If they weren't interested in large fixed wing aircraft carriers the Kuznetsov would not have been repaired and upgraded and would not be going back into the water next year.
If they weren't interested in aircraft carriers they really would not need Cruisers either so big money would be saved scrapping the Kirov and Slava class ships they currently operate or have undergoing upgrades.
The fact of the matter is that a large ship is worth more than its weight in smaller ships because it is big enough to carry sensors and weapons that small ships cannot manage.
Aircraft carriers are intended to provide air support and air protection to those large surface ships... fixed wing fighter aircraft can move around the battlefield very quickly and can see down to the crests of the waves so no sneaky low flying weapon can sneak by them.
With satellites and other recon means you could detect a build up of enemy forces from an enormous distance and with aircraft you can go out and meet them rather further away from your ships which makes your ships much safer.
When it comes to dealing with manouvering hypersonic weapons I would suggest the best first option is to make the ships hard to see with smoke and jammers, and clever EW equipment, but also directly using laser weapons... a hypersonic missile flying at 3km/s just needs its nose cracked or damaged or overheated and what happens to it is essentially what happens to meteors or the second space shuttle that was lost.
Fitting a laser powerful enough on a ship is much much easier with a very big nuclear powered ship like a Cruiser.
I never really had an interest for the Russian Navy but the limit of how much nuclear warhead zircons a Yasen can carry is how many ships will get destroyed in a 1000km radius if fired from underwater which can destroy multiple carrier strike groups.
Hypersonic manouvering missiles are effective because they are new, just like drones seem to be all important, but as tactics and new equipment arrives their effect will be reduced.
Russian air defences have had decades to practise against manouvering hypersonic missiles... they have Iskander... the point is that they will not remain amazing forever... the best part from a Russian perspective it means a single missile from a Yasen will probably take a US carrier out of the game... it may not sink it, but it will shift from focussing on its mission to trying not to sink and how many aircraft it can get off before the deck angle is too steep to allow launches.
In comparison 30 US subs all armed with 12 tomahawks would all have to sail to the same sea and all line up the same target group of ships to have a chance of getting hits.
Russian air defence is very very good and as they make new ships those new ships will have elements of that air defence system combined making it better than it has ever been before.
Redut is S-350 and S-400, they will have everything from Verba and BUK and Sosna and Pantsir, plus guns with guided airburst shells from 30mm to 152mm as well as HMGs. Improvements to TOR will make it a universal weapon on the decks of most Russian ships.
Russian ships are going to be very well protected... not to mention they have decided that the second new 40K ton helicopter carrier will be dedicated to drones... presumably air, land, and sea, and undersea drones... the Soviets had anti ship missile swarms in the 1980s... who wants to bet they will have swarms of drones protecting their ships and land based forces first?