Salyut 1 was the first DOS long duration orbital station. The 'civilian' DOS station was
built on basis of the military Almaz stations with the mission of beating the American
Skylab in the space station race and to determine the usefulness of manned observation of
the earth by 1974. DOS-1 was launched as Salyut 1 on 19 April 1971. The triumph turned
to tragedy when the Soyuz-11 crew died due to de-pressurization of their re-entry capsule
during return to the earth. DOS was started only when the Soviet moon project failed,
in order to beat the American Skylab to orbit. It was created using spaceframes from the
Almaz military station program.
Russian Orbital Station MIR - Руската орбитална станция - Мир
Space Intelligence Station Almaz - Космическа разузнавателна станция - Алмаз
those videos explain some of the aspects of the millitary and technological achievements
of the two superpowers during the cold war. Video in Russian. Mir (Russian: Мир; lit.
Peace or World) was a Soviet (and later Russian) space station. Mir was the world's first
consistently inhabited long-term research station in space, and the first of the third
generation type of space station, constructed from 1986 to 1996 with a modular design.
The station was in operation for fifteen years until 23 March 2001, when it was deliberately
de-orbited, breaking apart during atmospheric re-entry over the South Pacific Ocean
The Almaz (Russian: Алмаз - "Diamond") program was a series of military space stations
(or "Orbital Piloted Station" - OPS) launched by the Soviet Union under cover of the
civilian Salyut DOS-17K (Orbital space station) program after 1971.
Three Almaz stations were launched: Salyut 2, Salyut 3 and Salyut 5.
Salyut 2 failed shortly after achieving orbit, but Salyut 3 and Salyut 5 both conducted
successful manned testing. Following Salyut 5, the Soviet Ministry of Defense judged in
1978 that the time consumed by station maintenance outweighed the benefits relative to
automatic reconnaissance satellites.
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