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    US Army Air Defence systems

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    Post  max steel on Sat Feb 20, 2016 12:13 am

    Short-Range Air Defense Back In Demand

    The Army is looking at placing more short-range air-defense capabilities in brigade combat teams (BCT).

    For more than two decades, the Army has neglected the short-range threat and focused instead on missiles, said Maj. Gen. John G. Rossi, commanding general of the U.S. Army Fires Center of Excellence and Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He was part of a panel discussion, Feb. 11, at a day-long Association of the U.S. Army-sponsored Hot Topics forum on Air and Missile Defense.

    Desert Storm, 25 years ago, brought the Patriot missile defense systems into prominence, Rossi said. "As we made Patriot better and we focused on it, in essence the Air Defense community migrated to what became a point-defense branch, a missile defense branch," Rossi said.


    "We took the 'A' out of Air and Missile Defense in many ways," he said. "We didn't think we really needed to focus on it."

    SHORAD or Short-Range Air Defense battalions were deactivated. "We took all short-range air defense out of the architecture as we focused on missile defense," Rossi said, adding "that's caught up to us."

    Now the proliferation of small, unmanned aircraft is forcing commanders to reassess the need for SHORAD capabilities to combat low-altitude threats.

    "We've got to find a game changer," Rossi said, alluding to the need to find more affordable and lethal air-defense systems.

    "We have to change the scenario or change the equation so it's more costly to attack than to defend," he said. "We've got to build to the future."


    The Counter-Unmanned Aircraft Systems Mobile Integrated capability, or CMIN, is among systems being researched for the future.

    "We already demonstrated this a year ago at Fort Bliss and we're going back again now for the [Network Integration Evaluation] in the spring," Rossi said about testing CMIN at the Network Integration Evaluation at Fort Bliss, Texas.

    CMIN uses a Q-50 radar to find incoming UAS, he said. The AN/TPQ-50 counter-fire radar was developed by the field artillery community to detect incoming rounds and calculate their trajectory.

    Once radar spots the UAS and they are identified, then CMIN has both non-lethal and kinetic tools to stop them, Rossi said.

    Other innovations being researched to boost air defense include new sensors and a hypervelocity gun.

    The hypervelocity gun weapons system uses a 155mm projectile in an air defense mode, Rossi said.

    It's a good example of what he called "cross-domain expansion," merging field artillery and air defense artillery platforms.


    Cross-domain expansion uses existing platforms in new ways, Rossi said, and is an important part of the Army Operating Concept.

    A battle-tested example of this is the C-RAM, he said. C-RAM stands for Counter Rocket, Artillery and Mortar system. It was adapted from the Navy Phalanx weapons system and was sent to Iraq for the protection of large forward operating bases such as Camp Victory and Joint Base Balad.

    "The neat thing about the C-RAM is it was cross-branch -- FA radars, ADA, aviation all put into one," Rossi said. "It was cross-service -- it was Army and Navy-ran, and it was cross-compo -- active and Guard."

    Such efforts are essential, Rossi said, especially as the Army gets smaller.

    Rossi is not advocating more force structure to bolster air-defense capability in BCTs.

    "What we're not going to do is bring back the SHORAD battalion and lay that on top of a BCT," he said. He explained that making a brigade larger would just detract from its expeditionary nature.

    What he advocates instead is "multi-functional convergence" or merging select branch attributes.

    "It can't be just ADA systems inside the portfolio of air defenders to solve this in isolation," he said.


    Air defenders need to work closely with everyone else in the maneuver force, said another member of the panel, Maj. Gen. Glenn A. Bramhall.

    "I think we've lost just about a whole generation of knowledge base of how we work with the maneuver force," said Bramhall, commander of the 263rd Army Air and Missile Defense Command.

    "One of the things we need to do is get back into the dirt -- get back into the maneuver forces and train their commanders on how do we integrate air defense, what does air defense offer... "

    Getting back into the dirt means integrating Air and Missile Defense units into National Training Center rotations, the AMD leaders said.

    It also means getting back to the basics of old-fashioned training such as how to employ camouflage netting over tactical vehicles to keep them from being spotted by aircraft, said Dr. David M. Markowitz, assistant deputy chief of staff for operations G-3/5/7. .

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    Post  George1 on Sat Feb 20, 2016 12:46 am

    i was always wondering why US Military hasnt any SHORADS except Avenger system

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    Post  franco on Sat Feb 20, 2016 3:24 pm

    George1 wrote:i was always wondering why US Military hasnt any SHORADS except Avenger system

    The US has enjoyed massive Air Superiority for a long period, so Air Defense has not been an issue until now.
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    Post  max steel on Fri Apr 01, 2016 1:13 pm

    US Army Fires Stinger From Multi-Mission Launcher in Test

    The US Army announced that it fired a Stinger missile from its self-built Multi-Mission Launcher on Wednesday at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.

    The missile test was part of a demonstration of the service’s new ground-based Indirect Fire Protection Capability Increment 2-Intercept (IFPC Inc 2-I) system to defeat unmanned aircraft systems, cruise missiles, rockets, artillery and mortars.

    IFPC Inc 2-I will also use the Sentinel radar and the Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS) for its command and control which will reach initial operational capability in fiscal 2019.

    Stingers were developed as a man-portable air defense infrared homing surface-to-air missile, but has been “adapted to fire from a wide variety of ground vehicles,” the Army said in a statement released Thursday.

    The MML is also able to fire Raytheon's AIM-9X Sidewinder missiles and Lockheed Martin's Longbow Hellfire missiles.

    Other types of missiles will be tested at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, as part of an IFPC Inc 2-I engineering demonstration “in the coming weeks,” the Army said.

    There are two prototypes of the MML which represent the first development of a major program by the government industrial base in more than 30 years, according to the statement.

    The Army spent $119 million to build the prototypes, which includes owning the technical data rights. The cost of developing the system outside of the Army would have been about three times as much, according to information obtained during a tour with the acting Army secretary last week of the Aviation & Missile Research and Engineering Development Command (AMRDEC) at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, where one of the MMLs was on display.

    The IFPC Inc 2-I is a joint effort between AMRDEC and the Army’s Program Executive Office for Missiles and Space’s Cruise Missile Defense Systems (CMDS) project office.

    The Army plans to build six more MMLs in the engineering and manufacturing development phase at Letterkenny Army Depot.
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    Post  max steel on Sat Apr 30, 2016 4:21 pm

    Army developing new air defense system

    The U.S. Army has been conducting a series of tests on the capabilities of a new air defense system in development.

    The system is called the Integrated Fire Protection Capability Increment 2-Intercept, or IFPC Inc 2-I, which is to protect soldiers from aircraft, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial systems, and artillery weapons, including rockets and mortars.

    "If you go back and take a look at what has happened in terms of the threat over the last couple years you'll find that UAS systems and cruise missiles have really become a problem," said Col. Terrence Howard, program manager for Cruise Missile Defense Systems. "So we've got to introduce materiel solutions that can address multiple threats."

    The IFPC Inc 2-I system under Army development is to integrate into the Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense system, or AIAMD, a networked air defense control system also currently going through testing at White Sands Missile Range in N.M., for a plug-and-fight capability using multiple systems and radars on a network to address whatever threat situation is encountered.

    Several tests of IFPC Inc 2-I were held this month and last to demonstrate the system's ability to launch various missile types and its ability to connect to the AIAMD system and use its Integrated Battle Command System.

    The IBCS is a computer system that allows a small number of soldiers to better manage and control a complex air defense network composed of different radars and missile systems.

    "(It's about) integration of a lot of existing capability," said Tamera Adams, chief engineer with the Army's Cruise Missile Defense Systems projects. "It's kind of like if you're trying to put together a new stereo system in your house. You're buying speakers from this vendor, a turntable from another and a DVD player from another. You're trying to put them together to get the best capability for your house."

    The Army's Multi-Mission Launcher, or MML, mounted onto a truck, is a visible feature of the new IFPC Inc 2-I. The launcher carries 15 modular missile launch tubes on a turret system. Tubes of the MML enable allow customization of the missile load.

    During the testing of the system, Hellfire Longbow and AIM-9X Sidewinders utilizing the IBCS and sensor data from a Sentinel radar unit have been fired, The MML has also conducted a ballistic test of the Miniature Hit-to-Kill missile for use against rocket, artillery and mortar threats, the Army said.

    IFPC Inc 2-I is a joint collaborative effort between the Army's Program Executive Office for Missiles and Space's Cruise Missile Defense Systems Project Office and the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center.

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    Post  George1 on Thu Feb 28, 2019 12:20 pm

    US Army Buys 144 MSHORAD Air Defense Combat Vehicles with Rada Israeli Radar

    After the decommissioning of the short-range Chaparel air defense missile system (MIM-72 missiles) in 1997 and the Hawk medium-range missile (MIM-23 missiles) in 2002, the only US ground forces (Regular Army, National Guard and Corps the Marine Corps, the ILC) remained the Patriot long-range air defense system and the Stinger MANPADS (there are a few exceptions, see the appendix; I also do not consider anti-missile defense equipment, such as THAAD or the purchased 2 Iron Dome batteries).

    US Army Air Defence systems 6595151_original

    Thus, the only short-range vehicle was the Stinger (FIM-92 missiles, range 4,750 m for early models, up to 8,000 m for FIM-92E). Moreover, they were used from various platforms (and even in the air-to-air variant for arming helicopters, is not considered here):

    • Actually Stinger MANPADS (MANPADS, Man-portable air-defense system).

    • Short-range Avenger air defense system (AN / TWQ-1 Avenger) is a gyro-stabilized platform with 2 containers of 4 missiles each, and other equipment based on the M998 HMMWV jeep (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, also Humvee or Hummer), this variant Jeep called M1097 Avenger.

    • Option air defense BMP M2 Bradley, the so-called. M6 Linebacker - M2A2, where the TOW ATGM was replaced with a container with 4 missiles. Entered service in 1997, all in this version were converted 99 BMP. But already in 2005-2006. with weapons removed, more precisely returned back to the configuration of conventional BMP.

    • Universal PU MML (Multi-Mission Launcher), on trial since 2016

    For example, in 2013, about 700 Avenger launchers, about 480 Patriots, and 1 NASAMS SAMs were in service.

    Now the US Army intends to purchase 144 new short-range air defense systems MSHORAD (Mobile Short-Range Air Defense or MSL - Mobile SHORAD Launcher) using the same Stinger, this time based on the Stryker wheeled armored personnel carrier (8x8) . According to the plan, procurement is scheduled for 2020-2024, with the first 36 (2 battalions) already by the end of 2020. According to other data, 36 is the staff of one battalion, i.e. all 144 air defense systems will go into service with 4 battalions. The prototype was submitted back in August 2017 by development companies (Boeing and General Dynamics), but apparently it has changed significantly since then.

    As can be seen in the picture, in addition to the container with 4 Stinger missiles, the armament of the new machine will include anti-tank systems with 2 Hellfire missiles (AGM-114 Hellfire), 30-mm M230LF cannon (version M230 Chain Gun, used on the AH-64 helicopter "Apache") and 7.62-mm machine gun coupled with it. It is possible to replace the "Stinger" on the AIM-9X "Sidewinder."

    The radar, which is planned to be used on this machine, is MHR (Multi-Mission Hemispheric Radar) of the Israeli company Rada. Each car will have 4 such radars installed, i.e. only 576, not counting the spare and training. Of course, the bulk will be released in the US (“Rada” has created its own branch there), but maybe some part or production of components will occur in Israel.

    Appendix: other US short-range and medium-range air defense systems.

    “Roland” is a French-German short-range air defense system (up to 8 km). The United States ordered this system in 1975, in 1979, the production of a rocket in the United States (MIM-115 Roland) was approved, but in 1981 it was decided to terminate the program. In total, until 1985, about 600 missiles were launched in the USA, and 27 air defense missile systems were purchased. It was planned to place them on the AC10 M109 chassis, but in the end they were limited to a stationary version, used for the defense of American bases in Germany. 1 battalion of these air defense systems was created, disbanded in September 1988.

    (Air-Defense Anti-Tank System) is a universal anti-aircraft and anti-tank system of short range (up to 10 km) of the Swiss development. In 1988 she entered service with the Canadian Armed Forces (based on the M113A2 armored personnel carrier). The USA showed an interest in the system in 1985, regarding it as a replacement for Chaparel, it was planned to deploy the complex to the base of the BMD M2 Bradley. The USA managed to order in 1987 8 test systems, obtained in 1989-1990. The rocket received the designation MIM-146 ADATS in the USA. 562 rockets were ordered, then this number was reduced to 378. In 1992, the program (FAADS-LOS-FH) was curtailed.

    "Rapier" (Rapier) - English short-range air defense system (up to 8.2 km). The United States never bought it, but in 1981 it financed the purchase of 32 air defense missile systems (delivered in 1983-1985) for the British Armed Forces, and they used them to defend American Air Force bases on their territory. In 1985, the United States financed the purchase of 14 air defense missile systems and 600 missiles for the Turkish Air Force (delivered in 1987-1989), respectively, for the defense of the US Air Force bases in Turkey.

    The AIM-120 AMRAAM is a mid-range US air-to-air missile. In the land launch variant, the missile should be designated MIM-120, but this designation was not used, the missile was called SLAMRAAM or SL-AMRAAM (Surface Launched AMRAAM, range approximately 35 km for AIM-120A). Since 1995, the US Army has tested this missile in a missile defense version with a modified Hawks air defense missile system, then from the M998 HMMWV (so-called HUMRAAM — Hummer-AMRAAM) jeep. The HUMRAAM variant for the KMP received the designation CLAWS (Complimentary Low-Altitude Weapon System), it was considered as a replacement for “Hawk” and was developed since 2001, but in 2006 the program was canceled. And in 2011, the Army stopped the test program SLAMRAAM.

    NASAMS (Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) - Medium-range air defense systems (40 km) of the US-Norwegian development (1989-1993) to replace the Hawk. Uses AIM-120 missiles in TPK and American MPQ-64 Sentinel radar. Delivered to Norway (since 1994) and exported. Reached primary combat readiness in 1995 and full in 1998. In 2004, the United States ordered one such complex, retaining the abbreviation NASAMS, but changing its decryption to National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System. In 2005, PUs of this complex were deployed around the US capital, Washington.


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    Post  George1 on Sun May 10, 2020 2:48 am

    Upcoming sale of Hungary anti-aircraft guided missiles AMRAAM-ER

    On May 8, 2020, the US Department of Defense Agency for Defense Cooperation (DSCA) sent a notice to the US Congress on the planned upcoming sale of Hungary through the American program of intergovernmental foreign military sales (FMS) 60 Raytheon AIM-120C anti-aircraft guided missiles -7 / C-8 AMRAAM-ER for NASAMS, the Hungarian-acquired US-Norwegian anti-aircraft missile system. This shipment is approved by the US Department of State. The total cost of the proposed delivery will be $ 230 million, the delivery will also include four SATM-120S AMRAAM-ER training missiles, related equipment and technical support and training services.

    Recall that earlier in August 2019, DSCA issued a notice of the planned upcoming sale of Hungary by FMS 180 standard medium-range air-to-air guided missiles Raytheon AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM with a total estimated cost of $ 500 million - also for use as anti-aircraft as part of NASAMS acquired by Hungary.

    The AMRAAM-ER missiles now announced by Hungary are developed by Raytheon specifically for use as part of the NASAMS anti-aircraft missile variant of the RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) ship’s anti-aircraft guided missile with the installation of an active AIM-120C-7 / C missile homing radar on it -8 AMRAAM. This allowed to increase the firing range of SAMs when used as part of the NASAMS system up to 40 km (compared to 25 km using the AIM-120C AMRAAM series missiles). Field tests of AMRAAM-ER missiles as part of NASAMS were carried out in Norway in 2016, the start of mass production of AMRAAM-ER missiles was announced in 2019. Qatar became the first known customer of these missiles as part of NASAMS air defense systems in 2019. Hungary is likely to become their second well-known customer.

    Hungary's intention to acquire a NASAMS ground-based anti-aircraft missile system manufactured by a consortium of the American corporation Raytheon Technologies and the Norwegian Kongsberg group became known in February 2019, and the total purchase price is estimated at about $ 1 billion. performed by NASAMS 2), with the acquisition of ground-based elements of the system (including launchers and components of the Raytheon AN / MPQ-64F1 Sentinel radar system) directly from the Raytheon and Kongsberg consortium, and manufactured by Raytheon missiles AMRAAM and AMRAAM-ER - under an intergovernmental agreement with the United States in the framework of the American FMS mechanism. Previously, it was precisely such a procurement scheme for NASAMS air defense systems that resorted, in particular, to Qatar.

    Earlier it was reported that the Norwegian government threatened to block the sale of NASAMS Hungarian air defense systems due to disagreements over the management of Norwegian financial investments in Hungary through EU funds.

    NASAMS medium-range air defense systems (originally Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System, now stands for National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System), are jointly developed and manufactured by the Norwegian group Kongsberg (serving as an air defense system integrator) and the American corporation Raytheon Technologies. The system is based on the combination of the AN / MPQ-64F1 Sentinel radar and the use of air-to-air missiles with active radar homing of the AIM-120 AMRAAM family as missiles. The firing range of the system in a modern NASAMS 2 configuration using AIM-120C AMRAAM missiles is up to 25 km, and the reach in height is up to 14-15 km.
    Initially, the NASAMS system was created in the interests of the Norwegian armed forces, and now it is in service in Norway and in small quantities in the United States (where this air defense system has been used since 2004 for Washington air defense). The system has also been acquired by the Netherlands, Spain, Chile, Finland, Oman, Lithuania, Indonesia and Qatar, and is planned for purchase by Australia and India.

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