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    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites

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    Austin


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    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 Empty warning system (EWS)

    Post  Austin Tue Dec 20, 2016 12:43 pm

    Russian missile warning system filled up dozens of new satellites by 2020

    http://militarynews.ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=436107

    Moscow. 20th of December. Interfax-AVN - About 10 new spacecraft plans to launch video conferencing Russian Federation up to 2020 within the framework of improving the missile warning system, the chief of the General Staff - First Deputy Commander of the Russian Aerospace Forces, Lieutenant-General Paul Kurachenko.

    "To improve the warning system (EWS) is planned to build five high prefabrication radar until 2020" Voronezh ", and the commissioning of about 10 new spacecraft single space launch detection systems and command and control," - he said Tuesday on scientific and technical conference in Moscow.
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    Post  franco Sun Jan 08, 2017 6:43 pm

    Interfax 13:43
    Russian missile early warning spacecraft undergoing development flight tests
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    Post  George1 Thu May 25, 2017 10:36 am

    Launch of the second satellite of the EKS early-warning system



    On May 25, 2017 at 09:33:41 MSK (06:33:41 UTC), the Air and Space Forces successfully launched a Soyuz-2.1b launcher from the launch pad No. 4 of the launch complex No. 43 of the Plesetsk site. Press reports quote official statement as saying the launcher carried "a new-generation satellite for the ministry of defense." The satellite is being delivered to the orbit by a Fregat-M booster. (More photos of the launch.)

    The satellite is the second "Tundra" spacecraft of the new early-warning system, known as EKS. The system is expected to include satellites in Molniya-type highly-elliptical orbit as well as geostationary satellites. It will probably be designated Cosmos-2518. The first satellite of the system, Cosmos-2510, was launched into an HEO orbit in November 2015. Cosmos-2518 appears to be an HEO satellite as well--it was reported that the industry delivered the first two HEO satellites in October 2015 and that there was a delay with the first GEO spacecraft.

    Satellites of the EKS system are the only early-warning satellites that are currently in service. The old US-KS/US-KMO system ended operations in 2014. A working early-warning constellation would probably include about ten satellites on HEO as well as several GEO satellites. The new armament program appears to call for ten new satellite launches by 2020. It is difficult to see, however, how this plan can materialize. It should be noted, though, that Russia does not depend on the space tier of its early-warning system to the extent the United States does, so the lack of coverage by satellite does not necessarily increase the risk of miscalculation.

    http://russianforces.org/blog/2017/05/launch_of_the_second_satellite.shtml
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    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 Empty US reported a Russian military satellite burnt in the atmosphere

    Post  dino00 Thu Jan 10, 2019 12:29 am

    US reported a Russian military satellite burnt in the atmosphere

    The satellite "Cosmos-2430" warning system for a rocket attack "Eye" descended from orbit and burned in the atmosphere. On January 10, TASS news agency reports, citing the command of the aerospace defense of North America.

    The device was launched into space on October 23, 2007 from the Plesetsk cosmodrome and had to track the launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles from the United States.

    It is noted that the satellite resource was developed back in 2012 or in 2014, after which the connection with it was lost.

    https://iz.ru/832290/2019-01-10/ssha-soobshchili-o-sgorevshem-v-atmosfere-rossiiskom-voennom-sputnike

    Hmm...normal...or peresvet doing is thing?
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    Post  George1 Thu Jan 10, 2019 10:36 am

    dino00 wrote:US reported a Russian military satellite burnt in the atmosphere

    The satellite "Cosmos-2430" warning system for a rocket attack "Eye" descended from orbit and burned in the atmosphere. On January 10, TASS news agency reports, citing the command of the aerospace defense of North America.

    The device was launched into space on October 23, 2007 from the Plesetsk cosmodrome and had to track the launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles from the United States.

    It is noted that the satellite resource was developed back in 2012 or in 2014, after which the connection with it was lost.

    https://iz.ru/832290/2019-01-10/ssha-soobshchili-o-sgorevshem-v-atmosfere-rossiiskom-voennom-sputnike

    Hmm...normal...or peresvet doing is thing?

    The satellite was a part of Russia’s Oko missile attack early warning system

    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/1039342
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    Post  George1 Thu Sep 26, 2019 6:12 pm

    New Tundra satellite launched

    https://tass.com/defense/1080034
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    Post  Austin Thu Oct 17, 2019 10:24 am

    Guys can any one translate this

    https://twitter.com/krakek1/status/1184087210263568390

    Tundra EWS

    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 EDT-fPCXoAApSp9?format=jpg

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    Post  George1 Mon Nov 25, 2019 8:09 am

    Kosmos 2422, a Russian US-K missile early warning satellite de-orbited and burnt in the atmosphere

    https://tass.com/science/1092135
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    Post  flamming_python Mon Nov 25, 2019 11:39 am

    Austin wrote:Guys can any one translate this

    https://twitter.com/krakek1/status/1184087210263568390

    Tundra EWS

    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 EDT-fPCXoAApSp9?format=jpg


    You can use Yandex image translate

    https://translate.yandex.com/ocr
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    Post  George1 Wed Dec 18, 2019 4:57 pm

    Russia replaces orbital missile early warning system with new satellites


    The Oko-1 orbital grouping comprised eight satellites and ceased to operate in 2014

    MOSCOW, December 18. /TASS/. Russia has replaced its Oko-1 orbital missile early warning system with new Kupol satellites, according to the materials for a briefing by Chief of the Russian General Staff Army General Valery Gerasimov who spoke at a meeting with foreign military attaches on Tuesday.

    In his presentation, the chief of Russia’s General Staff demonstrated slides that showed the structure of the country’s missile early warning system. Specifically, the slides showed a satellite with the caption: satellite of the Kupol integrated space system.

    The general noted at the presentation that in 2019 Russia launched another satellite of the integrated space system, which enhanced its capabilities for detecting ballistic missile launches. Russia’s Defense Ministry earlier reported that the new system’s satellites were called Tundra. The first such satellite was launched in 2015.

    The Oko-1 orbital grouping comprised eight satellites and ceased to operate in 2014.

    As of now, the new orbital grouping comprises three satellites, including the space vehicle orbited this year. Overall, nine new satellites are set to be launched by 2022.

    https://tass.com/science/1100559
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    Post  George1 Fri May 22, 2020 10:10 pm

    Launch of the 4th EKS satellite

    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/eks4.html
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    Post  George1 Sat May 23, 2020 7:56 am

    Fourth Tundra early-warning satellite is in orbit




    On May 22, 2020 at 10:31 MSK (07:31 UTC), the Air and Space Forces successfully launched a Soyuz-2.1b launcher from the launch pad No. 4 of the launch complex No. 43 of the Plesetsk site. The satellite delivered to the orbit (by a Fregat booster) will join the space-based segment of the early-warning system.

    The satellite was designated Cosmos-2546. Its international designation is 2020-031A.

    The satellite is the fourth spacecraft of the new early-warning system, known as EKS or Kupol. The first satellite of the system, Cosmos-2510, was launched in November 2015. The second and third, Cosmos-2518 and Cosmos-2541, were launched in May 2017 and September 2019 respectively. Satellites are deployed on Molniya-type highly elliptical orbits and are said to be capable of detecting launches from all potential missile launch areas. The complete system is expected to include ten satellites on HEO and GEO orbits.

    http://russianforces.org/blog/2020/05/fourth_tundra_early-warning_sa.shtml
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    Post  George1 Thu Jun 04, 2020 3:41 pm

    Russia sets up basic missile attack early warning satellite grouping


    The system will continuously monitor US territory for possible ballistic missile launches

    MOSCOW, June 4. /TASS/. Russia has set up the basic space segment of its missile attack early warning system to continuously monitor US territory for possible ballistic missile launches. The segment’s four satellites are fully coping with their task, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS on Thursday.

    "With the launch of the fourth Tundra-type space vehicle from the Plesetsk cosmodrome on May 22, the Kupol integrated space system has been brought to the minimum required structure and allows tracking any launches of ballistic missiles and space rockets from the territory of the United States. The satellites are accomplishing their mission in working orbits in full," the source said.

    The Tundra satellites "are equipped with next-generation infrared surveillance devices that make it possible to register with high precision the launches of missiles against the background of the Earth’s surface," he said.

    The satellites are also "capable of tracking the trajectory of the flight of ballistic missiles and predict the areas of the fall of their warheads in the automatic mode," the source noted.

    The four Tundra satellites from Russia’s Kupol single space system are moving around Earth in highly elliptical orbits with a maximum altitude of over 35,00 km of their flight above the planet. Their flight paths are located at angles to each other, forming the so-called constellation over the Northern hemisphere, the source specified.

    Russia’s missile attack early warning system


    The first three Tundra satellites were launched in 2015, 2017 and 2019.

    As another source in the defense industry earlier told TASS, the Kupol integrated space system is set to involve nine new satellites. The Kupol orbital grouping is designated to replace the defunct Oko and Oko-1 missile attack early warning systems.

    The Russian missile attack early warning system consists of two echelons: the space segment that currently comprises four Tundra satellites and the ground-based component that consists of Voronezh-type radar stations that cover all missile-dangerous directions.

    The system is designated to detect within the shortest time possible and track ballistic missiles launched towards the territory of Russia or its allies.

    https://tass.com/defense/1164035
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    Post  George1 Thu Aug 06, 2020 9:39 am

    Missile warning satellites cluster Kupol brought to minimum standard strength


    Satellites in highly elliptical orbits monitor the areas of ballistic missile launches on mainland territories and in the world ocean, according to the CEO of Energia corporation

    MOSCOW, August 5. /TASS/. The integrated space system Kupol, created for monitoring ballistic missile launches, has been brought to the minimum standard strength, the CEO of the space rocket corporation Energia, Igor Ozar, said on Wednesday.

    "With the launch of a fourth space satellite Tundra the space system Kupol has been brought to the minimum standard strength," he said.

    He explained that the satellites in highly elliptical orbits monitored the areas of ballistic missile launches on mainland territories and in the world ocean. The fourth Tundra satellite was orbited on May 22.

    In June, a source in the defense and industry complex told TASS that with the launch of a fourth such satellite Russia created a basic space segment of a missile attack warning system that allowed for monitoring the US territory for possible launches of ballistic missiles. The Tundra satellites, equipped with new generation infrared monitoring instruments, allow for accurately identifying missile launches from the Earth’s surface, tracking the missiles in flight and automatically forecasting the areas where the warheads might fall.

    Another source in the defense and industry complex told TASS that the Kupol cluster would have a total of nine satellites. Kupol is to replace the previous generation space systems Oko and Oko-1.

    Russia’s missile attack warning system has two tiers: the space component, currently consisting of four Tundra satellites, and the ground network of Voronezh radars that keep all missile threat directions under control. The main task of the system is to promptly identify and track ballistic missiles that may be launched against Russia or its allies.

    https://tass.com/defense/1186069

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    Post  George1 Thu Nov 25, 2021 1:25 pm

    Tundra satellite delivered to orbit



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    Post  GarryB Fri Nov 26, 2021 3:34 am

    Yandex image translate now lets you download a translated image....

    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 Edt-fp10

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    EKS Kupol Missile Early-Warning Satellites - Page 2 Empty Soyuz-2.1b rocket with military satellite launched from Plesetsk

    Post  Big_Gazza Wed Nov 02, 2022 12:37 pm

    Soyuz-2.1b rocket with military satellite launched from Plesetsk

    MOSCOW, November 2 - RIA Novosti. The Russian Aerospace Forces launched a Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket from the Plesetsk cosmodrome, the Russian Defense Ministry said.
    "On Wednesday, November 2, at 09:48, from the state test cosmodrome of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (Plesetsk cosmodrome) in the Arkhangelsk region , combat crews of the space forces of the Aerospace Forces launched a Soyuz-2.1b medium-class launch vehicle with a spacecraft in the interests of the Russian Defense Ministry," the ministry said.

    source

    It is belived that the payload was the Kupol-6 missile detection satellite.

    19 successful starts for the year. thumbsup

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    Post  Arrow Thu Nov 03, 2022 9:32 am

    So, Russia already has 6 satellites of the EKS early warning system in orbit. The question is, what part of the planet are they able to cover?
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    Post  George1 Mon Jan 22, 2024 4:20 pm

    Russia has four operational early-warning satellites of the EKS/Kupol system



    Russia began deployment of the EKS/Kupol space-based segment of its early-warning system in 2015, with a launch of Cosmos-2510 on 17 November 2015. That was the first of six Tundra launches - Cosmos-2518 in May 2017, Cosmos-2541 in September 2019, Cosmos-2546 in May 2020, Cosmos-2552 in November 2021, and Cosmos-2563 in November 2022. It appeared that the Air and Space Forces would launch one satellite annually, but I don't see a launch in 2023.

    The first two satellites worked for about five years. Their station-keeping maneuvered ended in late 2020 and late 2021 respectively. This leaves the system with four operational satellites.
    Although the full system is supposed to include ten satellites, I believe that four can provide sufficient coverage. They appear to have true look-down capability, adequately covering everything north of the equator. Since the satellites are deployed on highly elliptical orbits, they replace each other at the apogee, so there is probably at least one satellite that is in a position to see a launch.

    The system does not need ten to provide continuous coverage. Rather, the idea is to have more than one satellite looking at each point. That helps reduce false positives. Ideally one would need three to almost completely eliminate them, but it's not absolutely necessary. Having one means that operators should be on guard regarding false positives, and since they know the capability of the system, they probably are. It is also worth keeping in mind that the role of space-based early warning in Russia is quite different from that in the US. As I explained elsewhere, it's a matter of geography. So, even if there were no satellites at all, the basic function of the early-warning system would not change dramatically.

    If Russia keeps the current deployment rate, about one satellite a year, and assuming that the service life stays at five years, getting to a full constellation of ten will be a challenge. Something will have to change.

    At some point there was a talk about a geostationary early-warning satellite, but we haven't heard anything about it for quite some time.

    https://russianforces.org/blog/2024/01/russia_has_four_operational_ea.shtml

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    Post  lancelot Mon Jan 22, 2024 5:15 pm

    I expect the lifetime of Russian satellites to increase substantially this decade. Russia (finally) is building test facilities that simulate the high radiation space environment on the ground. So you can test space grade electronics without doing an actual launch.

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    Post  GarryB Tue Jan 23, 2024 2:02 am

    There was talk about a trade with China for Rocket engines and electronics that operate just fine in a vacuum... that would allow them to have unpressurised satellites that can work rather longer.

    (the problem with electronics in a vacuum is heat management... with no air for the heat to dissipate into from heat sinks parts overheat and expand and fail.

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    Post  lancelot Tue Jan 23, 2024 4:17 am

    Russia has the 1906BМ016. This is a LEON4 SPARC processor made for space applications.
    https://niiet.ru/product-category/chips/nis/
    https://www.esa.int/Enabling_Support/Space_Engineering_Technology/Onboard_Computers_and_Data_Handling/Microprocessors

    I do not think they will need main chips from China for satellites.
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    Post  GarryB Tue Jan 23, 2024 10:51 am

    To be honest they said electronics technology and didn't actually specify.... Embarassed
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    Post  kvs Tue Jan 23, 2024 1:45 pm

    I was involved tangentially with some satellite atmospheric composition satellite instrument groups and they do not have radiation chambers.
    They test their circuit boards in vacuum chambers. The heat dissipation and de-gassing are leading order issues for space electronics.
    There is a commissioning period after launch of several weeks where the instruments are allowed to adjust to their environment. They
    need to know how this will progress.

    The radiation resistance is another issue which typically involves using coarser resolution IC manufacturing with more metal traces. On
    top of this we have more aggressive error correction for RAM. ECC was designed to fix bit errors produced by galactic cosmic ray ionization
    at ground level. The ionization rate shoots up with altitude and is high at LEO satellite orbits because of relativistic electrons "spun up"
    in the Van Allen belts. Typical solar protons don't have enough energy to penetrate any metal containment of the electronics but high
    energy electrons do. GCR is different because it is ultra high energy nucleons produced by supernova, "black hole" magnetic fields and
    likely other cosmic grade events. These nucleons undergo fragmentation in the atmosphere just like a particle collider experiment
    and these secondary particles is what we see at ground level. GCR ionization at LEO altitudes is almost the same as at 12 km at around
    14 ion pairs per cubic centimeters. So it is the relativistic Van Allen belt electrons that are the major problem.

    But error correction is not going to save the day all by itself. The data is dumped to ground stations as fast as possible (which sets up
    the serious bottleneck of ground station capacity which results in a large part of the data being lost) and the software running any instrument
    has to be redundant to avoid perpetual rebooting. You want almost no software at all running any instrument with minimal RAM footprint.
    (Coarse resolution RAM is not going to have a lot of capacity anyway.)

    Nobody sends anything like a desktop PC motherboard into orbit.



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