Modernized tank T-80BM
The destruction of serial tank factories in St. Petersburg and Omsk in the mid-1990s led to the monopolistic position of Uralvagonzavod in terms of not only production, but also the development of heavy armored vehicles in Russia. The role of the head developer passed to the more recent underdog - the Ural design bureau of transport engineering. Various versions of the T-90 and the modernization of the T-72 type tanks, the designs of the UKBTM are well known for their shows at the Ural arms exhibitions. At the same time, the development of "competitors": KBTM and KB "Spetsmash" remained in the shadows. However, 10 years ago, these design teams offered options for upgrading T-80 type tanks, the level of which is exemplary today. The T-80BM tank modernized by Petersburg “Spetsmash” became indicative in this regard.
Work on the complex modernization of the T-80BV tank (OCR "Motobol") was carried out in 2006-2008. Modernization, with the exception of armor structures, underwent almost all the components of the combat vehicle.
In the process of modernization, the tank, designated T-80BM (Item 219M), was equipped with the following complexes, systems and units:
• A 45M fire control complex consisting of: a 1G46M, IUS 1V558 device, a 2E42M stabilizer, a metering device for bending the barrel of an UUI-2 and a night vision device from the Commander Agat-MD;
• Complex dynamic protection and means of reducing visibility. "Relic";
• A mine action protection system (SPMZ) with an electromagnetic fuse;
• Complex active protection T-08-A5-1;
• Modified KUV 9K119;
• Elements of Ainet equipment;
• Software and hardware complex ASUTB PTK-T-2;
• Thermal imaging device "Plisa";
• Elements of KOEP "Shtora-2";
• High-speed system PPO 3EC and two GOA-19 in the logistics department;
• Gun 2A46M-4;
• Auxiliary unit GTA-18A;
• 6P49 anti-aircraft machine gun with a ROM-7;
• Air intake;
• Device "digger-screen-straight";
• Mirrors rearview driver;
• Night vision device TVN-5.
A modernized T-80BM tank with a 1A45 fire control system would have enhanced (relative to the T-80U and T-90 tanks) indicators of the main combat properties: firepower and protection (integration of dynamic, active and individual protection, use of mine protection and deforming paint ).
The property of command controllability has been implemented, based on an information system, automating the processes of fire and movement control (maneuver) of a tank unit, monitoring the technical condition of the unit’s machines (for fuel, ammunition and technical maintenance of main tank systems).
OAO Spetsmash, together with co-contractors, developed design documentation and assembled a prototype of a modernized T-80BM tank. The direct assembly was carried out at the capacity of 61 BTRZ.
The T-80BM had outstanding characteristics, exceeding in many respects the Urals modernized T-72B2 tank (Item 184M), created in the framework of the design and development works “Slingshot-1” (stage 2).
However, further work on the T-80BM by the decision of the GABTU in 2008 was stopped.
An attempt to revive the work was undertaken by the leadership of "Spetsmash" in June 2010. In general, it should be noted that the milestone of the end of 2009 - the first half of 2010 was crucial for the Russian tank construction. The decisions made then slowed down the rearmament of the RF Ground Forces to promising and modernized products for at least another decade.
Below, I propose a push-up from the “Proposals on the formulation of experimental design work on the modernization of the T-80BV tanks being supplied by the Russian Defense Ministry”, dated by June 2010.
“The purpose of accomplishing the R & D is to increase the combat and operational characteristics of the T-80BV tanks based on the introduction of advanced achievements of domestic science and the use of the existing scientific and technical reserve of Spetsmash based on the results of the R & D project“ Improvement-2 ”,“ Relict ”,“ Motobol ”,“ Arena "," Slider ".
The state of January 1, 2009, of the design documentation and the prototype T-80BM manufactured earlier, made it possible to perform design and development work in 1.5 years with preparation for preliminary tests, preliminary and state tests and development of documentation for mass production.
Major modernization activities include:
a) Equipping tanks with a thermal lens “Plisa”.
The sight is manufactured in series, in a prototype tank T-80BM installed.
b) Equipping tanks with software and hardware complexes PTK (with instrumentation of command control for work as part of the ESU TZ). Design documentation is available, PTK samples within the RZD "Slider" underwent preliminary and state tests, interdepartmental tests are being completed, and operational-military operation is being carried out. PTK in the prototype tank T-80BM installed.
c) Application of the modernized fire control complex 1А4-1. Design documentation approved for mass production.
d) Installation of protection with enhanced performance, including:
1) Built-in dynamic protection and means of masking from OCR "Relikt". There is a batch production documentation. In the prototype tank T-80BM installed.
2) The complex of individual protection from the ROC "Shtora-2". Design documentation developed. In the prototype tank T-80BM installed.
3) The system of electromagnetic protection from the ROC "Improvement - 88". Design documentation developed. Protection modification passed preliminary tests. In the prototype tank T-80BM installed.
e) Installation in the tank of the 9K119M guided-armament complex instead of the dismantled 9K112, as well as the installation of serial component parts: 2A46M-4 guns (instead of 2A46M), a closed-type anti-aircraft gun, air intake unit, GTA-18A gas turbine unit.
Additionally, work can be performed to improve the characteristics of the upgraded tank by using the approved reserve in part:
- the installation of the hydrovolume mechanism of rotation and steering to it (there is a prototype, modification of the prototype has passed state tests);
- creation of a high-power motor-power plant with a 1400 hp gas turbine engine.
- the onboard information and control system of the tank chassis, which increases the efficiency of using the main gas turbine engine (there is a prototype installed in the tank chassis).
The main components of raising KWT:
- firepower (increased shooting accuracy, rate of fire, detecting abilities, closed memory, laser range finder and automatic correction input for firing from the commander’s place);
- protection (complexing of dynamic, active and individual protection, use of mine protection and deforming paint);
- command controllability (installed software and hardware complex PTK-T-2 for a linear tank and created a digital connection between equipment PTK and KUO for two-way transmission of intelligence data and target designation, as well as elements of robotized
After 10 years, we see that practically nothing of these proposals in the series has been implemented. The modernized T-80BVM tank demonstrated at the Zapad-2017 exercises in 2017 only partially uses the modernization reserve that was available at the Spetsmash at the beginning of 2009. Completion of the T-80BVM, judging by the images submitted by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, is even poorer. The tank fleet of the Russian Ground Forces, despite the massive influx of modernized T-72B3 and T-72B3M in the period 2011-2018, can in no way be called modern due to the inferiority of these samples, not corresponding to the level of modern armored vehicles like the West and now also of China.