The S-300V family of missiles use different missiles too, and the S-400 system has at least 4 missiles too.
The SA-12 system has two distinctly different missiles, both on tracked TELs, with one having two very large launch tubes and another with four smaller launch tubes in a single row of four missiles.
The different missiles have different performances and are optimised for different targets and situations.
After this video we can say that Nudol (ASAT) and A-235 (ABM) are completely separate products
One of the reasons ABM systems were so limited and effectively banned was because they could also be used to shoot down satellites as the speed performance is very very similar.
A missile able to hit an incoming ICBM or SLBM could easily be modified or might already be able to hit satellites in orbit too.
With older Soviet and Russian SAMs that could hit shorter range BMs like Scud etc the issue was not apparent because for example Favourite being able to hit 4.8km/s targets... no in orbit satellite moves that slow, as well as the fact that the missile can only operate within the atmosphere.
New systems that operate outside the atmosphere that can hit targets moving much much faster and obviously there becomes little difference between hitting something coming down on a ballistic trajectory and something in orbit, which is also a predicable trajectory if you can reach it.
Yes, I think the last missile was for the A-135 and was significantly faster. This one is a bit slower and yes, flew at an angle afterwards.
Depending upon the payload the flight speed is not actually that critical to determine what the target is... in fact if the target is in geostationary orbit you are going to need a lot of fuel to get the payload up there so it will be much slower than a missile going after a target in much lower orbit.
Most of these weapons could be ABM as well as ASAT... just the same as their late model large SAMs are all ABM as well as SAM and anti cruise missile weapons too.