Interview with Director-General GSKB "Almaz-Antey" -- Igor Ashurbeyli
Director-General GSKB "Almaz-Antey" Igor Ashurbeyli missile business
In recent views on the Russian defense industry in Russia itself - in the country's leadership, officials, military and economists strongly diverged. After a time it is called a principal engine of development of advanced technologies, the main drag of the development itself. For information on how the locomotive and the brake hand in hand in one of its most high-tech industries - establishing air and missile defense systems, from someone who is really behind, and how it should end, the correspondent of Kommersant said General Director of "Leading System Design Bureau" Almaz-Antey "them. Academician AA Raspletin Igor Ashurbeyli.
- What is the main task and the main ideology of Concern Almaz-Antey "now?
- Well, I for the group to speak in general can not. I will say for the main developer - GSKB "Almaz-Antey". We have grown out of "pants" defense, and our main path - a path to the air and space defense. We have outgrown the height of 30 km, which was our upper threshold (ceiling of the impact zone of existing anti-aircraft missiles .- "b"). Therefore, our strategy - from anti-aircraft missile defense over to the defense aerospace.
This problem is formulated for the first time in the new military doctrine, approved by the president (Dmitry Medvedev made it in February of this year .- "b"). Prior to that, even the term "aerospace defense" (EBA) has sparked controversy, rejection. Everyone understood that this will change the entire picture of species and types of troops. It will happen at some point in time. And in the new military doctrine for the first time explicitly spelled out the need to create a system of aerospace defense of the Russian Federation.
- There is much talk at different levels that the military-industrial complex, its management must change. What is your assessment of the management GSKB "Almaz-Antey"? What it needs new approaches?
- Of course, new approaches are needed because the level itself evolving technology - and he dictates a new level of management. And, accordingly, requires a different level managers, where the brain must be different sharpened - both technically and economically, and, most importantly, information. Because such severe amounts of information that require processing to make management decisions - they may no longer be developed without the use of IT-technologies. The first thing you want to improve the quality of governance - is the introduction of modern information systems. Therefore, the "Diamond" established an office of information technologies and relevant research department in the "trunk", as we say, general designer, who designed and in a short period of time to introduce computerization of design, that is, from a private developer to the global level decision-making.
This is especially important in view of the fact that our co-operatives located in 19 cities of Russia and there is the issue of security of communication channels for exchange of information between accomplices and developers. And one more problem - before everything had a subsistence economy, ie, each developer had with him actually experienced autonomous plant. But today, we can not compete on the world market with such mastodons, it is obsolete forms.
Necessary to solve the problem instantly communicate design solutions to manufacturing - and not necessarily experienced, and not necessarily for myself, but perhaps in another city altogether. Check the documentation was transmitted directly to the machine that we have with more extraterritorial. To clear that the Iron Curtain, who was not only about the Soviet Union, but also within the military-industrial complex of the USSR and then Russia, where each company was specific principality. This is a time of greater openness in transactions not only at the level of managerial decisions, but also technical, technological and design.
- And when all this can be done in full?
- Never. Life is the same - it is always evolving. We will take another step, and it will develop further ... We are now catching up, unfortunately, yes ... Admittedly, the idea of a Russian engineer works faster than the thought of the Russian bureaucracy, including, I mean myself, and all managers of Almaz. Therefore, we only catch up geek, so there are some shortcomings in the fact, as today has time management for new technologies in development.
- Management does not manage, and you join the "Diamond" More and more large enterprises. Why?
- Join the four companies: JSC "Research Institute of Electromechanical (NIEMI), OJSC" Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Automation ", JSC" Research Institute of Radio Instrument "and OAO" Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Radio "Altair". All groups, all subjects - they are just going consolidation of the major creator of a solution of long-term problems EBA. Anti-aircraft missile system S-400 - it is already standard and we have little interest. We shall go there a couple of missiles, and all. But EBA requires a new powerful team. These four companies excellent scientists, but to my great regret, there is no promising developments - they are engaged in the modernization of existing ones, and that scientific and technological dead end. Our goal - to ensure their objectives for the development of advanced systems EBA.
And keep in Moscow for five developers with five accounts, the five services by regime, the five financial services, the five security services, etc. - is simply silly. Therefore, it is a purely pragmatic things, including the construction of a new building in Moscow, a Leningrad House 80, which will be placed unified scientific and technical staff. Achieved a synergistic effect, because we will reduce to 30% of administrative staff ... Well, imagine again: five services chief engineer and five sewer services for the operation, roughly speaking, and all-everything else ... However, we do not reducing any of the developer, but within a few months will change organizational structure, so that she was confined to the final result.
Because the old system made it possible to enjoy the process itself - that the endless development of something within the individual design offices, which each by itself, does not focus on the final product. Today we want to build a portfolio of final products that are sold, it does not matter - for the Russian Defense Ministry, or for a foreign customer, but they are a measure of the effectiveness of development. After all, the criteria for perfection technology should be not only scientific, technical, and financial.
Anti-aircraft missile complexes "Morpheus", "Knight", "Favorite", C-400, C-500, the automated control system aircraft and air defense, missile defense system upgrade A-135, "Thor" or its symbiosis with the same "shell". .. It's all pretty scientific and technical challenge for future teams. Because with all due respect to the older generation, all this (stalemate in the category, the lack of new orders and development .- "b") is a brake on development. If we have a GSKB average age of 46 years, then we are going to take, for example, the collective NIEMI, where the average age of 59 years. And what to do?
But discontent ... People are always afraid of change, they always anxiety: what will happen tomorrow, but suddenly we dispersed? And the structure of management who understand that they would lose their jobs, and perhaps will reveal what they are doing there - obviously, they make a destructive element, playing on people's feelings, their patriotism to the names of their firms. Even in the changing locations of: a train to another station Underground will need to go! It is simply the use of such technology now to proceed with the situation - to prevent adherence. Last excluded, since the decision taken by the government and the accession still held.
- You said that the system S-400 - this is a series which, perhaps not so interesting for you. But this is the main your order from the state. When C-400 received the promised long-range missiles?
- Well, first of all, I always said publicly that never any problems with this missile was not. We simply can not just tell everyone what time are put before us the state defense order, what stages of testing in one time or another place. You understand that the system should be tested missiles work on various points, heights, types of targets and so on ... What needs money in order to produce rockets for the work on each such point. That is, there were no failures or difficulties of scientific and technical nature related to long-distance missile. She passed her test in a planned manner in accordance with the documents of the Ministry of Defence, on the assumption of funding that we could ensure that the Ministry for the manufacture of these missiles. Therefore, this missile test came about three years - was a military operation for about a half dozen targets.
This work is now finished - December 26, 2009 completed preliminary testing. And the rocket presenting at the state tests. In the third quarter of 2010, we must finish them with the fighting, of course, launches and put it into series production in the fourth quarter.
We are puzzled look at the orgy of rumors and slander about this, when just attending workflow. And no "sinusoids" it does not, as, unfortunately, with "Bulava" ... No defeat in startups that have cast doubt on any design decisions. Launch live, she shoots. Moreover, it has developed since the 1990's, and long periods of time money at all on it have not been allocated, but we still managed and on the way changed the whole element base (rakety. - Kommersant), constructive change without extra money from the Ministry of Defense. Otherwise it at all now, would not exist. I hope with God's help, that by the end of this year, long-range missile will be in the series.
In Soviet times, the developer is developing a system, prepared documentation on the state allocated money for technical re-equipment of production, money to prepare for mass production. And then just to pass the documentation on the plants and makes the setup party, and the first one or two samples were in the training center, the following examples - for experienced combat operation. In our case, with C-400 were not allocated any money for technical upgrading, preparation for production. Not a single school model was not done at all, but previously were not even mock-ups, and full-fledged anti-aircraft divisions. So, fire brigade is not trained in training centers, and immediately got the troops and equipment on it is studied - these are the two divisions, which today stand on the arms. Those soldiers who work for them, we must give the order, and the cooperative factories, which in my knees, no money for training, with an interval of 18 years after the last produced their divisions of S-300, on the same hardware and with the same men have managed to produce for the Russian army are several divisions and put them on combat duty.
- And what will be the pace of further deliveries of S-400? Two battalions already have ...
- Yes, the third will be days. In general, it depends on how we will order. This year, we supply two battalions in the next year - four, but more is still incomprehensible to us - in 2012 we have no signed contract. So today we can say that three months of 2012 we have already lost, because the technological cycle of the system is 24 months. Accordingly, if we are on April 1 did not receive an advance, then after 24 months, we will not give division. Divisions now have to be laid on the plants to get them in the first quarter of 2012. And today I have confidence that there will be signed contracts this year, no. Although it is written in the State's weapons program before 2015, which is the law.
- Contracts for C-400 there, and since you already need a new product - C-500. What would it be for a set? Is it true that he will have the full anti-missile capabilities?
- And about all that can be said has been said the military, because the first information about the complex C-500 went not from industry. Beyond the unveiled, we do not go. This is a mobile set of missile defense with good range and heights, which should like to "clone" the possibility of a missile defense system in the mobile version. To date, the only available defense system in Russia is, in essence, the defense system in Moscow and the Moscow industrial region. Her state of readiness is essential questions - say so. Including the age factor, and factor elements, and survivability, and the factor of time of delivery of fire (ie missiles themselves on launchers .- "b"). Therefore, the challenge now facing us put under the state program of armament - a system Triumpher-M. This theme C-500 - Theme creation of mobile anti-missile defense to be established by 2015, the system will solve these problems is in the form not stationary and not in a single performance, but will have the opportunity to nominate any threatened area - at the theater which will be alive at any given time.
- Chief of the Air Force of Russia, Colonel General Alexander Zelin said late last year, openly expressed dissatisfaction with the program is moving C-500. You can comment on that? What it did not suit?
- After that, Commander held an expanded meeting of the Air Force, where presentations were made by the developers of "Diamond" and I spoke, which was attended by representatives of military institutions, all the generals and the entire leadership of the Air Force, which are relevant to the topic. As a result, the parties came to an agreement: the work on C-500 are strictly in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Defense, and no claims to date the Ministry of Defense on this system does not. It was, rather, a misunderstanding.
- What is the state program of the new anti-aircraft missile complex "Vityaz"?
- History is very simple. We could not reach in time - under the previous leadership of the country until 2000 - that needed a new modern complex of medium-range missiles in Russia, since more than 50 S-300PS simply cease to exist by 2015 because achievement of deadlines operation and must be disposed of. Looking for a replacement. Not broken through. Then we won the international tender for the Americans and French in South Korea. And concluded with considerable difficulty export contract to develop for it such a complex medium-range - KM-SAM. They learned to work with imported element base - there were no restrictions. They put there successfully for two radar and now supply a third. In Korea, already under fire from their missiles at their targets.
Prior to inviting the Defense Ministry leadership (Rossii. - "b") and shown in the shop operating a South Korean model, after which R & D work has been opened for the Russian army - with a different character and different and improved tactical and technical characteristics. This work is from 2007 in record time. We were tasked with: five years from scratch to produce a new technique. These problems were solved for five years only in times of Lavrenty Beria, when "Diamond" (the CB-1 .- "b") for five years has made the first air defense system S-25 to Moscow. Now we are working phase of the design documentation. Next year - a prototype, and in 2013 we must finish the State tests.
- And an army air defense complexes S-300VM have at least some perspective?
- They are not sold for export. There was a purchase of the S-300V Americans for intelligence purposes. We prefer to say so: the world voted for the dollar P-300P. At $ 4 billion were sold to dozens of systems S-300P, S-300PM, "Favorite". The priority of these systems is obvious, because changes in the nature of war. C-300B was designed, including armored vehicles to escort convoys, which would be to break up the Channel. The world has changed a long time, and we have not for a long time do not want to attack. And the need in such a technique no longer, because it is unable to fully perform their combat mission to protect the objects. And now it is developing air defense. S-300VM last made, in my opinion, in the early 1990's, since the production of this system was not.
- But there were conversations about what they can sell Venezuela?
- Well, how would you say here ... You can sign a contract, but it must still perform. Why is simpler in this respect with the system S-300P? Because when you are already abroad, tens of divisions, is money - and their modernization, and from their after-sales service, and their repair and servicing ... And the whole cooperative factories receives additional funding, it lives on. And this same cooperative produces C-400. Since 1991, she broke off their movement, it all the time - even in the absence of the state defense order - at the expense of exports lived. And will continue to live, because technology had already been set. And in this situation, even if you put one or two divisions of S-300B? A cooperative something on them has not worked for the past 20 years. And then it only contain in order to fulfill international obligations for maintenance of these one or two divisions?
- A Buk "and" Thor ", which sold abroad too far not one or two divisions?
- The answer is very short and a little bit rather tartly. I'm working with new techniques, I am doing advanced development, and I think the sale of promising developments. "Thor" and "Book" - a well-established systems that are in mass production. Therefore, it is a question of "Rosoboronexport", if there are buyers - they will be sold, and they will sell production plants. But this is outside my sphere of competence, as the head developer, I'm only thinking about the future, not about the past.
- And for your new C-400 Peace dollar has already voted?
- Speaking of C-400, the amount already registered applications, the number of countries and the number of divisions, which they beg them to sell at today exceed production capacity of our co-operation of industrial enterprises. Say honestly, we can not do even what they want, and what really is there to think about the prospects. But the export of C-400 - is a question primarily political. For us the priority is the Russian Army, and if these priorities will be supported by our Ministry of Defence orders, we will implement them in the first place, but no - we are ready to fulfill foreign contracts.