The development will be able to reduce the cost and availability of Russian launches. Roscosmos State Corporation has placed a preliminary order for the development of technical requirements for the parachute system of the return stage of space rockets. The development of the system, which in the future will help to compete with reusable rockets Rocket Lab and SpaceX, will be engaged in the holding "Thermodynamics" (part of the state corporation "Rostec"). Return of the rocket stage Rocket Lab Electron by parachute. Photo: Rocket Lab. According to the general director of "Thermodynamics" Igor Nasenkov, a pre-order from Roscosmos was received last month. This year they plan to start research work. At the same time, the timing of the creation of the system is still unknown, Nasenkov emphasized. "Eagle" and "Amur" The parameters of the parachute system for rockets are unknown, but their scale can be assumed using a similar system for a spacecraft. So, Igor Nasenkov told about the features of the parachute system for the promising spacecraft "Eagle". The system will receive three domes with an area of 1200 square meters. m each. This will allow the system to ensure the descent of cargo weighing up to 9535 kg. Now Technodinamika is working on prototypes of parachutes, and complex tests are planned for 2023. Testing will continue by dropping a full-size capsule from space, Igor Nasenkov added. Parachute system PBS-950. Such landing systems can become a reserve for the creation of return stages of missiles. Photo: Russian Defense Ministry Recall that in Russia since 2013, a reusable carrier rocket "Amur" has been developed. It is planned that in a reusable version, a rocket with a launch weight of 360 tons will be able to carry up to 10.5 tons to low Earth orbit (LEO). For comparison, the Soyuz-2.1b rocket can take only 8.2 tons for LEO. Amur will also receive an automated launch preparation system. All this will make launches cheaper. The estimated cost of launching a reusable Amur rocket (excluding the upper stage) will be $ 22 million - against about $ 45 million in which the launch of Soyuz-2.1b costs. The development of a reusable rocket will allow Roscosmos to reduce the cost of launch, which can attract new customers, and strengthen its position before private companies developing reusable rockets. Theory and example There are several systems that provide a soft landing of the first stage. So, on Falcon rockets, a complex complex is used, including three brake engines, rudders, a navigation system, and an orientation system. This provides an accurate landing, but significantly reduces the mass of the rocket's payload. Another example is the hard-wing return system (Energia-2), developed in the late 1980s by Soviet engineers. On the one hand, this would allow the stage to land at any airfield, and on the other hand, such a system also gives the rocket an excess share of additional weight. In 2001, a mock-up of the reusable accelerator of the first stage of the Angara rocket was shown. Model of the apparatus "Baikal" on which alternative ways of returning the stage were worked out But there are solutions that do not take the expensive mass of the rocket. These are air pick-up systems, and parachute landing. In the first case, you also need a parachute of a small area. Its goal is to reduce the speed for picking up the device by helicopter. Last year, the rocket Lab Electron rocket stage was returned in this way. In turn, a full-fledged parachute landing requires large-area systems to absorb the impact from landing. The development of synthetic fabrics made it possible to reduce the mass of large parachutes, which made it possible to create heavy-duty systems. For example, the military system PS-950 can "land" up to 13 tons of cargo, while the share of the system itself will be only about 12%. This allows you to take more cargo into orbit, while maintaining the possibility of reuse. However, this method requires an extensive platform of alienation, because such a landing system is uncontrollable.