d_taddei2 wrote:Does anyone know the approximate cost of:
And the major differences between them.
During 2016, i believe the cost of T-72B3M upgrade was estimated at 2.5 million rubles, though it is probably more, and will vary depending on the level of the upgrade.
Cost of T-90 varies between different sources, and also between different models as original T-90 entered service in the 90's where as T-90A entered service in 2005.
Uganda bought a number of T-90S variant for 3.4 million USD per unit in 2010. Soon there will be 2 new contracts with Vietnam & Iraq, so current price should be clear then.
True cost per unit of T-90MS is harder to tell, as there are no finalized contracts at this time. Possible contract with India will not reflect true price as India will likely produce many elements indigenous.
It is sometimes quoted as costing aprox. 5.1 million dollars per unit, but i think that it would likely be less expensive today, given the advancement in technology and production.
There are many differences between the 2 basic designs (T-72 & T-90), and there is plenty of resources about this to find on the internet. A lot of info to type out.
A good summation imho would be :
T-72 B3M : Based on Object 172M design from early 70's. Has undergone many upgrades and redesigns since then. "B3M" is the latest version and has all the features of modern battle tank, including modern fire control system with multi-channel electro-optical sensors for Gunner, auto-tracking, high power to weight engine, improved suspension and latest version of 2A46 125mm cannon, capable of firing modern munitions and gun launched ATGM's. Optional upgrades include the latest Russian explosive reactive armor and composite armor modules + slat armor, Active protection system, improved radio and comms, independent panoramic sight for commander, GLONASS etc. In short : its on par with the most modern tanks of the world, but because it is based on old tank design, much of the upgrades are "bolt on". It does not have the ideal layout of components and crew compartment compared to a tank that would be designed at present day. The most important feature of this tank is that its battle proven and very reliable, and because it has been in service for so long, there are many experienced crews who are familiar with the "limitations" of the design. Also, depending on mission requirement and intensity of conflict, the tank can be basically tailored to fit the specific needs. Components can be added or left off as required.
T-90 is based on Object 188 developed in late 80's. It is based on T-72, but at that time it used much improved defensive features such as improved reactive armor with better coverage, and better protected turret with composite armor.
Its most distinguishing feature is the Shtora-1 countermeasure suite, which includes infra red dazzlers and a computerized self protection system. Overall, combat capabilities of the T-90A are probably slightly inferior to T-72B3M due to the older equipment used (sensors, electro optics etc.) , though the design took lessons from the T-72, and the improved armor layout means that it can be considered to be better protected. This has been proven in combat recently in Syria, where T-90 has been almost invulnerable**.
T-90MS is a thorough modernization of T-90A. Crew compartment layout and crew equipment such as controls, diagnostics and screens are brought to modern standard. Shtora-1 is removed, and can be replaced optionally by more modern active protection system. Protection is improved with new ERA and passive modules, and slat armor. Commander receives his own stabilized panoramic sight with multi-spectrum optic sensors and remote controlled machine gun. A more powerful engine is installed to compensate for added weight. Most importantly, the FCS is further upgraded and modernized, and a removable turret bustle is added to the back of turret, which is probably the most significant upgrade in terms of crew protection. All modern features such as GLONASS/inertial navigation and the latest encrypted communication systems are integrated. T-90MS is arguably the most advanced MBT Russia can offer to the market ( not counting Armata).
T-72 B3M is a cost effective and very capable upgrade for an old tank, of which there are 1000s in Russian inventory.
T-90MS is an impressive upgrade, but there are not that many T-90s in service (when compared to T-72), and for each T-90MS you can have multiple T-72B3M. I hope it enters service with Russia tho !
T-90A : No longer in production. New contracts are beeing signed for T-90S variant, so it is still has a long life as export product ahead !
Hope this was useful !
** Any tank can be destroyed. It all comes down to crew training and discipline.