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    The Russian Military Automotive Fleet

    dino00
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    The Russian Military Automotive Fleet - Page 5 Empty Source: Platform-O electrical chassis for Topol and Yarsov adopted

    Post  dino00 Thu Mar 07, 2019 12:38 am

    Source: Platform-O electrical chassis for Topol and Yarsov adopted

    The interlocutor of TASS reported that within the framework of the first batch five samples from the Platform-O family will be received by the Armed Forces


    MOSCOW, March 7th. / TASS /. Domestic highly mobile chassis, created in the framework of the Platform-O development work, in particular for the Topol-M and Yars missile systems, have been adopted by the Russian army. This was announced on Thursday Tass source in the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation.

    "On the recommendation of the state commission, in view of the successful completion of state tests, the Platform-O family of highly mobile modular chassis has been accepted for supply by the Armed Forces," the agency’s source said.

    At present, Topol-M and Yars mobile soil missile systems use Belarusian multi-axle chassis manufactured by the Minsk plant of wheeled tractors (MZKT).

    The source said that within the framework of the first batch, five samples from the Platform-O family, developed by KamAZ PJSC and manufactured at Remdiesel JSC, will be received by the Armed Forces. Including three cars with a carrying capacity of 25, 50 and 85 tons with 8x8, 12x12 and 16x16 wheel formulas, as well as heavy truck and ballast towers (8x8) for transporting heavy vehicles weighing up to 165 tons and towing trailed systems and airplanes up to 400 tons.

    "Platform-O" is equipped with electric motors for each wheel, does not have a clutch, gearbox, transfer case, drive shafts, differentials, which seriously reduces its weight. The machine has a mode of the so-called crab course: all wheels turn in one direction, which allows you to move almost sideways. The newest chassis was shown on a dynamic display during the exhibition "Army-2018".

    Earlier it was reported that during the production of unified "Platform-O" for 10 years, there will be a gradual transition from the machines produced at MZKT.

    https://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/6194747
    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS Thu Mar 07, 2019 1:15 am

    Very cool!

    Nibiru
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    Post  Nibiru Thu Mar 07, 2019 5:49 am

    Source: Platform-O electrical chassis for Topol and Yarsov adopted

    MOSCOW, March 7th. / TASS /. Domestic highly mobile chassis, created as part of the Platform-O development work, in particular for the Topol-M and Yars missile systems, have been adopted by the Russian army. This was announced on Thursday Tass source in the military-industrial complex of the Russian Federation.

    ON THIS TOPIC
    Retaliation "Sickle". Why was the nuclear "Topol" created?
    "On the recommendation of the state commission, in view of the successful completion of state tests, the Platform-O family of highly mobile modular chassis has been accepted for supply by the Armed Forces," the agency’s source said.

    At present, Topol-M and Yars mobile soil missile systems use Belarusian multi-axle chassis manufactured by the Minsk plant of wheeled tractors (MZKT).

    The source said that within the framework of the first batch, five samples from the Platform-O family, developed by KamAZ PJSC and manufactured at Remdiesel JSC, will be received by the Armed Forces. Including three cars with a carrying capacity of 25, 50 and 85 tons with 8x8, 12x12 and 16x16 wheel formulas, as well as heavy truck and ballast towers (8x8) for transporting heavy vehicles weighing up to 165 tons and towing trailed systems and airplanes up to 400 tons.

    "Platform-O" is equipped with electric motors for each wheel, does not have a clutch, gearbox, transfer case, drive shafts, differentials, which seriously reduces its weight. The machine has a mode of the so-called crab course: all wheels turn in one direction, which allows you to move almost sideways. The newest chassis was shown on a dynamic display during the exhibition "Army-2018".

    Earlier it was reported that during the production of unified "Platform-O" for 10 years, there will be a gradual transition from the machines produced at MZKT.

    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB Thu Mar 07, 2019 6:39 am

    When it was driving on the gravel road the different areas of the tractor part of the truck shook quite a bit... with different bits shaking independently of the others.... did not look comfortable for the crew or likely the payload...

    Very interesting though... wonder how long before they get nuclear power... they are talking about nuclear powered trains too... but all electric drive would suit nuclear power generation...
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    Post  Guest Thu Mar 07, 2019 3:43 pm

    GarryB wrote:When it was driving on the gravel road the different areas of the tractor part of the truck shook quite a bit... with different bits shaking independently of the others.... did not look comfortable for the crew or likely the payload...

    Very interesting though... wonder how long before they get nuclear power... they are talking about nuclear powered trains too... but all electric drive would suit nuclear power generation...

    One thing is nuclear train, one thing is nuclear truck that is driven by 20 years old guy with a highschool diploma and 250 USD sallary... Army tends to crash and flip stuff around everywhere, nuclear reactor doesnt make it fun. Then make it 100 pieces...shit will happen sooner or later.
    kvs
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    Post  kvs Thu Mar 07, 2019 4:32 pm

    GarryB wrote:When it was driving on the gravel road the different areas of the tractor part of the truck shook quite a bit... with different bits shaking independently of the others.... did not look comfortable for the crew or likely the payload...

    Very interesting though... wonder how long before they get nuclear power... they are talking about nuclear powered trains too... but all electric drive would suit nuclear power generation...

    You can see the independent shaking of segments. It is designed this way so as not to break. Unlike consumer SUVs, making such a hauler
    some super-rigid unit is going to result in an epic fail. Any ICBM canister will do quite alright on this truck since it has its own rigidity. It
    is simply not credible that Russian designers would fail to account for such details. Anyone with a functional intellect can see the need for
    them.
    Hole
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    Post  Hole Thu Mar 07, 2019 9:14 pm

    Now they need to develop a 24x24 version for Sarmat. Very Happy
    George1
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    Post  George1 Tue May 14, 2019 5:02 pm

    MZKT-692250 chassis on MILEX-2019


    MZKT-692250 is a further development of the MZKT-6922, MZKT-69221 hull chassis family with the wheel formula 6Х6, intended for the installation of the modernized Buk-MB3K air defense system. For the first time, a sample of a special casing wheel chassis was shown during a press tour of Russian journalists.

    According to the Ministry of Defense, the new MZKT-692250 chassis differs from the previous models in the number of axles, increased payload and a more powerful engine. MZKT-692250 is a four-wheel all-wheel drive chassis with steered wheels of the two front axles. It is intended for operation on various types of roads and terrain at an ambient air temperature from -40 to + 50 ° С. The carrying capacity of the chassis, determined by the mass of the mounted equipment, is 17,300 kg. The maximum speed developed by the chassis full weight is 60 km / h.

    The Russian Military Automotive Fleet - Page 5 47790733422_948d957d88_b

    The Russian Military Automotive Fleet - Page 5 46926563255_2300d53d54_b

    https://safaniuk.livejournal.com/100870.html
    George1
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    Post  George1 Sun Jun 02, 2019 1:05 pm

    Deliveries of two-link transporters GAZ-3344-20 to the Ministry of Defense of Russia


    According to Mil.Press Voennoe web resource, Zavolzhsky Tracked Tractors Plant (ZZGT, part of GAZ Group) has already supplied about 30 tracked two-link snow and swamp-going vehicles GAZ-3344-20. About this Mil.Press Voennoe told the general director of the company Oleg Guriev. He noted that the machines are assembled mainly from domestic components, in particular, they have a YaMZ-53402-10 diesel engine installed.

    The Russian Military Automotive Fleet - Page 5 6898141_original
    Two-link tracked carrier GAZ-3344-20 "Aleut" from the 80th separate motorized rifle brigade of the Northern Fleet, February 2018 (c) Russian Ministry of Defense



    Delivery is carried out within the framework of two state contracts concluded in 2017 and 2018. According to the first, the company manufactures 112 vehicles for the Russian military, the delivery will be completed this year. The second until 2020 will produce another 11 snow and swamp vehicles.

    GAZ-334420 created in the framework of the ROC "Korobochka", told the publication of an informed industry source. According to the same technical task, the Ishimbay machine-building company created the DT-3PM snow and swamp-going vehicle. The latter has not yet been adopted, now it continues to be tested. The interlocutor of Mil.Press Military emphasized that both Korobochka are designed to occupy an average niche between small snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles of the type Trakol and large two-link tractors like DT-10 and DT-30. “The development of two such machines at once shows the necessity of such equipment for the military,” he concluded.

    The decision to recommend the Nizhny Novgorod snow and swamp vehicles to the Ministry of Defense was made after a series of Arctic expeditions, including an autonomous march from Tiksi to Kotelny Island (the archipelago of the Novosibirsk Islands). The expedition ended at the end of February 2017.

    During the march, the military inspected the changes made on the basis of the results of the acceptance tests of the GAZ-3344-20 conveyor-tractor. According to the results of the assessment of the reliability of the machine recommended to take on the supply.


    Reference Mil.Press Military

    The weight of GAZ-3344-20 is 8.7 tons, the loading capacity of the first link is 500 kg, the second is two tons, it can take on board 16 people. The snow and swamp-going vehicle is equipped with a domestic diesel engine YaMZ-53402-10 or American Cummins ISB4.5E3. GAZ-3344 is designed to transport people, goods and equipment in especially difficult road and climatic conditions. The machine is used in the oil and gas industry, geology, geophysics, energy, units of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and security agencies.

    DT-3PM is designed to transport personnel, weapons and military equipment, as well as towing artillery systems and trailers of military units in particularly difficult natural and climatic conditions, such as virgin snow, tundra, wooded and swampy and mountainous areas. The curb weight of the machine is 11.4 tons, the loading capacity of the first link is 0.75 tons, the second is 2.25 tons. Capacity - five people in the cockpit of the first link, and 12 - on the cargo platform (in the cabin) of the second. The car was equipped with an engine YMZ-53677 (312 hp).

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/3662074.html
    George1
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    Post  George1 Fri Sep 04, 2020 12:48 am

    Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering is working on the creation of a new mobile rocket complex


    September 3rd, 23:29
    According to Alexander Privalov's article “Long-suffering tractors” published in the newspaper “Military-Industrial Courier” , “work in the USSR and the Russian Federation to improve mobile ground-based missile systems (PGRK) has never been interrupted. A new impetus was given to them two years ago ... As a result, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation opened another research work (R&D), which received its own code. The main executor of this research work is MIT Corporation JSC (developer of all domestic PGRKs put into service).


    The rest of the text of A. Privalov 's article is devoted to the problem of creating in Russia special wheeled chassis and tractors for missile systems, outlining the well-known views of this author (although now the author likes KamAZ again and does not like BAZ so much):


    Political events in Belarus prompted tackling the problem of import substitution for the Strategic Missile Forces. Namely, the chassis for mobile missile systems, which are produced at the MZKT - Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant. So, why does the Russian Federation not yet have its own special wheeled chassis and tractors (SHKT) for the Strategic Missile Forces? Although it would seem that the country has the ability to do them.

    KamAZ vs Bryansk Automobile

    Work in the USSR and the Russian Federation to improve mobile soil missile systems (PGRK) has never been interrupted. A new impetus was given to them two years ago, when they decided to abandon the supply of Belarusian tractors. As a result, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation opened another research work (R&D), which received its own code. The main executor of this research work is MIT Corporation JSC (developer of all domestic PGRKs put into service). It also develops the concept of creating chassis, tractors for mobile complexes. The Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant was not involved in the case - all co-executors were only Russian.

    Today, in the Russian Federation, two factory teams are engaged in the development of military SKShT: the Bryansk Automobile Plant (BAZ) and PJSC KamAZ together with JSC Remdizel (Naberezhnye Chelny).

    KamAZ began developing the chassis back in 2008-2009, the contract was concluded with the Main Armored Directorate of the RF Ministry of Defense (GABTU), the research project received the code "Platform". Accordingly, the development work acquired the name "Platform-O". Previously, Naberezhnye Chelny did not deal with this topic, but everything possible was done so that the BAZ could not take part in the competition, which could perform a new development better than others. Bryantsev was simply thrown away. Those were the times when Anatoly Serdyukov "ruled" in the RF Ministry of Defense (no wonder that KamAZ did not cope with the case. - Ed.).

    The results are known: samples of KAMAZ chassis were accepted for supply to the RF Armed Forces, but they were not in demand due to the prohibitive cost, the use of imported auto components, extremely low reliability, and failure to meet a number of technical requirements. A lot of money wasted. If we calculate the amounts for all the agreements and contracts concluded by the "smut" with government customers in the framework of the R&D complex "Platform", the amount will be much more than 10 billion rubles. I think it makes sense for the experts of the Accounts Chamber to start counting. It is noteworthy that the "Platform" at KamAZ was led by retired Colonel General Vladislav Polonsky, head of the GABTU in 2004-2007.

    When two years ago R&D on a new missile system began again, it was no longer possible to ignore the BAZ. The leadership of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation was replaced in November 2012, and BAZ became part of the Almaz-Antey VKO concern at the end of 2015. And an unpleasant odor from the quality of work performed at KamAZ in professional circles spread unpleasant. Despite this, the Bryansk Automobile Plant has not yet become an active participant in the work.

    The leaders of KamAZ again actively lobbied for the developments carried out in the course of the failed development work "Platform-O". Initially, representatives of BAZ and Almaz-Antey could participate in meetings on the topic, but did not use this right. Therefore, the customers reacted superficially to the developments in Bryansk. As a result, the new development for the Strategic Missile Forces was based on the SKShT of the KamAZ-7850x family. The motivation of the KamAZ management was simple: the state had already spent money on the "Platform-O" - in vain or what? Although, I will note that at this stage of work, this choice is not so critical. In the course of the new research work, an answer must be given - what is to be done in the course of development work (R&D). While there is no final decision, the options are being worked out.

    In general, the work is going in the right direction, although not without difficulties. There are all the prerequisites for a full-scale development of prototypes of SKShT to begin in the Russian Federation in a year or two, which will far surpass the Minsk chassis and tractors in all respects. I believe that the main task is not to repeat the mistakes made by the Platform. The main ones are organizational and personnel. They directly influenced the adoption of incorrect technical decisions.

    Personnel collapse

    At KamAZ, a team of specialists in SKShT was created at an accelerated pace. But the main part of the designers started work after the R&D "Platform" was completed. In connection with the haste in the course of the R&D "Platform-O" people worked practically for wear and tear, the specialists barely had time to carry out the current work. Therefore, those who were hired in 2011, when the R&D was already underway, had the opportunity to get acquainted with the results of the R&D only in 2017.

    After the completion of the ROC "Platform-O" by the order of the Deputy General Director for Personnel Management and Organizational Development of PJSC "KamAZ" No. 348 dated August 3, 2018, all 70 employees who were subordinate to the chief designer for special wheeled chassis (GC SKSH) were reassigned to Scientific and technical center (STC) of KamAZ for newly created divisions. The latter have nothing to do with the development of military tractor chassis. The objectives of this organizational structural change were announced: “1.1. Retention and retention of highly qualified specialists of the units of the chief designer of special wheeled chassis (hereinafter referred to as SCSH) in the STC. 1.2. Intensification of work within the framework of measures for import substitution of components and assemblies, reduction of dependence on the supply of automotive components and components of foreign production. "

    It was expected that as a result, the staff of highly qualified personnel of the units of the chief designer of the SKS in the STC would remain at a level of at least 90 percent. After the completion of the "Platform-O", as required, the designers performed and continue to carry out tasks related to the development of promising SCSHT. But the intensity of these works is not at all the same as before.

    In the spring of last year, the participants of the ROC "Platform-O" were awarded. The author of the article has no information about what awards were received by the leaders of KamAZ, probably the highest. In general, they tried to include in the award lists the maximum number of managers who participated in the work of allied enterprises and involved organizations. Evil tongues claim that many of those who have always opposed the Platform also received awards. I suppose there were no refuseniks from the orders. Thus, the dissenters were gagged, so the participants in the work are now extremely reluctant to talk about the shortcomings.

    And they lay primarily in the vicious organization of work. Not talented designers were appointed to leading positions, but so-called effective managers, whose main goal is to master the allocated funds.

    The reasons for the failure of the ROC "Platform-O" were laid down already at the stage of research. The lead contractor did not make comprehensive expert assessments - it was proposed to analyze technical proposals at the stage of development work. One of the main mistakes is the actual implementation of research and development work within the framework of R&D, which is unacceptable. The practice of developing components in the ROC for the creation of final products has shown its inconsistency. The second-tier co-executors who had the best technical solutions, but did not suit the top managers of KamAZ, were squeezed out by various methods. In the relationship between the chief contractor of the work and his partners, there were conflicts that were considered in arbitration courts.

    It is no wonder that everything ended in failure and wasted a tidy sum of government money. Over the past two years, personnel changes have taken place in the leadership of the teams developing the military command and control staff.

    In April last year, Alexander Shevchenko was appointed Deputy General Director of PJSC KamAZ for special projects. Since November 1, 2019, Evgeny Makarov, who previously held the position of deputy chief designer for new developments of automotive units and special equipment, has become the chief designer of KamAZ PJSC - the director of the scientific and technical center (STC). Danis Valeev, who worked as the chief designer of KamAZ and director of the scientific and technical center for almost a quarter of a century, was transferred to the position of advisor to the general director of PJSC KamAZ. Vladislav Polonsky, the advisor to the general director of KamAZ, the head of the R&D complex Platforma, was gradually removed from the leadership. Let me remind you that Colonel General Polonsky was at the head of the Main Armored Directorate of the Ministry of Defense in 2004-2007, and Lieutenant General A.A.

    At the STC KamAZ, the style of management is changing, the designers of the plant began to receive assignments for mathematical modeling of the design of promising SKSHT. But the work manager is now extremely limited in the monetary component. The reasons for the scanty funding are clear: the customers and co-executors are not satisfied with the results of the R&D platform "Platform", so they fear a repeat of history. The work and documents of the GABTU slow down, which earlier Alexander Shevchenko himself had accepted. Now, being on the other side of the matter, he can no longer change them.

    Bryansk: also problems


    At the BAZ, staffing is also not without problems. Since November 2015, the management of the enterprise has managed to be replaced five times! In the fall of 2018, Aleksey Sdoobnov became the executive director of Bryansk Automobile Plant JSC, and the next changes began. And with the post of chief designer, after the BAZ entered Almaz-Antey, there was a leapfrog. In December 2018 and. about. The chief designer (and then simply the chief designer) of the automobile plant was appointed a young promising specialist Vadim Tarichko. Although he came to the plant relatively recently, he had time to join the team and fully understand all the ongoing processes.

    The BAZ has not yet managed to reverse the negative tendencies in personnel matters at BAZ. The plant was looking for designers for key positions, but did not find them. Last year, the staffing of the design department was completely shaken up at Bryansk Automobile. Someone left, some of those who left earlier came - in fact, little has changed. But some of the leading experts who offered sound ideas for the development of the plant and for the development of new designs were reassigned to positions with demotion.

    This year, under the pretext of coronavirus infection, all designers over 65 were fired from BAZ. The veterans were also dismissed, who did everything possible to ensure that the enterprise took part in the development of replacement for Minsk tractors. At a number of other defense industry enterprises, even during the spread of coronavirus infection, no one had the idea of ​​parting with experienced Soviet specialists. And young personnel are often unable to work with veteran dedication.

    So far, there is no certainty that BAZ is interested in actively participating in work on chassis for the Strategic Missile Forces, although there are all the prerequisites for that. In November 2018, the powers of the sole executive body of the Bryansk Automobile Plant joint-stock company were transferred to the North-West Regional Center of the Almaz-Antey VKO Concern (NWRC). Structurally, in the NWRC, the role of the lead design team is assigned to KBSM JSC, which over several decades has carried out many successful developments of ground equipment for the Strategic Missile Forces.

    Why are the leaders of the Almaz-Antey Concern and the SZRTs taking too sluggish actions and not promoting the active involvement of BAZ in the work to replace Minsk tractors? Or did the leaders of Almaz-Antey and Rostec (the main shareholder of KamAZ) divide the spheres of influence?

    How to fix the situation?

    So, it is long overdue for changes in the organization of work on the creation of SCSHT. The author of the article four years ago sent to a number of authorities, including the Military-Industrial Commission of the Russian Federation, a proposal: the position of general designer for SKShT should be introduced, since special wheeled chassis-tractors are a special type of military vehicles intended for installation and towing military equipment capable of deciding the outcome of any military operation. Today the personnel decision must be made urgently! Until there is one-man command in this matter, the Russian Federation will continue to be left without its own serial SKShT for mobile complexes of the Strategic Missile Forces, and may also lag behind in other classes of this equipment.

    Earlier, it was proposed to create a unified automobile corporation at the federal level, which would unite the efforts of developers of military automotive equipment. According to the information received, specialists working on the creation of domestic military tractors are also gradually coming to the idea of ​​consolidating the efforts of domestic enterprises. Consultations are already underway on the creation of a completely new structure in the country that could unite the developers of the SCST. The main thing is not to listen to the arguments of businessmen who are interested not in increasing the country's defense capability, but in extracting super profits.

    Alexander Privalov,
    editor-in-chief of "Automobile catalog"



    From the editorial board of "Military-industrial courier"

    The article was conceived as a polemical response to V. Tuchkov's article “Yars” with a Belarusian accent ”. But in fact A. Privalov confirmed the conclusions of our author. In the Russian Federation, production was destroyed and disorganized, qualified specialists were dispersed. But Alexander Lukashenko, no matter how you treat him, the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant (MZKT), inherited from the USSR, has preserved and has not lost technology. And his management in industry turned out to be much better than the "defective management" in the state corporations of the Russian Federation. The failure of the Platform-O project is a guarantee of that.

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/4130890.html
    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible Sun Nov 01, 2020 7:38 pm

    George1 wrote:

    Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering is working on the creation of a new mobile rocket complex




    Sounds like a lot of bullshit from the author.

    Somebody with no inside knowledge but some "thoughts" shared.
    kvs
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    Post  kvs Sun Nov 01, 2020 11:24 pm

    miketheterrible wrote:
    George1 wrote:

    Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering is working on the creation of a new mobile rocket complex





    Sounds like a lot of bullshit from the author.

    Somebody with no inside knowledge but some "thoughts" shared.

    bmpd strikes again.

    franco
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    Post  franco Tue Dec 08, 2020 10:31 pm

    KamAZ-4310: to the era of "Mustangs"

    Multipurpose vehicle

    In the previous parts of the story about the birth and development of the KamAZ-4310, we bypassed the operation of a tactical truck in the Soviet Army. Meanwhile, the 4310 and its modifications were widespread in the armed forces, although they were noticeably inferior to the original military Ural-4320.

    In addition to onboard KamAZ trucks and artillery tractors (guns up to 7 tons), 4410 truck tractors worked in the army for towing 15-ton semi-trailers. From the very moment the military truck appeared from Naberezhnye Chelny, a pressurized K-4310 van body was developed for it. The van was a modernized extended version of the Ural analogue of the K-4320. The body had a payload of about 5,800 kg and a dead weight of 1,520 kg.

    The KamAZ-4310 platform was widely used in the signal troops. The first was the R-417 Baget-1 mobile digital tropospheric radio relay station developed in the early 1980s. To operate in rough and mountainous terrain, the R-423-1 Brig-1 station was later created, which also received a chassis from Naberezhnye Chelny as a mobile platform.

    KamAZ-4310 also carried SPN-4 noise jamming systems, R-934B automated jamming stations, which made it possible to detect and suppress aviationradio communication facilities. Since 1986, the 35N6 antenna installation and the hardware of the Kasta-2E1 low-altitude radar station have been mounted on trucks. The station, located on two KamAZ trucks, made it possible to detect aircraft in the air at a distance of up to 105 km and was used by the air defense forces, coastal and border guards.

    In the interests of the rear

    For the needs of military repairmen, the KamAZ-4310 (and later the more powerful 43101) became a mobile platform for the PARM-1AM, PARM-3A / 3M and PRM SG workshops, MS-DA welding units and ATO-Z signal service repair stations.

    The relatively long platform of a military truck and a carrying capacity of 5 tons were excellent for placing tank trucks for various purposes. We will not separately load readers with a cumbersome abbreviation. We only note that on the 4310 platform they built oil tankers with a 5.5-cc tank for diesel fuel (gasoline, kerosene) and a 300-liter tank for oil. A simpler machine with a 7-cc tank exclusively for motor fuel is still working in the army. For the RChBZ troops, KamAZ-4310 was built with a multi-purpose auto-filling station ARS-14K to solve a wide range of tasks - degassing, disinfection and deactivation of equipment, buildings and terrain. Smoke screens were supposed to be installed in the troops by a TDA-2K vehicle, capable of masking objects up to 1 km long.

    The MTP-A2 light-class technical assistance vehicle was developed at 21 NIIII in the late 1980s. But a tow truck based on KamAZ-4310 went into production only in the early 1990s. The damaged equipment MTP-A2 could be transported in a semi-submerged state. The MTP-A2.1 tow truck became similar (only on the Ural-4320 base). That is, the army currently has two identical highly specialized technical assistance vehicles on different platforms.

    Fighting qualities


    KamAZ received the baptism of fire in the mountains of Afghanistan. At the same time, not only four-wheel drive trucks participated in the conflict, but also completely civilian vehicles of the 53rd series. KamAZ trucks have deservedly become popular and beloved vehicles among drivers. First of all, the comfortable cab with a berth was highly appreciated. The army did not know such a luxury before - the jobs of Uralov and ZiL were both closer and simpler. Few problems arose with difficult-to-operate KamAZ-740 diesel engines, annoying leaks of coolant and engine oil. Also in Afghanistan, there was a weak mine resistance of cabover trucks.

    After the war, in the late 90s, the Russian army conducted comparative tests of KamAZ-4310 and Ural-4320 for detonation with an anti-tank mine. Similar mannequins were planted in the cabins. And they detonated a mine with 6.5 kg of explosives under the front left wheel. In the case of the 4310, this was fatal to the driver. After the explosion, parts of the dummy were in a funnel, the wheel arch was torn apart, and fragments riddled the roof of the cab. In the video report from the tests, you can hear the following eerie thesis:

    "There is no living space for the driver."

    An embarrassment occurred with an all-terrain vehicle from Miass during similar tests. The truck was sent to the mine in second gear with the steering wheel fixed, but the detonator was triggered only by the last wheel on the left side. The wheel was blown off the hub by an explosion, but the Ural-4320 was able to continue moving on its own.
    This allowed for another crash test. Only now the truck with the dummy was being pulled by a cable. This time everything worked properly. And after the mine detonated at the dummy, even a foot on the accelerator pedal remained. In fact, only minor contusions and minor injuries threatened the passenger and driver of the bonneted truck.
    The cabover layout of KamAZ (associated primarily with its unification with civilian vehicles) significantly weakened the protection against frontal shelling.
    Bullets falling below the windshield line freely penetrated the cockpit and hit the crew. Ural-4320 to a certain extent was deprived of this drawback. However, both cabins from the very moment of development had the main drawback - the impossibility of integrated booking. The local armor had to be hung on the cockpit panels. That increased the final mass and was not particularly effective.

    Eternal competitors in the sand

    And one more story of comparing competitors from Miass and Naberezhnye Chelny. Six years ago, MSTU "MAMI" tested the support cross-country ability of three all-terrain vehicles - KamAZ-4350 (4x4), KamAZ-43114 (6x6) and Ural-4320-31 (6x6). For the purity of the experiment, all trucks were shod in the same Kama-1260 tires. All machines were tested on dry free-flowing sand (moisture content 6% and burial depth up to 3 m).
    And the two-axle 4-ton KamAZ, as expected, did not perform in the best way. Despite the highest power density - 20.3 liters. from. per ton. KamAZ-4350 had a maximum specific tire load - 7.7 t / m 3 . The problem of the three-axle 6-ton KamAZ was the overloaded front axle, which accounts for up to 35% of the vehicle's weight when fully loaded. This was the reason for the last third place in all tests.
    In the bonnet Urals (similar carrying capacity), the front wheels accounted for about 31% of the mass. It would seem that this is not the most cardinal difference. But this (including) allowed the all-terrain vehicle from Miass to win all trials. And maintain the highest speed on the sand - 30 km / h.
    Two-axle KamAZ on loose sand did not accelerate more than 27.5 km / h. And the 43114 was generally able to squeeze out only 26.9 km / h.
    The Ural also surpassed its competitors in traction and coupling properties, that is, traction on the hook. In search of perfection, the testers carried out a series of experiments with different tire pressures. As expected, it turned out that the lower the pressure (within reasonable limits, of course), the higher the pull on the hook. Ural-4320-31 in this discipline, with a slight advantage, defeated all-terrain vehicles from Naberezhnye Chelny. The pull on the hook in the Urals was 1.8% higher than that of a two-axle all-terrain vehicle, and 3.6% higher than that of a three-axle one.

    "Mustang" to order

    All comparisons with the Urals and combat experience did not benefit the KamAZ all-terrain vehicles. And over time, the Ministry of Defense transferred these vehicles from the tactical military level to the operational one. Only the Ural-4320 and its modifications remained in the role of a tactical truck. In the late 1980s, the military formulated requirements for new combat KamAZ trucks. In accordance with them, the army waited for two-, three- and four-axle all-terrain vehicles with independent suspension, hydromechanical transmission, more powerful engines and with the ability to overcome a ford up to 1.75 meters deep. (Previously it was 1.5 meters.) At the same time, the new cars had to keep an average speed on rough terrain of at least 40 km / h, which was unattainable for the classic 4310. Development work received the code "Mustang". We began to develop hydromechanics together with US. But with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the topic was closed.

    Naberezhny Chelny did not forget to modernize the original 4310 machine.

    In the late 1980s (in parallel with work on the Mustangs), they began to design a conditionally second generation of military off-road vehicles. By the mid-1990s, a 240-strong KamAZ-43114 with a carrying capacity of 6 tons and a heavy 10-ton KamAZ-43118 with a 260-horsepower 7403 diesel engine appeared in the Russian army. The truck's wheelbase was lengthened by 353 mm. The track was slightly expanded and a 10-speed gearbox was installed.It turned out to be a kind of cabover giant, which partially occupied the niche of KrAZ trucks imported by that time. The truck tractor was also refined, which received the updated index 44118. On the second generation series, the plant workers for the first time tried to establish a local cabin reservation. By the way, due to the sealing of the equipment of the trucks, in Naberezhnye Chelny it was still possible to achieve the required ford depth of 1.75 meters.

    The Mustang theme ran from 1989 to 1998. Such a long period was explained both by the difficult financial condition of the plant, and by the fire that occurred in the engine shop, the elimination of the consequences of which required $ 150 million in the early 1990s. Serial "Mustangs" were a unified family of off-road trucks, which included 4350 (4x4), 5350 (6x6) and 6350 (8x8). The carrying capacity of KamAZ trucks was 4, 6 and 10 tons, respectively. Power ranged from 240 to 360 hp. from. Thus, two branches of military off-road KamAZ vehicles appeared in the Russian army at once - the classic descendants of the 4310 model and the new ones from the Mustang family. In further history, the range of machines only expanded. The factory workers offered the army armored versions. And even extreme 730-strong all-terrain vehicles.

    The end follows ...

    Author:
    Evgeny Fedorov

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