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    Voronezh EW radar: News

    George1
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    Post  George1 Wed Jun 26, 2019 3:05 pm

    Russia to build missile early warning radar in Crimea by late 2020 — source


    A contract on building the Voronezh radar will be concluded during 2019, a source said


    KUBINKA /Moscow Region/, June 26. /TASS/. Russia’s top brass will sign a contract on building the Voronezh-CM early missile warning radar in Sevastopol, which is set to enter service by late 2020, two sources in the defense industry told TASS on the sidelines of the Army-2019 forum on Wednesday.

    "A contract on building the Voronezh radar will be concluded during 2019," one of the sources said.

    The other source confirmed to TASS that under the existing plans the Voronezh-CM radar of the national early missile warning system was due to be built in Crimea before the end of 2020. The radar’s construction requires about 18 months, the source said. "By December 2020, the radar station in Crimea is due to go operational," the source said, adding that in case of a delay with the contract’s signing, the timeframe of putting the radar into operation would be rescheduled.

    Missile early warning radar stations are designated to obtain and provide data on missile launches and missile trajectories to warn about a missile strike against state and military command and control centers. They also provide data on space objects for outer space control. New-generation Voronezh radar stations make up the backbone of Russia’s ground-based missile early warning system echelon.

    Four new Voronezh radar stations are on combat duty in the Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Irkutsk and Krasnodar Regions. Three more Voronezh new radar stations have entered experimental combat duty in the Krasnoyarsk, Altai and Orenburg Regions.

    The Voronezh-CM is the most advanced radar with the high-precision target detecting capability. Its index indicates the station’s centimeter (cm) wavelength. The cm radar is capable of gathering maximum data on any target within its coverage area.

    https://tass.com/defense/1065651
    franco
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    Post  franco Fri Oct 11, 2019 3:37 pm

    Update on construction and locations of Voronezh EW radars.

    http://russianforces.org/blog/2019/10/russia_continues_construction.shtml
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    Post  Tsavo Lion Mon Dec 02, 2019 4:51 am

    Russia will create a continuous radar field for aerodynamic targets
    George1
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    Post  George1 Sat Jul 04, 2020 12:46 am

    Sevastopol missile attack early warning system radar to enter service in 2024

    https://tass.com/defense/1174361
    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS Thu Oct 15, 2020 9:38 pm

    The improved missile attack warning system in the Russian Federation will take over duty in 2021 - General Designer

    Moscow. October 15th. INTERFAX-AVN - The advanced missile attack warning system (EWS) is expected to take over on alert next year, EWS chief designer Sergei Boev told Interfax on Thursday.

    "The remarks that came from the Russian Ministry of Defense have been eliminated. The regularly improved system should be put into operation in 2021," he said.
    According to him, the system, in particular, was strengthened with new locators, command posts, data transmission channels were modernized.
    In August, at the Army-2020 military-technical forum, Boev told Interfax that state tests of the improved early warning system had been completed.
    The Russian early warning system includes command communications facilities, ground and space echelons of information facilities.
    The ground segment consists of a network of Voronezh over-the-horizon radars. They operate in various radio wave bands. Radar stations are capable of detecting space,ballistic and hypersonic objects.
    Radar stations "Voronezh" are on duty in the Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Irkutsk, Orenburg regions, in the Altai, Krasnodar and Krasnoyarsk regions. Two new early warning systems for the Russian military are being built near Murmansk and Vorkuta, and another is planned to be built in Crimea.
    It was reported that the orbital group of early warning systems will in the future consist of 10 Tundra spacecraft, which should be deployed by 2024.

    https://www.militarynews.ru/story.asp%3Frid%3D0%26nid%3D539875%26lang%3DRU

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    Hole
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    Post  Hole Fri Nov 06, 2020 11:56 am

    Voronezh EW radar: News - Page 5 Radar_14
    Voronezh EW radar: News - Page 5 Radar_15
    Vorkuta

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    franco
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    Post  franco Fri Nov 06, 2020 1:02 pm

    What is the difference between the two systems?
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Nov 06, 2020 1:11 pm

    franco wrote:What is the difference between the two systems?
    Voronezh-VP (77Ya6-VP) - high-potential VHF radar, development of the Voronezh-M station. The number of transmitting and receiving units has been increased several times. Power consumption - up to 10 MW

    Voronezh-SM works in the centimeter range.
    franco
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    Post  franco Fri Nov 06, 2020 1:19 pm

    Ranges?
    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Nov 06, 2020 1:30 pm

    franco wrote:Ranges?

    Both have 6,000km horizontal range. 8,000km vertical (near space observation) range. And could probably detect objects 10,000km in ideal (likely weather related) conditions.
    kvs
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    Post  kvs Fri Nov 06, 2020 6:50 pm

    Russia should spend more of that precious social welfare coin that liberasts always bleat about and build more
    of such complexes. Make sure that no yanqui warhead coming from anywhere is missed even in the worst weather
    since humans walked the Earth. More complexes also mean it would be harder for all of them to be sabotaged.
    Yanquis clearly think they have an ace up their sleeve with all the yapping about limited nuclear strikes. I think
    the only angle they could possibly have is with meat puppets. Humans can be bought and sold and there are
    a lot of retards in Russia who spooge themselves just thinking of the mythical good life in the precious NATzO
    west. Making it harder for these meat puppets to succeed should always be a priority.

    LMFS
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    Voronezh EW radar: News - Page 5 Empty In Komi will finish building the radar station "Voronezh"

    Post  LMFS Sun Jan 03, 2021 1:51 am

    In Komi will finish building the radar station "Voronezh"

    MOSCOW, 2 Jan-RIA Novosti. The Voronezh radar station of the Russian missile attack warning system will be completed in the Komi Republic in 2021, the company said.Ministry of defense of the Russian Federation.
    Voronezh radars form the basis of ground-level radar equipment of the missile attack warning system.
    "This year, it is planned to complete the construction of the Voronezh radar station in the Komi Republic," the military Department said in a statement.
    Currently, seven such stations are on combat duty - on the territory of Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Irkutsk, Orenburg region and Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk andAltai Krai. Construction of a new radar station is underway inThe Murmansk region.

    https://ria.ru/20210102/voronezh-1591796805.html

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    franco
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    Post  franco Tue Jan 12, 2021 4:27 pm

    Second Yakhroma SPRN radar to be built in Chukchi region after first unit built in Sevastopol.

    The newest radar station (radar) "Yakhroma", which will be part of the missile attack warning system (SPRN), will be built by 2030 in the Chukchi Sea region. A source in the military-industrial complex told TASS about it. “By 2030, it is planned to build the Yakhroma radar station in the Chukchi Sea region. The station will operate fully automatically, without the constant presence of people at the facility, ”he said. At the end of December 2020, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, during the final collegium of the military department, announced that in 2021 the Defense Ministry is to begin work on the construction of the Yakhroma radar in Sevastopol. A source in the military-industrial complex then told TASS that the Yakhroma radar station has no analogues. The station will operate in four bands: meter, centimeter, decimeter and millimeter, the station will have a view of 270 degrees.
    Tsavo Lion
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    Post  Tsavo Lion Sun Jan 24, 2021 7:47 pm

    It'll cover all of the mid-Arctic Ocean & the N. Pacific:

    https://youtu.be/MDuOpp05nKo?t=38
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    Post  Arrow Sun Feb 14, 2021 9:45 am

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kp94BF1UljQ&feature=emb_title

    Russia has made tremendous progress with long-range EW radar stations. Modern Voronez M / DM / SM and the next generation of Yarkhoma stations fully automated working in four bands. Plus new OTH radars. Has the US made such progress in its counterparts?
    George1
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    Post  George1 Mon Feb 15, 2021 1:45 pm

    Russia to deploy latest early warning radar in Crimea


    Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said at the ministry’s year-end board meeting in late December 2020 that the ministry would begin work next year for building a Yakhroma radar in Sevastopol

    MOSCOW, February 15. /TASS/. Specialists are preparing to start assembling the latest Yakhroma radar station in Crimea to make part of Russia’s missile attack early warning system, Chief Designer of the Research Institute for Long-Range Radio Communications (within RTI Group) Sergei Saprykin told TASS on Monday.

    "The works are in full swing to develop equipment and software (considering the vast potential accumulated from the previous versions of radars), begin the manufacturing process and prepare the Crimean facility for the assembly. The radar will go on combat alert within the designated timeframe, in accordance with the schedule approved by the defense minister," he said.

    The radar will "integrate the latest solutions on digitalization in the hardware, which gives the chief designer a free hand in applying science-intensive algorithms of processing the data received on targets," Saprykin said.

    The Yakhroma will be a new version of the Voronezh meter wavelength radar. It will be deployed between the decimeter Voronezh stations in Armavir and Kaliningrad, thus completing the work on building a two-range radar field, he said.

    "The Yakhroma concludes the series of meter wavelength radars. Further on, there are plans to upgrade and build up the potential of deployed meter wavelength stations based on their integrated technologies," the chief designer said.

    Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said at the ministry’s year-end board meeting in late December 2020 that the ministry would begin work next year for building a Yakhroma radar in Sevastopol.

    https://tass.com/defense/1256477


    Latest Voronezh radars to replace all Russian existing airspace control systems


    MOSCOW, February 15. /TASS/. The latest Voronezh-type radars will replace all the Russian existing airspace control systems, Chief of the Space Troops’ Main Center for Missile Attack Warning within Russia’s Aerospace Force Colonel Andrei Revenok said on Monday.

    "In the future, new Voronezh-type radars are set to replace all the existing Dnepr, Daryal and Volga stations," the colonel said in an interview with the Defense Ministry’s Krasnaya Zvezda newspaper.

    https://tass.com/defense/1256441

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    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible Mon Feb 15, 2021 2:07 pm

    So Voronezh radar really is the be all new gen radar.
    franco
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    Post  franco Mon Feb 15, 2021 2:52 pm

    Today is the 50th anniversary of the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System or SPRN system.
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    Post  thegopnik Mon Feb 15, 2021 9:48 pm

    So in other words its not only the frequencies that might make it considered to be a photonic radar, but the company RTI that deals with photonic radars is making it.
    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS Tue Feb 16, 2021 12:33 am

    General Designer Saprykin: Russia's early warning system can track missile launches from anywhere in the world

    50 years ago, radar stations (radars) took up combat duty, which became the prototype of today's unique missile attack warning system (EWS). The main task of the system today is to detect and warn about the launch of ballistic missiles and missile attacks. The early warning system provides information about the aggressor state, the attacked areas, the time before the arrival of warheads and the scale of the missile strike. These data make it possible to make adequate decisions on countering threats, as well as to provide guaranteed retaliation in the event of an attack on Russia.

    In an interview with TASS, Sergey Saprykin, General Designer of the Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communication (part of the RTI holding), spoke about how the modern early warning system was born and what it is capable of now, as well as how the system will develop further and whether it is capable of tracking promising types of weapons ... Saprykin is the head of the creation of decimeter high factory readiness radars (VZG) "Voronezh", as well as a whole family of stations that form the basis of the missile attack warning system.

    - Sergei Dmitrievich, please tell us how the modern early warning system was born? How and why did the designers come to the Voronezh radar?

    - The main task of the missile attack warning system is to ensure, together with other components of aerospace defense and strategic nuclear forces, the inevitability of retaliation to the aggressor in the event of a nuclear missile strike on our country. This principle has been the basis for the conflict-free coexistence of nuclear powers on our planet for more than half a century, and the conditions for maintaining the strategy of nuclear deterrence are provided.

    The prototype of the future early warning missile system was a radar complex for early detection of ballistic missiles as part of RO-1 and RO-2 units (located in Murmansk and Riga, respectively - TASS note) and a command post in the Solnechnogorsk region. The initiator of the creation of the complex was the RTI (Radio Engineering Institute) known to us under the leadership of Alexander Lvovich Mints. This happened in the mid-1960s. We worked quickly. On August 25, 1970, the complex was adopted by the Soviet army. And the birthday of the early warning missile system is considered February 15, 1971, when the Separate Missile Attack Warning Division under the command of General Vladimir Strelnikov, which included these two units and the command post, took up combat duty.

    The next step was the creation of an integrated missile attack warning system that would cover the entire territory of the USSR. It included radars for long-range over-the-horizon and over-the-horizon missile detection and space echelon facilities for early detection of ballistic missile launches.

    Not everything worked out as planned. Over-the-horizon radars were closed due to lack of resources. By the early 1990s, not all radars were built, and after the collapse of the USSR, some of the stations were outside the borders of the Russian Federation.
    The leadership of the country and the Ministry of Defense did not give up in these difficult years. The subject of the early warning system received constant attention. It was at this time that the emergence of a new technology for early warning radar stations of high factory readiness took place. I talk about this with full responsibility, because I was in the thick of things and a participant in work in a new technological direction

    More than 30 years ago, OAO NPK NIIDAR, where I work, developed and applied a technology for creating an ultra-long-range detection radar, designated by the term "high-availability radar" (VZG radar). long-range airspace reconnaissance stations. On February 14, 1991, I was appointed chief designer of the first early warning radar station created using a new technology. adjustment work at the facilities has been sharply reduced, and the time required for the creation of "monster" radars has been reduced significantly!

    Today we say that we have closed the RF radar field based on the VZG radar of the Voronezh series in two wavelength ranges - meter and decimeter. A new technological solution in terms of design, together with the latest solutions in terms of circuitry, computing processes, algorithms and programs, made it possible in a very short time to upgrade the entire radar field of the early warning system, without greatly burdening the military budget. Now it is closed, solid.

    The year before last, by the way, the western node of long-range over-the-horizon detection of air targets based on the "Container" radar was put into operation.

    - Could you mention the unique properties of the Russian early warning system?

    - The ground echelon of the Russian early warning system is located entirely on the national territory and is a closed (continuous) dual-band radar field for detecting ballistic missiles, spacecraft and air targets.
    About this theme
    What military equipment will the Russian army receive in 2021

    In its current state, the field consists of a new-generation Voronezh-type radar of meter and decimeter wavelengths. The characteristics of the locators ensure their successful operation not only with modern means of attack, but also with promising ones. The modularity and open architecture of the Voronezh radar, software control of operating modes allows increasing their capabilities as the characteristics of the target environment change.

    - It was reported that in 2021 Russia should take up combat duty an improved missile attack warning system. What was modernized as part of improving the early warning system?

    - The missile attack warning system is always on alert. Continuously, around the clock. This is a very important feature of it. The ongoing modernization of the components, the commissioning of new objects in space and on Earth, does not for a moment break the combat cycle. At the same time, its development is ensured, outstripping the development of the corresponding weapons of potential adversaries.

    - Will the early warning system be able to adequately respond to the promising weapons that the United States and China are currently developing (hypersonic objects, objects that do not fly along a ballistic trajectory and have the ability to programmed flight control)? Will the early warning system be able to effectively track intermediate / shorter-range missiles that could potentially be deployed in Europe after the INF Treaty is canceled?

    - These tasks have already been worked out. At least 20 years ago, they were included in the tactical and technical assignment for a new generation of early warning systems. Our military science makes correct long-term forecasts. And on tests of new locators, checks for promising targets were successful. So so far nothing new has appeared for us in the target environment.

    - Can the Russian early warning system today track launches from anywhere in the world, including from areas of combat patrol of nuclear submarines in the world's oceans?

    - Of course, don't even hesitate. We find everything that "moves" in space, within the line of sight above the horizon. And in the atmosphere too.

    - Is the project to modernize the radar stations of the Russian early warning system already ready? What new items will be introduced (elements of artificial intelligence and so on)?

    - The locators of the system have recently been commissioned. And serve them for a very long time. The practical service life exceeds 30 years. The novelties you are talking about are no longer new for us. But imagine if a locator designed to prevent a nuclear missile strike begins to "think" and acquire intelligence. The modernization is foreseen and concerns capacity building and measurement capabilities.

    - Tell us more about the Yakhroma station, the construction of which in Crimea was announced by Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu at the annual board meeting in December 2020? Has the work on its creation already begun?

    - "Yakhroma" is a new version of the "Voronezh" radar of the meter wave range. She will be part of the early warning system. It is located between the decimeter "Voronezh" - Armavir and Kaliningrad, thereby completing the construction of a dual-band radar field.
    About this theme

    Shoigu said that the combat capabilities of the Russian army in 2020 increased by 13%
    Radar station "Yakhroma" in the Crimea will operate in four bands

    It implements the latest digitalization solutions in the hardware complex, which frees the chief designer's hands on the use of science-intensive algorithms for processing information received about goals. Work is in full swing on the development of equipment and programs (taking into account the rich backlog of previous versions of the radar), deployment of manufacturing and preparation of the Crimean facility for installation. The radar will take up combat duty on time, according to the schedule approved by the Minister of Defense.

    "Yakhroma" closes the series of VHF stations. In the future, on the basis of the technologies used in it, it is planned to modernize and build up the potential of the previously deployed VHF stations.

    - Has a decision been already made to build a new radar station in the Far East to control launches on the Korean Peninsula (this will be the Voronezh or Container radar)?

    - The Voronezh and Container stations have different purposes, their combat missions practically do not overlap - as if separated by the horizon line.
    Voronezh is rocket launches, space objects and slightly atmospheric targets that fall into the coverage area. And the "Container" detects targets moving in the atmosphere, beyond the horizon, invisible to conventional locators. And provides the detection of such targets at a distance of up to 2000 km outside the borders of the country

    Finding Korean launches is an interesting, but not the most difficult task. Not for the sake of it, locators will be deployed in the Far East, but for solving complex problems of missile attack warning systems, space control and long-range reconnaissance of airspace.

    - How do the early warning system and the Space Control System (OMSS) interact?

    - The missile attack warning system is the main data source for the national catalog of space objects. The parameters of the orbits detected by our radar of space objects are transmitted both to the command post of the early warning system and to the command post of the SKKP. The parameters of the most "interesting" space objects are additionally refined by specialized radar and optical complexes included in the Outer Space Monitoring System.

    https://tass.ru/interviews/10694779

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    LMFS
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    Voronezh EW radar: News - Page 5 Empty SPRN - Missile Early Warning System

    Post  LMFS Tue Feb 16, 2021 2:12 am

    Forewarned means protected

    February 15 marks the 50th anniversary of the first intercession of the forces and means of over-the-horizon detection of the Missile Attack Warning System.
    Colonel Andrey REVENOK.

    Over a half-century history, combat alert did not stop for a minute, and the Missile Attack Warning System (EWS) was always ready to fulfill its main task - to warn the country's political and military leadership of a possible missile attack. The head of the Main Center for Missile Attack Warning of the Space Forces of the Aerospace Forces, Colonel Andrei REVENOK, tells about the results with which the representatives of the early warning system came to the anniversary.

    - Andrey Vladimirovich, exactly 50 years ago, a completely new, incredibly complex and extremely important strategic defensive weapons system took over on combat duty, the main task of which was to ensure the detection of the launch of ballistic missiles of a potential enemy aimed at the territory of our country. How difficult was the task of creating such a system? What technical and organizational difficulties did its creators face?
    - The creation of the Missile Attack Warning System was caused by the military-political situation that developed in the late 50s - early 60s. The Soviet Union had a powerful air defense system, but the development of nuclear missile systems of the USA, France and Great Britain proceeded rapidly. In the Strategic Missile Forces, which appeared in 1959, the question arose: "Who will issue information for making decisions on response actions?"
    To say that the system was created from scratch would probably be wrong. Air defense stations were created and used, the principles and methods of radar were studied, but the range, detection heights did not allow detecting a ballistic missile with high reliability.
    The task of creating a complex for detecting a ballistic missile was extremely difficult.
    First, the radar must have a detection range of the head units of a ballistic missile at ranges of about 2,500 kilometers. Until that time, there was no experience in creating such radar stations.
    Secondly, it was necessary to detect targets with a small reflective surface and moving at high speed. Such targets were in the radar coverage area for two or three minutes. And in order to detect such targets, a new principle of detection and formation of detection information was needed.
    Thirdly, at such target speeds and lack of time for detection, the target detection process should only be automatic. This meant that completely new algorithms for processing radar information were required.
    Fourthly, after the target is detected, data about it must be transmitted to the command post several thousand kilometers away, and this information must be transmitted continuously as the target moves.
    Finally, it was necessary to organize the combat service of personnel in a special way. At the same time, the organization of combat duty in other branches of the military was not suitable for the warning system.
    A completely new problem turned out to be the influence of the auroras on the operation of the radar - the auroras completely "jammed" the radar with interference, which threatened to miss the target.
    We can say with satisfaction that all these problems have been successfully resolved. A combat program was developed and implemented into the operation of the radar station, which made it possible to confidently detect targets under the influence of aurora borealis.
    In the Central Research Institute of Communications, a data transmission system (SPD) was developed and implemented, which ensured the continuous transmission of a large amount of radar information from the radar to the command post.
    "Iron" was created, but it had to be effectively used, and here one cannot fail to mention the first commander of the PRN division, Colonel Vladimir Strelnikov, later the commander of the 3rd separate army of the PRN (OSN), who personally developed the Guidelines for organizing and maintaining combat duty. the structure of the combat crew, the rights and obligations of the combat crew numbers.
    The division was assigned a combat mission, the forms and methods of use were determined. The hard work of designers, builders, industry, and the military made it possible to solve all problems in the creation of an early warning missile system and successfully take up combat duty.
    - With the development of missile technologies and the rapid qualitative and quantitative growth of intercontinental ballistic missiles, the created Missile Attack Warning System was also improved. What stages of development did the SPRN go through to ensure the guaranteed fulfillment of its tasks?
    - The development of the nuclear missile potential of foreign states caused new threats, and they had to be feared, including by increasing the combat capabilities of the strategic defensive forces, which include an early warning system.
    Turning to the history of the development of the Missile Attack Warning System, four main stages can be distinguished.
    At the first stage, the early warning system was an early detection complex, consisting of two Dnestr-M radars and a command post.
    This complex covered only the northwestern missile-hazardous direction. With the development of missile technology, especially the construction of ballistic missile submarines, missile attack became possible from any direction. Therefore, it was decided to additionally build a radar station along the perimeter of the country, namely in Sevastopol, a second radar station in Riga and a PRN radar station at the Balkhash and Irkutsk space reconnaissance nodes.
    In addition, the Radio Engineering Institute (RTI) was tasked with developing a new radar "Dnepr" with significantly better characteristics in terms of the accuracy of determining the parameters of target movement, in terms of throughput and operational reliability. Part of the equipment of the first Dnestr-M radars was manufactured using now forgotten radio tubes.
    In addition, in 1970 the Vympel TsNPO was formed, the director of which was appointed in the rank of deputy Vladimir Ivanovich Markov. A preliminary design of the Equator-2 was developed at TsNPO Vympel, which determined the prospects for the development of the early warning system. Vladislav Georgievich Repin was appointed the chief designer of the early warning system, and he was involved in the development of the early warning system.
    As a result of this work, by 1976, the command post of the early detection complex (RO) was modernized into the command post of an early warning missile system, equipped with new computers by chief designer Mikhail Aleksandrovich Kartsev; a new display and control equipment and a warning system "Crocus" were installed, according to which warning information was communicated to the highest political and military leadership.
    In December 1976, the Missile Attack Warning System was put on alert as part of the command post of the early warning system and radar station in Murmansk, Riga, Sevastopol, Balkhash and Irkutsk.
    Portable warning consoles - "nuclear suitcases" in December 1976 were transferred to the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Defense Minister, Chief of the General Staff and Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Andrei Pavlovich Kirilenko.
    Thus, the first stage early warning system was created.
    Taking into account the importance of the tasks solved by the early warning system, and the location of the radar station throughout the country, in 1977, by the decision of the USSR Defense Council, the 3rd separate army of special purpose anti-missile systems was formed. Major General Vladimir Strelnikov was appointed commander. In 1979, the Dnepr radar station in Mukachevo (Ukraine) was put on alert, and in 1982 a space system for detecting launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) from the United States was connected to the early warning missile system, where 1000 Minuteman ICBMs were on alert ...
    The space warning system included a command post at Serpukhov and a constellation of nine spacecraft in highly elliptical orbits and one spacecraft in geostationary orbit.
    Thus, the early warning system became two-echelon. The first echelon was a space warning system (CSW), which detected the launch of an ICBM, the second echelon was a radar for over-the-horizon detection of ballistic missiles on flight paths.
    The third stage was the build-up of the combat capabilities of the early warning system in the 80s of the last century, when two super-powerful Daryal radars with phased antenna arrays in Pechora and Kutkashen (Azerbaijan) and the Daugava remote receiving position at the Murmansk hub were created and put on alert , which together with the radar station "Dnepr" made up the active-passive complex "Dnepr-Daugava", which significantly increased the stability of work in the conditions of exposure to aurora borealis.
    Thus, by the end of the 80s, the early warning missile system was capable of detecting both the launch of ballistic missiles from the territory of the United States, and the raid of ballistic missiles from almost any direction.
    At the fourth stage, work began on improving the created radar systems of the PRN and the development of a new generation of these means by the RTI Systems Concern, which united the research and production enterprises of the domestic military-industrial complex in the field of creating new generation radio-electronic and information systems. The high level of progress in the development of microwave microelectronics and digital computing technology has made it possible to radically change the approaches to the design and creation of a new generation of high factory readiness radar systems (VZG) of the Voronezh type.
    The VZG radar uses new energy-saving solutions based on advanced solid-state microwave micro-radioelectronics and the latest digital computing technology.
    In the future, it is planned to replace all existing stations of the Dnepr, Daryal and Volga types with new Voronezh-type radars.
    - The collapse of the USSR caused serious damage to the uninterrupted functioning of the early warning system. Many of the most important objects of the ground echelon of the system ended up on the territory of the newly formed separate states. How did these events affect its combat readiness? What measures have been taken to preserve the capacity of the system and maintain it at the proper level? How difficult was it to restore the integrity of the PRN system and increase its capabilities to the modern level?
    - Yes, the period was not easy, if the 80s could be called the apogee of the development of the domestic early warning system, then the period of the 90s was the destruction of the system.
    The beginning was laid by the adoption of a resolution of the Council of Ministers on March 28, 1990 "On the elimination of the Daryal-U radar station in Krasnoyarsk."
    Under pressure from the United States, the Skrunda node near Riga ceased to exist, and work at the Balkhash and Irkutsk nodes on the creation of the Daryal-U radar station at the Murmansk node was suspended. Radar nodes in Mukachevo and Sevastopol became the property of Ukraine.
    Most of the system's means required work to extend the technical resource. The stations were in combat mode with a reduced potential, but the technical reliability laid down by the designers made it possible to complete the combat mission.
    Even in these conditions, it was possible to develop the system. In 1996, the space system for detecting missile launches from the seas and oceans of the first stage was put into service, and the eastern command post of this system was taken over for experimental combat duty.
    In 1995-1996, an addendum to the complex draft design for the development and improvement of the early warning system was being developed, in which, taking into account the prevailing military-political and economic situation, the appearance of all the means of the system being created was specified.
    The radar station in Baranovichi (Belarus) was completed in 2003 under a government agreement and put on alert at the early warning system.

    Over the entire period of operation of the national PRN system, more than 2000 launches of domestic and foreign ballistic missiles and about 1000 launches of space rockets were detected.

    And here it should be said about the role of the commander of the PRN army, Lieutenant-General Anatoly Sokolov and the commander of the RKO troops, Colonel-General Viktor Smirnov, who did everything possible and managed to maintain the combat readiness of the army's assets, high morale and professionalism of the army personnel and ensured the successful implementation of combat missions in it's a busy time.
    Despite the complexity of interstate relations and internal difficulties, combat duty did not stop for a minute, and the early warning system was ready to fulfill its main task - to warn the country's political and military leadership of a possible missile attack.
    - Today, the PRN System is going through a rapid stage of high-tech development. The deployment of a network of new generation radar stations, created using high-availability technology, is nearing completion. A continuous radar field has been created, allowing continuous monitoring of all missile-hazardous directions from the territory of Russia. What makes these stations unique? What are their advantages over previous generations of radars?
    - Today, the ground echelon of an early warning missile system consisting of 10 radar stations forms a continuous peripheral radar field and ensures guaranteed detection of attacking ballistic missiles in all strategic aerospace directions along all types of flight paths.
    Military units of the Main Warning Center are located throughout the country from Kaliningrad to Komsomolsk-on-Amur. This geographical scope of the extraterritorial formation of the battle formation is associated with the specifics of the tasks being solved. First of all, with the need to provide the required warning time of a missile attack, which will be enough for the military-political leadership of the country to make a decision on counter-actions.
    Currently, a new generation radar network has been deployed on the territory of the Russian Federation, created using high factory readiness technology (VZG). The new Voronezh radar stations are on alert in the Leningrad, Kaliningrad, Irkutsk, Orenburg regions, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk and Altai territories.
    In addition, the modernized radar station "Dnepr" in the Murmansk region, "Daryal" in the Komi Republic and "Volga" in the Republic of Belarus continue to be on alert as part of the ground echelon of the PRN Systems.
    As for the advantages of the new stations, first of all, the Voronezh-type radars can be built easily and quickly, as well as upgraded during operation. This is their significant difference from the radars of previous generations, which had a rigid architecture, in which the structure was formed during the development process and practically did not change until the end of operation.
    Radar "Voronezh" is more modern, more economical, one might say, more intelligent and technologically advanced. It is not for nothing that a modern radar is called a factory-readiness radar, it can be compared with a kind of designer, the elements of which are manufactured according to the block-modular architecture, and all that remains at the facility is to assemble them in the right order. This allows, if necessary, to significantly increase the information and technical characteristics of the radar. The former plants were characterized by large, if not huge, dimensions and extremely high energy consumption. The power consumption of the VZG radar has decreased by four to five times. The size of the technological site on which the station is being built has also decreased, and, accordingly, the number of maintenance personnel has also decreased. At the same time, the tactical and technical characteristics of modern radars have not deteriorated in comparison with the previous ones,and even better in some respects.
    The financial costs for the construction of the Voronezh radar station are immeasurably lower compared to the construction of the radar station of previous generations, which is also a key factor in modern realities.
    The creation of new facilities of the PRN System is proceeding at a high pace. For comparison, the previous generation radars were built for more than ten years. Now, the construction of new stations from laying the foundation to putting them on alert takes about three years.
    - What are the prospects for the development of the ground echelon of the early warning system?
    - In order to develop the ground echelon of the early warning system, a continuous dual-band peripheral radar field is being created due to the deployment of high-availability radar stations on the territory of the Russian Federation.
    Work is underway to create a dual-band VZG radar complex in the Vorkuta region and a high-potential decimeter VZG radar in the Murmansk region.
    In addition, taking into account the relevance of the deployment of radar in the southwestern missile-hazardous direction, it was decided to create a VZG radar of the meter range in Sevastopol in the coming years.
    In the long term, until 2030, the development of the early warning system provides for the modernization of a number of VZG radars that are on alert in the Krasnodar Territory, the Irkutsk Region, and the creation of new equipment in the Leningrad Region and the Far Eastern Federal District with improved performance and noise immunity.
    The commissioning of these stations will ensure the completion of the re-equipment of the early warning missile system on a new generation radar.
    - Are the latest developments of foreign states in the field of creating promising means of aerospace attack taken into account when creating new radars?
    - Of course they are. The question of the possibilities of detecting foreign hypersonic weapons that are potential carriers of nuclear weapons is especially urgent now. I would like to note that the capabilities of the new radar stations initially included such indicators for counteracting the means of an aerospace attack of a potential enemy, which he has not even had yet.
    - The most important role in the PRN system is assigned to the space echelon. What tasks do space-based detection systems perform? What work is being done to develop the space segment of the PRN System?
    - At present, control of the positional areas of the launch of ballistic missiles from the territory of any state in real time is carried out using a constellation of spacecraft. The development of the first echelon of the space system PRN continues with the creation of the Unified Space System (CES).
    As part of improving the space echelon of the Russian PRN System, the orbital constellation of the Unified Space System is being actively built up. In May 2020, the fourth spacecraft of this system was launched. Thus, the stage of deployment of the EKS orbital group was completed, the completion of the formation of which is envisaged by 2024.
    The deployment of the CEN will ensure the fulfillment of tasks for the global control of the earth's surface.

    The creation of new objects of the PRN system is proceeding at a high pace.
    For comparison: the radars of the previous generation were built for more than 10 years. Now, the construction of new stations, from laying the foundation to putting them on alert, takes about three years.

    - The creation of the EKS affected only the orbital group of the early warning system, or has the ground control complex of the orbital group also underwent qualitative changes?
    - The spacecraft has become multipurpose, and the ground control complex has become more reliable, multiple redundancy of its systems, based on the use of modern domestic element base, provides information processing in real time. The likely aggressor has no chance of a sudden unpunished missile strike.
    - How does the PRN System work when it detects a ballistic missile launch from the territory of a foreign state?
    - In order to guarantee the detection of ballistic missiles from the territory of foreign states, the early warning system is built in two echelons: the first is space and the second is ground.
    To detect the launch of ballistic missiles, the Unified Space System is used with an orbital constellation of spacecraft in high elliptical orbits, providing control of all missile-hazardous regions of the Northern Hemisphere. At launch, the propulsion systems of ballistic missiles create a powerful torch, which is recorded in the infrared wavelength range by special on-board spacecraft detection equipment from an altitude of about 40 thousand kilometers. Information about the detected launch and the direction of movement of the rocket from the spacecraft is relayed to the ground command post of the space system and, after assessing the reliability, is transmitted to the command posts of the early warning system, where the warning information “ATTENTION. START. 1st echelon ". At the same time, an alert signal is issued to the domestic missile defense system.
    Further, when a ballistic missile approaches a distance of 4000-6000 kilometers, ground-based radar detects it, then follows it with the determination of the main trajectory characteristics and their delivery to the command posts of the early warning system. Based on the results of automatic processing of the received data, the information of the warning "ROCKET ATTACK" is generated, which is issued to the higher points of the state and military administration.
    - What is the complexity of the officers' combat duty at the facilities of the PRN System? How are servicemen selected and trained for combat duty? What universities train specialists in your profile?
    - As you know, in near-earth space there are tens of thousands of different kinds of objects. These are functioning spacecraft, artificial earth satellites and space debris. They are all sources of radar measurements that form our modern radar stations.
    In all this variety of incoming information, the combat crew should highlight the main thing, determine the reliability of the detected targets, and in a very short time - within a few minutes. This imposes rather stringent requirements on the level of professional training of the combat crew and on its coherence.
    In addition, combat crews conduct daily trainings to prevent and eliminate the consequences of natural and man-made emergencies.
    To improve the professional training of officers, combat crews of the early warning missile systems are trained daily on specialized training simulators. With the help of special software for combat calculations, the most difficult conditions of the radar situation in the established areas of responsibility of ground means are simulated, during which the combat crews work out the fulfillment of strict standards for the detection, classification, tracking of ballistic targets and space objects and the generation of warning information for a timely report to higher levels points of state and military administration.
    The training and education of officers for the military units of the Main Center of the PRN takes place at the A.F. Mozhaisky in St. Petersburg and the Academy of Aerospace Defense named after Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov in Tver, including students with operational and tactical training.
    - The PRN system was created in close cooperation with other missile and space defense systems - the space control system (SKKP) and anti-missile defense (ABM). What are the specifics and features of this interaction?
    - The project "Equator-2", developed back in 1971 under the leadership of Vladislav Grigorievich Repin, envisaged the creation of an integrated PRN system, that is, programmatically exchanging with missile defense and KKP systems.
    At the same time, the missile defense system issued target designations to the missile defense system, for its part, the missile defense system transmitted information from its radars to the missile defense system, the KKP system created a private catalog at the early warning system, and the early warning system became the main source of data on low-orbit spacecraft for the KKP system.
    The radar "Don-2N" of the missile defense system, which has the highest accuracy in determining the parameters of the spacecraft, allowed the KKP system to monitor the massive launch of small satellites and space debris.
    In 1978, the PRN, missile defense and KKP systems were united by a single program and began to continuously exchange planned information about space objects.
    And at present, despite the fact that the systems are organizationally separated, they work in a single algorithm, continue to improve in parallel and perform application tasks. So, the means of PRN daily issue more than 210 thousand measurements on space objects to the domestic control system of outer space, more than a thousand on especially important ones, providing almost 90 percent of all information on low-orbit space objects.
    In addition, information interaction with the missile defense system provides the early warning system with accurate target information during the detection of launches of space rockets from the Plesetsk cosmodrome and test launches of domestic ballistic missiles.
    - Tell us about the results of the activities of the PRN Main Center over the past 50 years of being on alert. What successes and achievements in improving and developing the PRN System, maintaining and increasing its combat readiness do you consider the most significant?
    - In total, over the entire period of operation of the national PRN System, more than 2000 launches of domestic and foreign ballistic missiles and about 1000 launches of space rockets were detected. In 2020 alone, more than 90 combat operations were carried out by combat crews of the PRN Main Center.
    In the course of using early warning systems, new forms and methods of using rocket technology by foreign states were identified, and successes and failures in the implementation of national space programs were determined.
    I consider the most significant successes in the improvement and development of the PRN system: completion of the creation of a closed radar field along the perimeter of the Russian Federation on the basis of radars created using the technology of high factory readiness; testing with a positive result of the improved early warning system, which allows detecting launches of non-strategic ballistic missiles, hypersonic aircraft and determining the parameters of nuclear explosions; introduction of the second stage of creation into the early warning system of the Unified Space System, thereby significantly increasing the combat capabilities.
    But I believe that the main achievement is that over 50 years of continuous combat duty, the combat readiness of the early warning system has never been violated, and unreliable warning information about a missile attack has never been issued to the notified points of military and state administration.
    - Tens of thousands of scientists, engineers, designers, industry representatives, and military personnel took part in the creation, development and operation of this unique system, which has been protecting our country from nuclear missile weapons for half a century. What would you say today to everyone involved in the creation and operation of this unique Missile Attack Warning System?
    - I would like to express my gratitude from the bottom of my heart for the invaluable work, perseverance and endurance to everyone who created and developed the warning system.
    It is obvious that the key to success is genuine love and dedication to the chosen cause, dedication and heroism of these people. And no one for a second had any doubts when creating the PRN System that the result of everything is victory!
    Thank you, thank you very much for your hard work and dedication to your country, your cause and our domestic Missile Attack Warning System.

    http://redstar.ru/preduprezhdyon-znachit-zashhishhyon/

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    Arrow

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    Post  Arrow Tue Feb 16, 2021 9:26 am

    In the case of Yarkhoma radars, misinformation has emerged. Earlier it was reported that the radar works in four frequency ranges. Now there is information that he works on meter waves? Rolling Eyes
    x_54_u43
    x_54_u43

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    Post  x_54_u43 Tue Feb 16, 2021 12:44 pm

    Arrow wrote:In the case of Yarkhoma radars, misinformation has emerged. Earlier it was reported that the radar works in four frequency ranges. Now there is information that he works on meter waves? Rolling Eyes

    Is not simply that one of the 4 channels uses meter wavelengths?

    thegopnik
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    Post  thegopnik Tue Feb 16, 2021 3:17 pm

    we still have 3 or more different sources even with the one stating just meter stated dual-band.
    GarryB
    GarryB

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    Voronezh EW radar: News - Page 5 Empty Re: Voronezh EW radar: News

    Post  GarryB Wed Feb 17, 2021 3:14 am

    In the case of Yarkhoma radars, misinformation has emerged. Earlier it was reported that the radar works in four frequency ranges. Now there is information that he works on meter waves?

    Do you understand the metric system?

    Whether you are measuring in milimetres or nanometres or centimetres or kilometres you are always measuring in metres.

    BTW the correct spelling is Metres... it is a unit of measurement.

    A Meter is a device that measures things like a light meter or a parking meter... or a multimeter that measures current and voltage and other things too.

    Saying it works in Metres is like saying you are measuring liquids in Litres... you might need half a litre for a model plane or a million litres to fuel up a ship... the fuel can be measured in litres.

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