Advantages of the "Sky-M" complexes in the anti-missile link of the RF VKS: irreplaceable assistants of "Voronezh" and "Podletov"
January 18, 2017
In the network centric wars of the 21st century, long-range radar detection of prospective tactical fighter aircraft of the 5th generation and their lowly visible missile weapons is considered the fundamental basis for building reliable defensive tactics as a ground and air component of the air forces of any state, including military air defense and naval strike groups of the Navy. From the 80's - 90's. the technologically advanced regional and world superpowers are making enormous efforts to develop mobile high-potential radar complexes DRLOiU, as well as highly sensitive complexes for radioelectronic reconnaissance and passive location based on active and passive phased arrays, as well as ring-shaped phased array with an all-air survey of airspace. Another important task is also the early detection of high-speed supersonic and hypersonic air attack with a small radar signature, which include: combat blocks of ballistic missiles of different classes, small-sized guided combat "equipment" of M26 missiles from the Swedish-American MLRS GLSDB (represented by modified small GBU GBUs -39SDB) and other high-precision weapons.
For these purposes, a number of stationary and mobile radar systems with excellent power and throughput capabilities operate in the Armed Forces of Russia and China and operate in the meter, decimeter and centimeter wave bands. Stationary systems include: the radar systems of the missile attack warning system of Voronezh-M, Voronezh-DM, Voronezh-SM types (so far only in the draft), as well as new Chinese projects of missile warning radar with unknown ciphers. The stations are able to detect and accompany aerospace elements of the WTO with an EPR of 0.1 m2 at ranges of 3 to 5 thousand km. The most common Russian RTV and air defense stations "Protivnik-G", "Gamma-C1", "Podlet-K1", 96L6E and "Gamma-DE", as well as Chinese JY-26 and YLC-2V are ranked among the mobile. The radar data are often used as assigned target designation tools for long-range SAM systems S-300PM1 / S-400 and S-300V4 and HQ-9, interfaced with the latter via data buses of automated control systems for the mixed antiaircraft missile brigade type 9S52 Polyana-D4M1 ". The distinctive capabilities of these radars are: rapid deployment time, different ranges of operation and unification by universal towers for work on low-altitude targets. For example, a decimeter L-band radar (frequency 1-2 GHz) 59N6M "Opponent-G" is designed for long-range detection and tracking of aerospace objects at altitudes up to 200 km (low-orbit); the station can issue target designation of the SAM, as well as more accurate centimeter radar stations of the Gamma-C1 combat mode. The latter can easily be adapted to target designation and illumination with anti-aircraft missiles with ARGSN and PARGSN.
The 48J6-K1 station "Flying-K1" can be considered a radically improved low-altitude 76N6 detector. The ceiling of target detection is only 10,000 m, and the range is 300 km. At the same time, a solid-state PFAR operating in a centimeter X-band makes it possible not only to accompany the passage, but also to capture low-altitude cruise missiles with a small radar signature. Despite the possibility of working on ballistic objects, the angle of view from -2 to +25 degrees means that the station is "sharpened" for locating and ensuring launch of the ZUR exclusively for low-altitude targets. In other words, "Fly-K1" is the only multifunctional radar of low-altitude mode, which has no analogues in the world. Regarding the limiting speed of the escorted objects, the 49H6-K1 has a limit of 1200 m / s in this parameter (for hypersonic SWN with velocities ≥5 M, "Flying" does not work). The "Opponnik-G" radar has a speed limit of 2200 m / s. But unlike Podlet-K1, it works in the DM-band and does not allow to carry out auto-capture of air targets with an accuracy of three to five tens of meters.
Despite the excellent survey characteristics at low-altitude and medium-altitude sections of the VO up to 10 km (tropospheric section), a centimeter range of operation, the possibility to accompany at the pass to 200 VC, and also to seize some of them for accurate auto-tracking, the multifunctional RLK "Podlet-K1" can not Used as an independent radar. Its field of view on the elevation angle reaches only +25 degrees, and therefore above the RLC is formed a large unguarded funnel of the "dead zone" with a huge 310-degree sector. For its overlap, you need such a radar as VBO 96L6E, etc.
The radar complex, which complements "Flying-K1" in the stratospheric and exoatmospheric areas of space, is the all-altitude detector 96L6E. This complex is used as the main attached target designation equipment in the division of the S-300PS / PM1 and S-400 Triumph air defense systems and has the highest tactical and technical characteristics. VBO 96L6E has an upper limit of the detection zone - more than 100 km, has a maximum speed of the tracked target of 10,000 km / h, and is also capable of escorting 100 air targets with EPR up to 5 m2 at a distance of 400 km. It should be noted that the VBO 96L6E, which has a multi-beam antenna array, shows very flexible hardware capabilities for the formation of a directional pattern in the angle plane, and therefore can interchange the "Flying-K1" in problems of detecting low-altitude air targets.
The Chinese radios of the duty regime also do not lag behind domestic products. And the most interesting sample from the Middle Kingdom is the radar of long-range radar detection JY-26. For the first time the station was presented at the International aerospace exhibition in Zhuhai in 2014, and a year later all the Western press and the Internet exploded with scandalous reports about the discovery of unobtrusive F-22A fighters over South Korea with radar data. "Raptors" were transferred to the South Korean air base Osan in the spring of 2013 to show support for Seoul in disagreements with Pyongyang on the nuclear missile program of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as well as in the framework of the American-South Korean teachings "Foal Eagle" .
The discovery of the F-22A "Raptor" by the Chinese JY-26 radar is really eye-popping, because even with the location of the JY-26 on the eastern tip of Shandong Province (issued for 300 km in the Yellow Sea), the F-22A was detected at a distance 250-300 km. It is well known that the "Raptors", possessing EPR within 0.07 m2, can be detected by modern ground-based radars of radio-technical troops at a range of not more than 120-150 km. American and British experts say that the JY-26 operates a meter and decimeter bands (VHF / UHF-from 136 to 512 MHz), which gives good advantages in detecting distant small-size targets due to better propagation of low-frequency waves in airspace. But the high energy potential, which is distributed between 512 transmit-transmit modules of the active FAR station JY-26, still plays a big role here. If we are guided by such range indicators, it can be argued that a target of the "fighter" type with an EPR of 3 m2 can be detected at a distance of 600 to 750 km. For comparison, even a domestic radar detector of a meter range with 55Zh6U "Sky-U" is able to detect a target with a similar radar signature at a distance of no more than 420 km, and this is with a pulsed power of 500 kW. From this it follows that the JY-26 should have an impulse power of more than 800 kW.
Other radio technical anti-stems can be considered passive radio electronic reconnaissance stations. One of the best domestic stations of RTR and passive location is "Valeria". Equipped with a passive ring antenna, the antenna post, rising on a telescopic tower to a height of 20-25 m, makes it possible to find near and distant radio-emitting air objects at distances up to 500 km and altitudes - from the earth's surface to 40 km. Due to the fixed ring antenna array, the rate of updating information on radio-emitting targets does not exceed half a second, which is an advantage over standard rotating radars. The Valeria SRTR operates in the meter, decimeter, centimeter and millimeter wave bands, which makes it possible to locate UHF / VHF radio communication sources, tactical and strategic airborne radars (including those operating in the low-bandwidth LPI and HRP), radio altimeters of tactical and strategic cruise missiles, as well as active radar homing heads without opening their own coordinates. The "Valeria" will easily detect the radiation of the AN / APG-77 and AN / APG-81 airborne radar (installed on the F-22A and F-35A / B / C) in any modes of operation, and also fix the radiation of their on-board tactical information exchange modules on the channels "Link-16" JTIDS and IFDL.
A similar Chinese radio electronic reconnaissance and passive location station is DWL-002. Information about the product appeared in May 2014, after participating in the 9th International Exhibition of Military Electronics (CIDEX-2014). The Chinese analogue, like the ValTRiya SRTR, has the highest sensitivity even to the weakest radiation sources, which allows us to find not only air targets with radar facilities operating, but also in full radio silence mode. How does this happen? In addition to the radiation of powerful survey and multifunctional radar of the radio technical and air defense troops, the enemy's aircraft can irradiate a huge number of other radiation sources, which are meteorological radars, mobile towers of the decimeter radio communication, etc. The radiation from them is reflected by the principle of any other radio signal, and will be fixed by the passive antenna DWL-002. Thus, no air will pass unnoticed near the antenna post of Valeria or DWL-002, but with the difference that it will be detected from a much closer distance than with the included radar.
As is known, stations of passive location, in contrast to active radar stations, are usually represented by several antenna posts, which are separated on the terrain, which operate in meter, decimeter and centimeter ranges. Such a configuration presupposes an accurate determination of the coordinates of the enemy's radio-emitting objects when it is not possible to use the standard pulse method for determining the range to an air object that is used by standard radars. This method is called distance-ranging. Requires at least 3 separated passive antennas to calculate two values of the difference in distance between each post and the target (by the difference in the arrival time of the signal), as well as the determination of the intersection point of the hyperbolas of the obtained time differences with the spatial locations of the passive antennas. A similar method is also used in the passive reconnaissance station Kolchuga-M.
Despite the numerous advantages of all the aforementioned radio and electronic reconnaissance equipment, they are able to give the time for warning before the arrival of numerous ultra-small-sized hypersonic elements of high-precision weapons (speed 6-7M) in only 1.5-2 minutes, which is extremely inadequate for the timely alerting of all, operating in a network-centric linkage, anti-aircraft missile brigades and military air defense battalions. Additional mobile radar facilities with significantly higher energy qualities are needed, which would allow the missile unit to be notified in a certain area of the theater of operations about the approach of 7-fly aircraft for 4-5 minutes before their arrival.
This is not equal to the perspective multi-element inter-service radar complex 55Z6M "Nebo-M", combining the quality of missile warning, radar, and radar targeting for anti-aircraft missile units. According to a source in the Russian Defense Ministry, in the course of the year 2016, 5 Sky-M radar systems were transferred to the Air and Space Forces. The first sets began to arrive in the Air Force from the end of 2012. Thus, as of 2017, RTV has more than 10 sets of "Sky-M". Complexes are in service with parts of the RTV in the Eastern and Western military districts.
Passing the testing tests in 2009, the radar complex "Nebo-M" was successfully sent to state tests, but far from complete. Completely ready were only a meter radar module RLM-M, decimeter - RLM-D, as well as control cabin KU RLK; centimeter module RLM-S was then at the level of the draft design. But even in this composition, "Sky-M" was unique in its class parameters. Thanks to the high energy parameters of the meter and decimeter modules, even in the survey mode, the target detection range with EPR of 1 m2 reached 550-600 km, which was a record indicator among all modern radar-radar systems. The RLM-D (as a single element) refers to the most powerful mobile radar of the decimeter range, and, similarly to the other modules of the Nebo-M complex, is equipped with its own generator of 100 kW. The module is represented by a multi-element solid-state AFAR with a built-in phase shifter: a similar step allows the station to be used both in the circular scanning mode and in the sector-scan mode for more careful and long-term monitoring of the missile-hazardous direction.
The sectoral mode of operation is characterized by even higher pulsed power of the RPM radar modules, which allowed to bring the instrumental range up to 1800 km: at such a distance, "Sky-M" is able to detect the launching operational and tactical ballistic missiles and medium-range ballistic missiles. The speed limit of detected and followed targets reached 5000 m / s. The goal with an EPR of 0.1 m2 (the combat unit of an RCBM or a ULTR) can be detected at a range of 600-650 km, and 0.01 m2 - 300-350 km. Thus, the complex "Sky-M" is the record holder both in terms of multifunctionality and parameters of early target designation (2-5 min) for S-300V4 and S-400 "Triumph" anti-aircraft missile systems tied to the EKO system.
The Advanced Missile Attack Warning System The Russian Air Defense Space Troops are based today on the high-potential meter radar 77Y6 Voronezh-M, their upgraded versions of the 77Y6-VP Voronezh-VP, as well as the decimeter variants 77Y6-DM Voronezh- DM ". The stations of this family are built on the basis of light modular elements of the block-container composition; and, unlike such giant structures as the Daryal-U radar, installation of all necessary elements usually takes no more than 18-24 months. Since the moment of the entry, in February 2012, for the alert duty of the station "Voronezh-M" in the village of Lehtusi, Leningrad Oblast, VKO has already received 7 similar radars. This year it is planned to "launch" 2 "Voronezh-DM" in Yeniseysk and Barnaul, as well as 1 station "Voronezh-VP" in Orsk. A network of 7 stations formed around Russia a fairly dense radar field in all missile-dangerous air directions at distances of 4200 to 6000 km and altitudes from 150 to 4000 and 8000 km. Sectors of the Voronezh station survey in the European part of Russia overlap, which excludes the presence of unobserved "gaps" in the south-west, west and north-west air routes, and the record capacity of each Voronezh radar in 500 targets allows you to maintain control over the tactical situation even at the time of a massive attack by means of an air and space attack by the enemy. But this only applies to exoatmospheric hypersonic armament, since the lower limit of the survey zone for 77 N6 is about 100 km. All aircraft operating at altitudes up to 50-70 km are not included in the list of Voronezh targets.
You can not neglect the issue of the radio horizon. Even if 77J6-DM were adapted to work on low-altitude and medium-altitude targets (from 15 to 20 km), the radio horizon would be only 400-550 km for them, which does not give stationary Voronezh absolutely any advantages over the advanced mobile radar of the type "Sky-M".In other words, the radar complex "Sky-M" - the only mobile means of electronic intelligence that can perform early warning function on a low-and medium-high "gear» supersonic or hypersonic missiles and aircraft, while providing a decent time on reaching is the notification, as well as the possibility of rapid deployment on this or that site missile-HV. Are there many such areas in our state? Not so much, but it is still there!
Firstly, it is the north-east direction of the air (VL), which has always been one of the weaknesses of our EKO. In this area functions "Daryal-U" meter-radar missile attack warning systems. As with any other radar, the station "DTV", there are significant energy losses at the edges of the scan sector, that means the range loss, with the right edge of the directional diagram (DS) just about "covers" northern aerospace boundaries over the Laptev Sea, East -Sibirskim and Kara seas. It turns out that the sky over the northern areas of Siberia and Yakutia is almost not visible Pechora "Daryalom", and before the introduction of 'anti-missile unit "radar" Voronezh-VP "in Vorkuta (enlarged to 120 degrees field of view) is still 2 more years.
In such a situation can be an excellent solution occupancy 3 radar complexes "sky-M" along the northern seas washing RF. The first can be deployed near Norilsk. The second - in the vicinity of Tiksi: here he will perform not only the role of radar early warning system and AEW northern air borders of our country, but also serve as early warning mechanisms and target for anti-aircraft missile brigade and air defense, covering the main air base "Arctic power" "Tiksi". As is known, this year will begin to Tiksi gradually becoming a strategically important air harbor VKS Russia on the northern strategic direction. This AVB can also transfer strategic bombers-missile carriers Tu-160 medium-range missiles and missile carriers Tu-22M3. The third expedient to expand in the vicinity of Anadyr. At first,here also place a squadron or a regiment of MiG-31BM; secondly, a sector operation of the complex "Sky-M" will be able to cover the aerospace portion of the strategically important junction USAF - united airbase «Elmendorf-Richardson» (Alaska), which may well be placed tactical and strategic aircraft with hypersonic WTO .
The second is very unpredictable air area where complex "Sky-M" can be claimed - the south-western BH. In this area, there is a particularly high activity of the US Air Force tactical and strategic reconnaissance aircraft based at Turkish air bases and gum, and in the future will increasingly be carried out tests of Turkish tactical ballistic missiles family "Yıldırım". This constantly increasing military threat from Georgia, which will be located at the Vaziani military base a large contingent of the United Armed Forces of NATO as part of armored divisions and several «Patriot PAC-3" batteries complexes or «SAMP-T».
In addition, it is known that the command of the US and UK armed forces tend to increase their land contingent promising modifications MRLS GMLRS, which are equipped with guided missiles M30 and XM30 with a range of 70-95 km. Such a decision has already been made in the past year to strengthen the groups Ground UK troops sent to Estonia. In addition to BMP MCW-80 «Warrior», MBT «Challenger-2" drum drone MQ-9 «Reaper», as well as contingent strength of a reinforced battalion (800 men), London went to the Baltic country PU M270A1 MLRS. Correctable projectiles caliber 227 mm represent a serious threat to the divisions HR Russian border in the Leningrad and Pskov regions. They are no less dangerous than TRUNC ATACMS; Firstly,because of the low radar signature of 0.04 m2. Radar "Gamma-C1" can detect such shells at a distance of about 100 km, complex "sky-M '- in the region of 200-250 km in a sector mode and about 160 km in the circular scan mode. In "Iron Dome" detector of small targets as "sky-M" repeatedly advances Israeli MRLS EL / M-2084 complex.
Centimetric radar module RLM-EC - the main element, giving "Nebu-M" superior versatility. RLM-CE can perform eyeballs tracks aerial targets, their grip on the exact tracking of the issuance with accurate targeting for anti-aircraft missile units and air defense fighter squadrons. The module is profoundly improved embodiment 96L6E all-altitude detector and radar detector multifunctional "Gamma-C1"
Returning to the south-western BH, it is worth noting that is very logical deployment of WLL "Sky-M" on the 102nd military base in Gyumri. Here she will be a worthy response to the acquired Azerbaijan Israeli station «Green Pine», as well as be able to control huge swathes of airspace over Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Georgia. Any unauthorized actions of NATO tactical aviation and Israel in the Middle East will be immediately recorded in the complex calculation KU RLC control cabin.
The most important feature of RFCs "Sky-M" on the background of various radar standby mode is also possible to detect ekzoatmosfernyh targets at an altitude of 1200 km, which is 6 times higher than that of the radar "enemy-G." On the face of advanced radar concept with pronounced anti-missile qualities, able to detect, track, and even capture medium-range ballistic missiles outside the Earth's atmosphere. And despite all the emphasis placed today on the creation and promotion of the standard of review or multifunction radar with a range of 300-400 km, will soon RTV units will not be able to do without such complexes as "Sky-M." Indeed, progress in the design of hypersonic WTO members sooner or later impose more severe rules of war.