above processing, we are left with depleted uranium, to enrich no one can not. At the same time, it does not represent a radiation hazard, but contains fluoride, which can contaminate the environment. This and "under pressure" the activists.

    However, not everyone knows that the substance we are not buried in the ground. It is stored in special metal containers and now in Russia is over 1 million tons of such waste.

    Similarly, depleted uranium stored in other countries with developed nuclear power. And most importantly, that no one, except Russia, does not know what to do with it.

    The main "trump card" of our country is a Breakthrough project, work on which is underway since 2011. It involves the creation of new nuclear technologies based on closed nuclear fuel cycle using fast neutron reactors. The successful implementation of the ambitious project will open up before mankind a new era, as all the accumulated nuclear waste can be used for energy.

    According to preliminary estimates, the aforementioned "reserves" will be enough to provide the whole planet with electricity for the next 3000 years. Thus, the revolutionary technology will be only in Russian. In fact, as a significant part of the accumulated waste.
    GarryB
    GarryB

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    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 25 Empty Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  GarryB on Wed Dec 04, 2019 2:41 pm

    Note the article mentions the depleted Uranium Russia has in storage is enough to generate electricity for the entire planet for 3,000 years... what it does not mention that DU can also be used for ammo for weapons like penetrators for tank rounds, but rather more importantly it can be placed in a breeder reactor long enough to be enriched past the level needed to make it fuel for a civilian power reactor, to the level of nuclear weapons grade fuel... so while the US has been storing its old nuclear warheads and Russia has been selling its old warhead material to be used in US NPPs as fuel, if the Russians do need a lot of nuclear warheads quickly they have the capacity to do so very easily...

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