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Hole
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    Soviet space based weapons

    Neutron
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    Soviet space based weapons Empty Strategic FOB System (Orbital Nuclear Weapons).

    Post  Neutron Tue Apr 26, 2016 8:43 pm

    Soviet space based weapons FOBS

    The Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet weapons program that started in the 1960s whose goal was to develop a nuclear capable ICBM vehicle which would, once launched, inject into LEO (Low Earth Orbit) upon which the payload could de-orbit and strike a ground target. Basically it turns out that launching a nuclear weapon from space is highly effective and that many long-range defenses are thus automatically bypassed  Cool .

    The Soviet-era FOBS program caused so much panic and concern in the west at the time that the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 was drafted, which led to the FOBS program being decommissioned, the treaty has banned the use of nuclear capable weapons in earth orbit since then. However it can be argued that many of the parties that originally signed this treaty could have already secretly developed similar programs and could thus potentially use these arcane programs against Russia in the future. Not even mentioning all the numerous, on-going violations of many non-proliferation treaties by other countries. Russia in my opinion, shouldn't be reducing its nuclear stockpile or nuclear capabilities, it should be increasing them for the sake of deterrence or even MAD. I therefore propose that the Russian strategic nuclear forces reconsider a nuclear deterrence system similar to FOBS for deployment.

    However if a program such as FOBS is to be reconsidered drastic design reconsideration of the payload launcher vehicle must be taken into account. Firstly the payload launcher vehicle should be permanently stationed in orbit until a launch is initiated instead of launching the vehicle into orbit shortly before an attack and waiting for the payload to de-orbit, this means that it would take substantially longer for any early warning satellite satellite system to detect an imminent nuclear strike due to the suppression of ground based thermal or IR signatures. The launcher vehicle should then ideally inject into LEO and hold when the weapon is initiated.

    Secondly we must take into account the realities of ABM systems. Once a warhead is detected and a ABM originating projectile is launched, first strike uncertainty is increased. ABM systems, however, rely on sensor inputs to guide ABM originating projectiles to their target, EM/IR sensor/transducer resolution, however, can theoretically be reduced by increasing radiation/EM flux density uniformly within a given volume in space, making distinguishing a target much more difficult if not impossible. What this means, assuming a large enough yield, is if a launch is initiated, one of the many reentry vehicles would need to be detonated sequentially after launch, to provide this increase in energy density and subsequently, decrease in sensor resolution along the target pathway. This is repeated until the main attack vehicles reach a suitable distance above earth's atmosphere. Thus the travel trajectory of the main attack vehicle's should then ideally transverse these spherical blast volumes, making target identification to the ABM system practically impossible, in theory.

    Once the final RV's are close to reentry they separate drastically, by this time no ABM system would be able to cope with the speed and number of re-entry vehicles and even in the best case scenario, assuming 100% interception, the blast radius and fallout would be so severe that surviving such an attack would be impossible. Another possibility would be the addition of ozone-degenerating compounds which would destroy part of the ozone layer covering the target's land mass to increase radiation penetration. This is very hypothesized but I'm sure something similar can be done.

    Having a good deterrence strategy is one of the best defenses a country can possess.

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    Hole
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    Post  Hole Wed Mar 27, 2019 4:29 pm

    Russia tested satellite killers back in the 80´s.

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Wed Mar 27, 2019 9:05 pm

    Hole wrote:Russia tested satellite killers back in the 80´s.

    Wasn't the first Soviet ASAT tests back in 1973?
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    Post  Hole Wed Mar 27, 2019 9:36 pm

    Even earlier! Smile

    Quote from "Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces":

    "The first full-scale test of the new anti-satellite system was conducted on 20. Oct. 1968. The space interceptor was called Cosmos-249 and the target was Cosmos-248, a satellite launched into orbit a day earlier. The first successful intercept of a space target (Cosmos-248) occured on 01. Nov. 1968 after the launch of the second interceptor (Cosmos-252)."

    They build a command center in Moscow and six launchers in Baikonur. They could hit satellites in altitudes up to 1.000km high.

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    Soviet space based weapons Empty Re: Soviet space based weapons

    Post  magnumcromagnon Wed Mar 27, 2019 9:57 pm

    Hole wrote:Even earlier! Smile

    Quote from "Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces":

    "The first full-scale test of the new anti-satellite system was conducted on 20. Oct. 1968. The space interceptor was called Cosmos-249 and the target was Cosmos-248, a satellite launched into orbit a day earlier. The first successful intercept of a space target (Cosmos-248) occured on 01. Nov. 1968 after the launch of the second interceptor (Cosmos-252)."

    They build a command center in Moscow and six launchers in Baikonur. They could hit satellites in altitudes up to 1.000km high.

    Naryad using the Briz-K space tug could launch KKV's and hit targets 40,000km in altitude.
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    Post  GarryB Fri Mar 29, 2019 9:20 am

    The 1972 ABM treaty pretty much stopped active public research and development into anti satellite systems.... obviously a missile that can shoot down an ICBM or SLBM could just as easily be used against a target in orbit too...

    They even developed space to space guided missiles... like AAMs for spacecraft...

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    Hole
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    Post  Hole Fri Mar 29, 2019 11:29 am

    Not true. The ABM treaty didn´t forbid the development of ASAT systems. The russian system was commissioned and placed on combat duty on 1 July 1979. The last interceptor (Cosmos-1379) was launched on 18 June 1982 as part of a large-scale exercise. In August 1983 the systems was unilaterally suspended.
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    Post  Hole Fri Mar 29, 2019 5:04 pm

    The system worked as follows: a rocket brought a satellite into a orbit close to the target, then it was guided from the ground towards the target. In the terminal stage the killer satellite was directed by a camera or radar. Close to the target satellite the warhead exploded. Sometimes the whole process took days.

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    Post  GarryB Sat Mar 30, 2019 8:14 am

    Not true. The ABM treaty didn´t forbid the development of ASAT systems.

    Give us a break... that was a long time ago you know...

    In August 1983 the systems was unilaterally suspended.

    Because both sides suspected that on paper anti satellite weapons could be dual purpose anti ICBM and anti SLBM weapons...
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    Post  Hole Sat Mar 30, 2019 11:37 am

    Read again how the system worked. You could not shoot down an incoming missile/warhead.

    Russia didn´t test/use the system after 1983 but the launch pads, lauch vehicles and satellite killers were still there.

    You brought up the ABM treaty.
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    Post  Hole Sat Mar 30, 2019 4:51 pm

    But this "old" method would be quite promising today. The heavy version of Angara together with a upper stage like Fregat could bring a dozen or so satellite killers into different orbits at once. Could be used against satellites flying above 500km.

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    GarryB
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    Soviet space based weapons Empty Russia tested satellite killers back in the 80´s.

    Post  GarryB Sun Mar 31, 2019 1:49 am

    The Buran system was basically a 120 ton Buran glider on the back of a heavy rocket (Energyia) that took it into space. The advantage is that you could simply remove the Buran and put any other load in its place... including a space based laser system they were developing...

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    Post  George1 Fri Sep 01, 2023 9:25 pm

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    Post  Eugenio Argentina Thu Mar 14, 2024 1:14 am

    Cutaway drawing of the Polyus 1 space weapons platform.


    Soviet space based weapons Polyus2

    Credit: © Mark Wade

    Cool

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