While things have evolved, US still uses same as it did since 80's and Russia is rebuilding for now and near future. Their enemy hasn't changed, and neither much on capabilities. So in regards, yes, Corvettes and frigates like Grigorovich fit right in for the needs of a small contingent carrier group, especially one escorting a jump jets on some transport vessel. Add in Kilo's and an auxillary ship, it's more than adequate.
Super hornets can carry 4 harpoons each and they have 50+ of them on each carrier. Much better than what they had in the 80s.
You think 2 larger vessels carrying more weapons will suffice better? No, it's still 1 large target. In the end, if something happens and any of those ships are hit, gloves are off and there is a lot more to worry about than some kind of Grigorovich ship.
If you send only corvettes to protect your carrier because its better to lose them than a big frigate or a destroyer then it's better to build subs and no carrier at all. More weapons means more shots at one target so more Pk. The data given by Ru MoD for syrian Buk M2 shows that they used more missiles than there was targets so it wasn't a 99% Pk. If you have a very limited number of them on your ship, you can lose badly.
You are making a lot of assumptions, especially based on nothing. You are aware if let's say a Yak-131 was still around and in numbers, it wouldn't be exactly the same craft then as it would be now, right? Or are you assuming Russia doesn't update it's aircraft fleet at all even legacy aircraft?
Like they upgraded Su-33 ? I prefere the Super hornet level of upgrading than those outdated su-33. The upgrade for Yak 141 wouldn't be better than the upgrade for su-33. And the ship carrying them would be in a realy bad condition today after the Yeltsin 90s.
They spend so much effort to counter US supercarriers I don't understand why they would go for their own ones. A smaller carrier is just enough. Russia has never had colonial/imperialist vision. They should focus on subs to counter US navy specially now that they can put hundreds of VLS cells for all kind of missiles and strike from hundreds of km away.