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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4

    GarryB
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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4

    Post  GarryB Mon Apr 18, 2022 3:10 pm

    Russia has been producing vacuum rated satellites for a while. This is why the lifespan of their GLONASS and communications
    satellites is now over 10 years. The Soviet type pressurized satellites would fail in less than 5 years because the air leaks out
    no matter how good your design. But the Soviet type were designed for a high turnover since money was not an issue.

    Most western experts used to look down their noses at the short lifespans of Soviet satellites, but I remember one pointed out that having the capacity to renew the satellite fleet quickly was a side effect of this issue and that also electronics date so the more often you replace them the more often you update them and improve their capabilities too.

    He claimed that to start with the west had an advantage because their electronics were better... but after a few years the Soviets would replace their satellites which would of course get better while the western satellite remained as it was when launched.

    He also pointed out that any potential losses of damaged satellites can be quickly replaced by the Soviets because they have greater launch capacity because they are launching rather more satellites than the west is.

    It is a bit peculiar that there would be a vacuum rated electronics problem. I doubt the newer Russian satellites are dependent
    on imported electronics to a show-stopper extent.

    Wasn't there an article a short while back about Russia selling the rocket motors they sold to the US in return for micro electronic technology... I would think vacuum rated electronics would be high on their list of information to acquire, and the Chinese would certainly benefit from the added rocket power... and lets face it the secret is already out with the US buying so many anyway.

    The Chinese could have stolen the plans for the rockets from the US, but instead they traded with Russia... makes you think they might only be the bad guys when they have to be... unlike the US which seems to have the opposite problem.

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    lancelot
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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4

    Post  lancelot Mon Apr 18, 2022 3:21 pm

    The latest Chinese rocket engines like the YF-100 are about as advanced technologically as the RD-180 that Russia sold to the US.
    They are based on a staged combustion LOX/Kerosene upper stage engine used on the Zenit rocket. The technology was probably passed to China by Ukraine.
    The design was made by NPO Energomash design bureau. The same bureau which designed the RD-180.

    I do not quite know what was the problem with Russian space grade semiconductors. But I do know some things just do not work well against cosmic radiation. If we are talking about CPUs you typically have to put ECC on the processor caches and probably need some kind of way to check if the registers got corrupted by errant cosmic rays. Maybe have redundant registers. What I did hear about recently was how Russia got ceramic packages working. I also read elsewhere that plastic packages can only be used on low orbit satellites. And even then you can't use just any plastic.
    https://www.test-expert.ru/


    Last edited by lancelot on Mon Apr 18, 2022 3:33 pm; edited 1 time in total
    Scorpius
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    Post  Scorpius Mon Apr 18, 2022 3:30 pm

    lancelot wrote:The latest Chinese rocket engines like the YF-100 are about as advanced technologically as the RD-180 that Russia sold to the US.

    This statement is complete nonsense.
    No, China still has not reached the technological level of the RD-180, otherwise they would have their own RD-180 analogues that would match these engines in basic parameters: thrust-to-weight ratio, specific impulse, power.

    At the moment, in the field of cosmonautics, China is at a level similar to that of the USSR in the early eighties. Although this is a slight lag from the current level of Russian technology, it still exists.
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    Post  lancelot Mon Apr 18, 2022 3:39 pm

    The RD-180 uses early eighties technology. It is basically an RD-170 cut in half.
    The Chinese engine uses a similar design to that used in RD-170 series.
    It is a staged combustion LOX/Kerosene engine. It uses channel wall nozzle.

    I think the Chinese might have had issues replicating some of the materials used in the RD-170 series. And that is why they cannot get as high a chamber pressure. Which then causes a fall in the parameters you mentioned. Might be the alloys, might be the welding technique, might even be something as simple as coatings. But their engine uses the same basic design and it works. They just need to run it at lower chamber pressure so it does not blow up. Chamber pressure is one of the critical engine parameters that determine engine performance similar to turbine inlet temperature in jet engines.

    The US cannot even get that working. Raptor and BE-4 engines are supposed to be staged combustion but neither in service yet.
    Chinese YF-100 is in service with Long March 5 and 7.

    From what I heard the Soviets got the engine coating technology from their nuclear program. The coating was developed to resist corrosion of UF6 in uranium gas centrifuges. Then it got used in RD-170 series and is the "secret sauce" basically. This is what allows Soviet oxygen rich staged combustion to work. Something which was thought to be impossible because of erosion of metals in high temperature oxygen rich environment. When US scientists attempted it the oxygen ate the metal in the engine and the engines melted. And they gave up. Because of this the staged combustion Space Shuttle Main Engine uses fuel rich not oxidizer rich staged combustion. Also it is much easier to get oxygen/hydrogen to work with staged combustion like they did with Space Shuttle than oxygen/kerosene like they did with Energia.

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    Gazputin


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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Interview Reshetnev Satellite Makers - Import substitution electronics

    Post  Gazputin Sun Apr 24, 2022 4:53 am

    Reshetnev are the leading satellite makers in Russia

    "It does not matter whether it is the replacement of a microcircuit, a microelectronic module, a set, or even a separate board.
    Yes, something will be a little heavier, something will require further development, but the good legacy of the Soviet Union in the form of our launchers, the rockets being created, as well as the technology that we have developed jointly with the Russian Academy of Sciences for the launch of satellites using our own electric propulsion engines allow us to compensate for the possible increase in weight.

    In some cases, due to the creation of new circuits, designs, technological solutions, it is necessary to clarify the schedule of work.
    We have done a lot, but there is still a lot to be done. And our current state allows us to fulfill the orders of all our customers without loss of functionality, without loss of quality of our products.
    And the launch program for 2022-2023 remains unchanged, as the launch vehicles of these years are at a high degree of technological readiness."

    .... so a little bit heavier .... who cares if you build decent rockets and engines it's not a big deal .... as long as they work

    and ... bureaucracy ...

    "There are other aspects that need to be moved forward. In the previous conditions, development work, the production of spacecraft and many other things have acquired a large number of regulations, instructions, commissions, reviews, documents that can exist in calm times, but today a breakthrough is necessary.
    And, first of all, we expect our customers - and Roscosmos is most actively involved in this - to simplify procedures, exclude or temporarily suspend regulations that, while essentially correct or possible, nevertheless slow down the production process. All this is necessary, but now they have to be postponed.
    Such a "cleansing" of regulations will allow us to compensate for the extra time that occurs in the process of import substitution."

    ..... or possible ......
    seems to be saying that "possible" is the attempt to equal or better western devices .... which isn't important right now
    as long as they perform the task .... lets build them now ... "catchup" later

    many western "standards" are in fact hidden barriers to entry to markets .... forcing you to buy their technology
    WTO doesn't "investigate" these ....

    here's the link

    https://kosmosnews.fr/2022/04/23/substitution-des-importations-un-nettoyage-de-la-reglementation-est-necessaire/

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    kvs
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    Post  kvs Sun Apr 24, 2022 6:04 am

    The pressurization of Soviet satellites was not about the radiation protection. The range-energy relations for electrons and protons
    in air show that on the scale of a typically satellite there is almost no attenuation. As noted by another poster it was related to cooling
    but I think it was also related to the issue of changing material properties from degassing. This would not pertain to the electronics but
    to the various materials in which they are packaged and the circuit board.

    The research apparatus that I have been involved with from the output analysis end was tested in vacuum chambers before being
    assembled into satellites launched for Earth monitoring missions. It is not just a matter of throwing components together.

    The radiation resistance of the electronics is a design feature. I do not see why Soviet electronics would be degraded faster by
    radiation than western analogues. I am a bit tired of the "west is best" reflex that contaminates every freaking activity in which
    Russia engages. As if Russians do not have the IQ and the science and engineering expertise to solve the problems presented to
    them. Westerners should worry more about the PC affirmative action hiring that dilutes the work talent pool at enterprises.

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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Glonass this time - Kosmos

    Post  Gazputin Sun Apr 24, 2022 10:04 am

    re Satellites above ... agree there is never 1x "Best" solution to anything

    In fact having been in manufacturing of electronics controlled stuff most of my life
    we were always looking for a cheaper solution to the problem .... not the "best"
    but as a compromise usually we bought the "2nd best" .... to play it safe
    ( until the Purchasing Dept got onto US-style "performance bonuses" .... then the "performance" of our electronics plummeted
    after they bought the cheapest .... )

    meanwhile Glonass ....
    Rogozin has a point .... how do you expect to get more investment in Rus tech if Rus are too lazy to use it themselves ...

    once again being brainwashed by the "best" ....
    oh it's not as accurate as GPS ..... at 1-2 metres vs what 30cm ? or whatever

    a passenger jet flying at 900 kph .... that's 250m /s ...... what is the difference ? 1% ?
    that is statistically irrelevant .....

    https://kosmosnews.fr/2022/04/22/remplacement-du-gps-par-glonass-sur-laviation-russe/















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    GarryB
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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4

    Post  GarryB Sun Apr 24, 2022 12:46 pm

    The GPS and GLONASS satellites have very different trajectories which actually makes the GLONASS satellites more useful in awkward places like in mountainous areas or indeed in cities with tall buildings all around and indeed inside buildings the GLONASS signal is reportedly better.

    A few years ago some American senator was complaining that US rescue services were using GLONASS as well as GPS and that they should stop using the bad guys navigation system.

    The response was that GLONASS works better in cities and buildings and in mountains. What they didn't mention was that it also works better near both poles so north pole and south pole because the orbital paths of the GLONASS system makes more satellites visible with less sky visible at any one time.

    The rescue services got to keep using GLONASS because it helps save lives.

    Saw a new report the other day that western airlines should expect GPS signatls to be turned off over Russia at any time because now western airlines are banned from Russian airspace in response to Russian airlines being banned from European airspace, western airlines don't need GPS signals over Russia so they might just turn them off.

    Over time improved GLONASS satellites will gradually replace the older models and precision will improve further.

    A focus on the rest of the world might lead to GLONASS tracking stations in different countries which is also important for improving accuracy around the world too.

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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty GPS

    Post  Gazputin Sun Apr 24, 2022 4:50 pm

    I'm not sure they can turn it off completely ?
    they can significantly dial back the accuracy you receive ... no question ... I experienced it

    I was on a sailing boat between Fiji and Vanuatu when the US Military decided to blow Iraq up .... 1st time think it was

    they dialed back the GPS signal to very general accuracy - like a few kilometres
    anyway the shortwave radio lit up .... every boat in the Pacific started calling each other .... it was chaos during the nights
    nobody slept we all had to keep watch for other ships .... especially big ones
    then we slept during the day ....

    ( I do however still remember staring at the Milky Way from the middle of a black ocean .... it was so clear it was utterly spellbinding
    I had always thought ancient Egyptians and Mayans were crazy until then ..... but not after that )

    the US Navy reasoning was so that "the enemy" could not use their own system to attack them ... I assume irate Muslims were the perceived enemy ?

    as I understand it GPS is focused on the oceans as it is a US Navy system ....
    Glonass is better for the Northern latitudes where it is mostly focused

    fn Americans got me again re Iraq .... the 2nd time
    I was on a work flight to Italy from Oz
    we landed in BKK .... then instead of flying over ME
    we went .... get this .... up over the Himalayas over China then into Russia
    we flew past Moscow and Warsaw then turned south to Frankfurt ....

    most incredible plane trip I have ever had .....
    the engines were being thrashed as they clawed their way over Tibet plateau .... you could see the cars etc below driving in the snow
    then later on the massive lights of Moscow .... biggest city in Europe and then a short while later Warsaw

    I've never forgotten that either ....






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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4

    Post  Big_Gazza Sun Apr 24, 2022 11:53 pm

    Construction of the National Space Center (NCC) and the Khoroshevo-Mnevniki area (March 2022).



    They must be building this new center because "Russia is bankrupt"....  Laughing Laughing Laughing Laughing

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    Post  Big_Gazza Sun Apr 24, 2022 11:55 pm

    Bench tests of new engines for ultralight launch vehicles were held in Russia

    source

    MOSCOW, 23 April. /TASS/. Russian scientists have successfully carried out bench tests of new models of engines for ultralight launch vehicles and an interorbital tug. The creation of flight models of equipment is expected in 2025, TASS was told on Saturday in the press service of the National Technology Initiative (NTI) Platform.

    The development of engines is part of the preparation plan for the promising Cosmos 2.0 pulling project, which involves the creation of capabilities for launching cargo up to 250 kilograms into near-Earth orbit.

    “This year, we have successfully fire tested a low-thrust hydrogen liquid engine for a small orbital upper stage. It implements an innovative “gas + gas” scheme. For this, a design scheme has been developed, manufacturing technologies have been developed. <…> Testing a wide-range rocket engine -carriers, [in turn], showed an advantage in specific impulse of the developed scheme over a traditional liquid rocket engine with a Laval nozzle at altitudes up to 20 km," the press service of the NTI Platform quoted Igor Volobuev, CEO of VNH-Energo, as saying. , which together with the Baltic State Technical University "Voenmeh" named after. D. F. Ustinova (St. Petersburg) tests the developments.

    Volobuev explained that the advantage of a wide-range engine is that it can operate in modes close to the calculated ones, both at the Earth's surface and in airless space - the pressure at the nozzle exit is approximately equal to the pressure in the environment. Therefore, when flying in space, such an engine forms a compact jet that does not pollute the satellite's structural elements and instruments.

    The development of small upper stages is necessary for the deployment of multi-satellite constellations of communications and remote sensing of the Earth, which will help strengthen the country's defense capability, and will also make data more accessible for agriculture, geodesy, mapping, monitoring the Earth's surface and the atmosphere.

    "The engines are being created as part of a project to create a small upper stage or the so-called space tug. So far, the developers are planning to create experimental bench samples of the main systems in 2023, a prototype of a small upper stage in 2024, a commercial flight model in 2025 ", - explained TASS in the press service of the NTI Platform.

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    Post  Hole Mon Apr 25, 2022 1:01 am

    "Gas + gas scheme". Isn´t that the formula on which Biden works? Laughing
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    Post  GarryB Mon Apr 25, 2022 2:28 pm

    I'm not sure they can turn it off completely ?
    they can significantly dial back the accuracy you receive ... no question ... I experienced it

    They can and they do... they can selectively degrade accuracy down to any level they please but they can also turn off the civilian signal completely when it suits them like just before the Olympic games in 2008 when Georgia invaded South Ossetia they turned off civilian GPS signals in the region so they didn't work at all. Soldiers on the Russian side were forced to use cell phones using cell phone tower signals to get rough locations...

    It was a huge wake up call for Russia where they realised the west was actually against them still despite all the bullshit promises made and also that they can only rely on themselves so that was when they started taking drones seriously and invested in C4IRSTAR and the like and seriously turning around their military.

    They had GLONASS in service of course but not complete and there were very few actual receivers in service in their military which made using it ironically difficult... spending enormous amounts to get satellites in orbit but your troops can't use it because receivers were too big and bulky and expensive.

    New GPS receiver technology for cellphones made the difference because it could also receive GLONASS signals as well.... even modern western GPS devices include GLONASS receivers too for accuracy.

    Ironically accuracy down to cms is nice for construction, but most military uses a GLONASS guided weapon like a cruise missile will normally use an optical or radar based terminal guidance for the required level of accuracy.

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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Rogozin visits Yaroslav electronics

    Post  Gazputin Tue Apr 26, 2022 3:01 pm

    Rogozin is a full-on socialist isn't he ...
    he is like a pig in shit now ....

    "After the deployment of the broadband access and Internet of Things combination, it is this company that will produce the civil and military dual-use communications," Rogozin told reporters during a visit to the Yaroslavl radio plant.

    The boss of Roscosmos recalled that the deployment of the Express-RV constellation will begin in 2025, and that a demonstrator of the Skif spacecraft will be put into orbit this year. They are part of the Sfera program. And the equipment of the subscribers for them will be manufactured at the Yaroslav factory.


    "Skif" is the demo satellite for that "booked" orbit for the Russian version of Starlink .... but at medium altitude
    they have to get something up there or lose their booked orbit

    Rogozin is sinking capital into this place ..... I noticed the term "civil and military dual-use"
    the military has very deep pockets ...

    In addition, Roscosmos, after buying shares in PJSC Yaroslavl Radio Plant, offered the company to master the technology of creating equipment for chemical energy sources. This was announced by the general manager of the company Vladimir Filimonov.

    "We have been offered to study chemistry, we have excellent opportunities for specialists in the chemical industry. I mean rechargeable batteries, solar batteries. I think we're going to deal with the base of elements, I'm not talking about the base of semiconductors, but passive elements of a radio engineering device, 70% are passive elements, switching products. The factory can develop, master and produce this," Filimonov told reporters.

    https://kosmosnews.fr/2022/04/25/rogozine-en-visite-a-yarz/

    I think a lot of mergers and acquisitions will happen in the entire electronics area in Rus .... and software
    as interests re-align .....



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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Re Moscow Space Centre

    Post  Gazputin Tue Apr 26, 2022 3:15 pm

    as I said a few days ago I flew past Moscow at night .... if was fn huge .... as in really fn huge
    I was stunned I had no idea it was soooooo big

    to put it into perspective Moscow has 14.5 million people .....

    compare that to the list of "countries" in the EU ....
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population

    how often do we see the wanky "group photo" of "solidarity"
    .... the EU should in my opinion be renamed ...
    the Mutual Masturbation Society ......

    re list all "countries" below the Netherlands
    are smaller than Moscow ....
    that makes the Mayor of Moscow more powerful than most "presidents" in the EU ...

    let that sink in ...

    such a bunch of delusional wankers .....
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population







    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population

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    Post  Scorpius Tue Apr 26, 2022 3:34 pm

    https://tass.ru/kosmos/14468679
    the first launch of the "Angara-1.2" with a payload will probably be in the next week from the Plesetsk cosmodrome.

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    Post  thegopnik Wed Apr 27, 2022 2:49 am

    So I think gazas source is talking about the Irkut rocket? Oh well atleast space x is relieved that they are sanctioned to the point to not be competition unless euros buy them off the Chinese or South Americans that might be interested in purchasing the rockets for launching in which technically they are not buying from Russia lol.
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    Post  Scorpius Wed Apr 27, 2022 3:09 am

    Gazputin wrote:as I said a few days ago I flew past Moscow at night .... if was fn huge .... as in really fn huge
    I was stunned I had no idea it was soooooo big

    to put it into perspective Moscow has 14.5 million people .....

    compare that to the list of "countries" in the EU ....
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population

    how often do we see the wanky "group photo" of "solidarity"
    .... the EU should in my opinion be renamed ...
    the Mutual Masturbation Society ......

    re list all "countries" below the Netherlands
    are smaller than Moscow ....
    that makes the Mayor of Moscow more powerful than most "presidents" in the EU ...

    let that sink in ...

    such a bunch of delusional wankers .....
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population







    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_European_countries_by_population
    According to the All-Russian population census, the population of the Moscow region is 22 million people, of which 13 million are Moscow.

    but I think this thread should not be in the discussion of the Russian space program.

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    Post  kvs Wed Apr 27, 2022 4:55 am

    thegopnik wrote:So I think gazas source is talking about the Irkut rocket? Oh well atleast space x is relieved that they are sanctioned to the point to not be competition unless euros buy them off the Chinese or South Americans that might be interested in purchasing the rockets for launching  in which technically they are not buying from Russia lol.

    Lost launch business should matter not for Russia. Let NATzO pay higher launch costs. All that bitching about free markets and competition
    is all BS.

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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty Russia satellite launch schedule

    Post  Gazputin Wed Apr 27, 2022 8:50 am

    I think Russia has more than enough satellites to keep them busy judging by this launch schedule
    compiled by a guy in Oz

    http://www.sworld.com.au/steven/space/russia-man.txt

    pretty bewildering .... but you can see the big ones for GEO are designated for Angara A-5 or Proton rockets

    meanwhile Rogozin on Glonass use in Rus Airports ....

    "Fourthly, only 107 airfields of the Russian Federation out of 182 are equipped with the GLONASS system. How much more money is needed to equip the entire airfield network of Russia with this system?"

    (you can bet those 107x are "dual-use" built to military-spec ...)

    and ....

    "First, at the moment in the air legislation of the Russian Federation there are no requirements for mandatory equipment of even domestically produced aircraft with the GLONASS system, not to mention foreign aircraft."

    domestic made planes don't have to have Glonass ? .... wtf

    actually I've noticed a regular pattern now with Rus airfield rebuilding programs ....
    the Fed's fund the runway, apron, radar (ie to military spec)
    the State Govt funds the road access, carparks etc
    then an "entrepreneur" is "encouraged" to fund the new terminal building and operate it for 10-20 years ...

    I can imagine the "entrepreneur" incentivisation program ....
    "hi its Vlad here Olaf .... we would like you to fund and run the new airport terminal in your region"
    "sorry Vlad its not my line of business"
    "well Olaf I could re-open this tax investigation of your companies and your family members going back 5-10ys"
    "Vlad it would be an honour to better the lives of my fellow citizens in my region .... in fact I insist on being involved !"





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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion #4 - Page 29 Empty a snippet on Glonass in Russian aircraft .... carrying on from Rogozin rants

    Post  Gazputin Wed Apr 27, 2022 7:31 pm

    Superjet Technician on Yandex

    https://zen.yandex.ru/media/technicjeta/smojet-li-superdjet-letat-posle-otkliucheniia-gps-chto-s-sistemoi-glonass-6263fc2951ccd111bd533a03?&

    Will the Superjet be able to fly after disabling the GPS? What about the GLONASS system?

    "And so, as you know, in Russia there is a GLONASS system.
    This system has been working for a long time and many owners of new Russian LADA cars are familiar with this system, since it is built into the car.

    We are naturally interested in aviation, and mainly the SSJ-100.

    As you understand, in foreign aircraft such as Boeing, Airbus, of course, there is no GLONASS, but there is a GPS system."


    "The SSJ-100 is equipped with FMS (Aircraft Computing System).

    That is, the calculated coordinates of the FMS are compared with the GPS coordinates and in case of significant discrepancies warn the crew of the aircraft, this is in short."

    and the telling statement ....

    "By the way, the SSJ-100 has a GLONASS system that can be installed. It is available as an optional extra."

    translation .... extra cost
    how insane is that ......


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    Gazputin


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    Post  Gazputin Wed Apr 27, 2022 7:36 pm

    I put this in the electronics thread too - wasn't sure where it should be ? seems both to me

    "An aerospace innovation valley will appear in the Russian Federation. On its fields will develop advanced technologies and materials, as well as the latest types of products: aerospace, biomedical and information technologies, as well as electronics and radio engineering. Astronauts and experts call for the creation on its basis of a cluster for the development and production of microchips and microelectronics for the aerospace industry. It is they who the space sphere needs most of all. Details - in the material of "Izvestia"."

    https://www.aviaport.ru/digest/2022/04/27/717031.html

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    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB Wed Apr 27, 2022 8:54 pm

    Actually many western GPS systems include GLONASS tracking to further improve accuracy, with GPS turned off then the GLONASS signal would kick in and be useful too.

    Many of the more expensive models can detect the Chinese and european navigation systems as well but obviously only the civilian signals which are not restricted.

    They have long had the capacity and the technology and now they have the need because there is no other choice...
    lancelot
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    Post  lancelot Thu Apr 28, 2022 12:28 am

    That is the case in consumer devices. Ever since Russia made it mandatory on consumer devices they just added that functionality on the chips. All modern chips can access GPS, GLONASS, Baidu, and Galileo. It is just cheaper to make it that way.

    The Superjet was designed at a time when the GLONASS network had only limited availability. Not all satellites were up. So they probably did not consider that important. Or perhaps the equipment was not designed that way. The aircraft industry operates on much smaller unit volumes, add to that cumbersome and expensive certification, and some of the equipment they produce can sometimes be quite old indeed.

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    kvs
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    Post  kvs Thu Apr 28, 2022 1:03 pm

    Rogozin puts the blame on certain government officials for the lack of conversion to GLONASS in the realm of aircraft.
    By contrast all Russian civilian vehicles have been mandated to use GLONASS and the electronics has been implemented.
    According to Rogozin the conversion of aircraft is not a technical challenge.

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