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    Russia's naval doctrine and strategy

    LMFS
    LMFS


    Posts : 4995
    Points : 4995
    Join date : 2018-03-03

    Russia's naval doctrine and strategy - Page 14 Empty Re: Russia's naval doctrine and strategy

    Post  LMFS Sun Jul 31, 2022 11:49 pm

    Despite the extension, I think it is worth keeping the summary of the text by TASS here for reference:

    Activities in the Arctic and creation of LNG facilities. Main provisions of the Russian Maritime Doctrine

    MOSCOW, July 31. /tass/. The new Maritime Doctrine of Russia provides for the intensification of maritime activities in the archipelagos of Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island. This is stated in the text of the document published on the official portal of regulatory legal acts. It was signed on Sunday by Russian President, Supreme Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Putin.

    The new doctrine provides for "diversification and activation of marine activities in the Svalbard archipelago, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and Wrangel Island," the document says.

    It also notes "increasing the combat potential and developing the deployment system of the Northern Fleet, the forces and means of the Federal Security Service, and the forces and means of the Rosgvardiya."

    National interests of the Russian Federation
    From the new Maritime Doctrine of the country, it follows that the national interests of the Russian Federation extend to the entire World Ocean. "The national interests of the Russian Federation as a great maritime power extend to the entire World Ocean and the Caspian Sea. They are formed taking into account the challenges and threats to the national security of the Russian Federation in the oceans, generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, as well as taking into account the sovereignty and national interests of other states," the document says.

    According to the doctrine, Russia's national interests in the World's oceans include ensuring the independence, state and territorial integrity, inviolability of the country's sovereignty, preserving the status of a great maritime power for the Russian Federation, developing its maritime potential and strengthening its defense capability, ensuring freedom of navigation, fishing and scientific research, safe operation of offshore pipeline systems, environmental safety, and development of the Arctic zone and the Northern Sea Route and so on.

    "Protecting the national interests of the Russian Federation in the world's oceans is one of the highest state priorities,"
    the doctrine emphasizes.

    Priority zones in the world's oceans
    The new document divides the areas of ensuring the national interests of the Russian Federation in the World Ocean into vital, important and other areas of importance. Thus, the first group includes zones that are "directly related to the development of the state, the protection of its sovereignty, territorial integrity and strengthening of defense, and critically affect the socio-economic development of the country." These include the internal sea waters and territorial sea of the Russian Federation, the exclusive economic zone of the country and its continental shelf, the Arctic basin, including the Northern Sea Route, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea.

    Important areas are defined as those that " significantly affect the economic development, material well-being of the population and the state of national security of the Russian Federation, as well as the maintenance of strategic and regional security of the state." These are, in particular, the water areas adjacent to the coast of the Russian Federation, including the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, Baltic and Kuril Straits, and areas where global transport links pass.

    "The Russian Federation, in order to protect its national interests in the world's oceans, exercises its indisputable right to the presence of forces (troops) And their use in strict compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, its international treaties and norms of international law," the doctrine summarizes.

    Priorities for the Russian maritime policy
    The Russian Naval Doctrine approved by the President of the Russian Federation provides for the development of the shipbuilding complex in the Far East, including for the construction of aircraft carriers. "Development of a modern high-tech shipbuilding complex in the Far East, designed for the construction of large-capacity vessels (including for the development of the Arctic, modern aircraft carriers for the Navy)," the document provides an item in the list of priorities of the national maritime policy in the Pacific regional direction.

    The document notes that Russia will increase the operational capabilities of the Navy in order to ensure the country's national security and protect interests in the world's oceans. As specified in the doctrine, the strategic goal is also to increase the effectiveness of ensuring the protection and protection of the state border of the Russian Federation at sea.

    In addition, according to the doctrine, the control of the naval activities of foreign states in the waters of the Northern Sea Route is one of the priorities of the national maritime policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic regional direction. The doctrine also sets the task of "increasing the combat potential and developing the deployment system of the Northern Fleet, the forces and means of the Federal Security Service, and the forces and means of the Rosgvardiya". The document also refers to "ensuring a given operational regime in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation by strengthening the combat potential of forces (troops)." Northern and Pacific Fleets".

    Another priority for Russia's maritime policy is the development of international military cooperation with the navies of the Caspian states. As specified in the doctrine, it is also planned to develop the forces (troops) and the basing system of the Caspian Flotilla, increasing their quantitative and qualitative parameters.

    Also among the priorities are strengthening the economic and geopolitical position of the Russian Federation in the Caspian region, deepening economic, military and cultural ties with the states of this region.

    The text of the document also notes that the determining factor in relations with NATO is the unacceptability of moving the alliance's infrastructure to the borders of the Russian Federation. As specified in the doctrine, the national maritime policy in the Atlantic regional direction is determined taking into account the existence of NATO, whose activities are " aimed at direct confrontation with the Russian Federation and its allies."

    At the same time, the goals of the national maritime policy in the Atlantic direction, according to the document, are resolutely defending and reliably ensuring Russia's national interests, creating conditions for stable economic cooperation with other countries.

    Risks for Russian maritime activities
    The document notes that one of the main risks for the maritime activity of the Russian Federation is the lack of a sufficient number of bases outside the Russian Federation to provide ships and vessels of the Navy performing tasks in remote areas of the World Ocean.

    Risks to Russia's maritime activities also include sudden and difficult-to-predict pandemics of dangerous diseases. As specified in the doctrine, the coronavirus pandemic has led to geopolitical uncertainty and a global economic crisis in the world. This crisis, the document emphasizes, is associated with the desire of leading foreign states to change the world order, strengthen trends towards curtailing the processes of globalization, the struggle for leadership in the world, as well as to increase the role of national economies and public administration, including in the field of maritime activities.

    Threats to Russian security
    The doctrine refers to the main threats to the security of the Russian Federation, the US policy of dominance in the World's oceans and the growth of NATO activity. "The main challenges and threats to the national security and sustainable development of the Russian Federation related to the World's oceans are: the strategic course of the United States to dominate the World's oceans and their global impact on the development of international processes, including those related to the use of transport communications and energy resources of the World's oceans," the document says.

    Such threats also include the advancement of NATO's military infrastructure to the borders of Russia, an increase in the number of exercises of the unification forces in the waters of the seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation. The new doctrine also indicates the desire of the United States and its allies to limit Russia's access to the resources of the World's oceans and vital maritime transport communications, the desire of the United States to achieve overwhelming superiority of its naval forces and increase the combat capabilities of the Navies of other states.

    In addition, threats are listed as territorial claims to the Russian Federation by a number of states regarding some of its coastal and island territories and armed conflicts in areas of particular geopolitical importance for the Russian Federation and its allies. These include similar conflicts in the territories of countries that are allies of the Russian Federation and states that have access to the World Ocean.


    One of the points of the new doctrine relates to economic, political, international legal, informational and military pressure on Russia in order to discredit and reduce the effectiveness of its maritime activities, as well as efforts to weaken its control over the Northern Sea Route (NSR), build up a foreign naval presence in the Arctic and increase the conflict potential in the region. in this region.

    In addition, according to the document, threats to the security of the Russian Federation are attempts by a number of states to change the current legal regimes of the sea spaces and straits used for international navigation in the interests of their own geopolitical goals. Another point of the doctrine fixes as such threats an increase in the scale of international terrorism, piracy, illegal transportation by sea of weapons, drugs and psychotropic substances, their precursors, as well as chemical and radioactive substances.

    "The Russian Federation's independent foreign and domestic policy provokes opposition from the United States and its allies, who seek to maintain their dominance in the world, including in the world's oceans. The policy of containment of the Russian Federation implemented by them provides for exerting political, economic, military and informational pressure on it,"
    the document says.

    In general, it is stated that the country's development is taking place against the background of existing and new threats, which "is primarily related to the geopolitical position of the Russian Federation and its role in world politics." "The role of the power factor in international relations is not decreasing. The world's leading powers, which have a significant naval potential and a developed basing system, continue to increase their naval presence in geopolitically significant areas of the World Ocean, including in the waters of the oceans and seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation," the doctrine says.

    Creation of logistics support points for the Russian Navy
    The new Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation provides for the formation of logistics support points in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region Russian Navy in order to create conditions for inter-fleet transitions of Naval forces.

    The document also notes " the creation of conditions for a naval presence in the Asia-Pacific region, which allows monitoring the safety of the functioning of maritime transport communications in this region."

    The new Naval Doctrine of the Russian Federation assumes that, in addition to the Navy's PMTOS in Tartus, Syria, PMTs will be created in a number of countries in the Mediterranean region. "In the Mediterranean Sea (it is envisaged) to ensure on a permanent basis the naval presence of the Russian Federation in the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of PMTO on the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic, the creation and development of PMTO on the territories of other states in the region."

    It is also planned to " develop relations with the states of the Middle East and North Africa with adjacent seas and sea spaces, including the Mediterranean and Red Seas."

    In addition, Russia is planning to create a naval sea launch complex in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. In the document, one of the priorities of the national maritime policy is called "maintaining and maintaining the Russian naval presence in the Persian Gulf region on the basis of PMTO in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean."

    It also notes "the use of the infrastructure of the states of the region in the interests of the naval activities of the Russian Federation."

    Infrastructure for cargo reorientation to Russian ports
    The development of railway tracks, logistics centers and port complexes for reorienting cargo to domestic ports is a priority for the Russian Federation. "The priorities of the national maritime policy in the Atlantic regional direction are in the Baltic Sea: development of domestic coastal and port infrastructure-railways, logistics centers and port complexes, including those for processing and transporting hydrocarbon resources, in the interests of reorienting export and import cargo to domestic ports; further development of the system of underwater pipelines in the interests of export, ensuring their effective and safe functioning, " the document says.

    The doctrine as a priority of the Russian Federation reflects the need to create favorable conditions in St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad and Leningrad regions for the development of maritime transport, the construction of competitive vessels of the sea, icebreaking and fishing fleets as one of the key elements of specialization in this area.

    In addition, the document contains a clause on the development of the Baltic Fleet's troops and basing system, its ability to guarantee the protection of Russia's national interests in the Baltic Sea, as well as ensuring transport accessibility of the Kaliningrad Region through the operation of a ferry line to the ports of Ust-Luga and St. Petersburg.

    According to the doctrine, the construction of new and modernization of existing capacities of the fisheries complex, primarily the renewal of the fishing fleet and the means of production of fish processing enterprises, are also priorities.

    The need to monitor the condition of potentially dangerous underwater objects, including chemical weapons disposal sites, as well as monitoring the condition of underwater pipelines are also given as priorities. Another priority is the development of cruise and yacht tourism and the preservation of maritime cultural and historical heritage. It is noted that this should be done on the basis of interaction between state authorities and local self-government bodies, interested public associations and organizations.

    Development of domestic coastal and port infrastructure
    The new Naval Doctrine also provides for the strengthening of the Black Sea Fleet forces and the development of their infrastructure in the Crimea and on the coast of the Krasnodar Territory. In addition, it is planned to comprehensively strengthen Russia's geopolitical positions in the Black and Azov Seas, as well as ensure, on the basis of international maritime law, a favorable international legal regime for the Russian Federation in the Black and Azov Seas and the use of their aquatic biological resources, exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits, laying and operation of underwater pipelines.

    The document also notes the development of a ship repair complex in the Crimea and Sevastopol. "Development of the shipbuilding complex on the basis of shipbuilding and ship repair enterprises of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, including large-capacity shipbuilding (shipbuilding) and ship repair," the document says.

    Within the framework of the doctrine, it is also planned to increase the capacity of sea routes in the Azov-Black Sea basin, including Crimea, to ensure passenger flows to tourism development zones. Thus, the Russian Federation will develop tourist cruise shipping from the ports of the Mediterranean coast to the ports of the Crimea and Krasnodar Territory.

    The doctrine provides for the development and provision of transport accessibility in Kaliningrad. "Ensuring transport accessibility of the Kaliningrad region through the operation of a ferry line in the direction of the seaports of Ust-Luga and St. Petersburg," the doctrine says.

    The new Maritime Doctrine also provides for the development of domestic coastal port infrastructure - railway tracks, logistics centers and port complexes, including processing facilities, throughout the Baltic Basin.

    In addition, the Russian Federation will create conditions in St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad and Leningrad regions for the development and construction of maritime transport. As part of the Maritime Doctrine, it is planned to upgrade the fishing fleet and production facilities of fish processing enterprises in the Baltic basin.

    Increase in the share of vessels flying the flag of the Russian Federation
    In addition, it calculates an increase in the share of vessels flying the flag of the Russian Federation. "Priority areas for the development of maritime transport are: < ... > a significant increase in the share of vessels flying the state flag of the Russian Federation in the total number of vessels of the world merchant fleet through the use of various mechanisms, including preferential subsidies, and the elimination of unnecessary administrative barriers," the document says.

    Within the framework of the doctrine, it is planned to create a favorable organizational, legal and economic environment for expanding opportunities and increasing competitiveness, as well as for developing Russia's coastal port infrastructure. This will ensure the economic independence and national security of the Russian Federation.

    The Russian Federation plans to upgrade and develop its domestic transport fleet to increase its competitiveness in the global freight market. According to the Maritime Doctrine, the icebreaking, rescue, environmental protection, service and auxiliary fleets will also be updated. It is planned to improve the quality of services and safety in the framework of navigation.

    One of the priority areas for the development of maritime transport is to create conditions for the development of the Northern Sea Route as the national transport communication of the country. For the development of the Northern Sea Route, international use and the possibility of ensuring competitiveness on the world market will be taken into account.

    In Russia, it is planned to create modern large sea transport and logistics centers on the basis of domestic seaports. They will ensure the processing of the entire volume of sea exports and imports of the country and create conditions for serious competition with the sea port complexes of other states.

    In addition, the new Maritime Doctrine implies the construction of new port complexes in the Baltic Sea.

    It is also noted that Russia plans to expand cooperation with Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, as well as naval cooperation with India. "The priorities of the national maritime policy in the Indo-Pacific regional direction are the development of strategic partnership and naval cooperation with the Republic of India, as well as the expansion of cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Iraq, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other states of the region," the document says.

    The doctrine also provides for the transformation of this region into a zone of peace and stability, the development of relations with the states of the region aimed at developing trade, economic, military-technical and cultural ties, and the development of tourism.

    The possibility of introducing civil courts into the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
    According to the new Naval Doctrine, pre-trained civilian vessels and crews can be commissioned into the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in wartime. "Mobilization training and mobilization readiness in the field of maritime activities are strategically important for increasing the naval potential of the Russian Federation and are aimed at ensuring the entry into the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation of pre - trained civilian vessels and crews, as well as preparing objects of maritime activities for operation in wartime," the document says.

    It is also indicated that one of the priorities for improving mobilization training and readiness in the field of maritime activities is to improve the system of recalling vessels flying the Russian flag during the immediate threat of aggression and in wartime, with the transfer of control to the military command bodies of the armed forces of the country. "The priority in this area is the development of the state management system of the Russian Federation for the activities of sea transport, the fishing fleet and the functioning of ports during the immediate threat of aggression and in wartime," the document says.

    Expanding the geography of Navy ships ' calls to foreign ports
    As part of strengthening international cooperation in the field of maritime activities, Russia plans to expand the geography of annual visits of ships and Navy vessels to foreign ports. "International legal support for maritime activities and international cooperation in the field of maritime activities are important areas of national maritime policy, within the framework of which <...> expansion of the geography of annual calls (official, unofficial visits and business calls) to the ports of foreign countries of ships and vessels of the Navy and Federal Security Service bodies is carried out," - the document says.

    As specified in the doctrine, joint naval exercises of the Navy with the naval forces of other states, as well as Federal Security Service bodies with border agencies (coast guards) of other countries are also carried out as part of the activity.

    Development of satellite communication and navigation systems in Antarctica
    The new Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation provides for the development of satellite communication and navigation systems in Antarctica, as well as the expansion of ground-based GLONASS support systems. "The priorities of the national maritime policy in the Antarctic regional direction are < ... > the development of satellite communication and navigation systems in Antarctica, remote sensing of its surface, expansion and modernization of ground-based support systems for the global navigation satellite system GLONASS," the document says.

    According to the document, it is also a priority to provide hydrometeorological, navigation and heliogeophysical information support for marine activities in the region.

    Production of robotic complexes
    The Russian maritime doctrine involves the development and implementation of robotic systems for various purposes based on artificial intelligence. "The priority areas of development of the Russian shipbuilding complex are: < ... > formation, development and implementation of a set of priority technologies that allow creating promising systems and models of weapons, military and special equipment, including marine robotic complexes for various purposes based on artificial intelligence, and ensuring the advanced development of the Navy and the competitiveness of the domestic military-industrial complex.marine products", - the document provides an item in the list of priorities in the field of ensuring the marine activity of the Russian Federation.

    The document also refers to the development of production of marine robotic complexes and dual-use systems.

    Geological exploration on the Arctic and Caspian shelf
    The new Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation includes Russia's intention to increase the volume of geological exploration and production of hydrocarbon resources on the continental shelf, in the Arctic zone and in the Caspian Sea. The document emphasizes that state regulation is necessary in these areas to ensure Russia's national security.

    The new doctrine proposes to remove administrative barriers that hinder the intensive and safe development of marine natural resources, as well as to provide support to Russian exporting enterprises.

    It is noted that a modern oil and gas production complex should be formed in the sector of the Caspian Sea, taking into account the requirements of environmental safety. To do this, Russia should involve Russian companies in geological exploration. Subsequently, new fields should be included in the system of subsea pipelines.

    The doctrine also declares Russia's intention to increase the volume of geological exploration for ferromanganese and cobalt-rich deposits, as well as the creation of capacities for the production of liquefied gas and its shipment.

    All these measures should lead to the preservation and increase of jobs in the field of maritime activities in the Far East, the formation of a comfortable living environment for the population of Primorsky districts, the document says.

    Creation of new LNG facilities in the Far East
    The Russian Maritime Doctrine also notes the creation of new plants for the production of liquefied natural gas in the Far East. "Creating a resource base and creating capacities for the production of liquefied gas and its shipment with the creation of specialized terminals in the interests of long-term gas supply to Russian consumers and export supplies," the document lists the priorities of the Russian maritime policy in the Pacific regional direction.

    In addition, the doctrine provides for more active development of natural resources of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation, including increasing the level of geological exploration of the Seas of Japan, Okhotsk and Bering.

    Cooperation in combating piracy and terrorism at sea
    Russia will take measures to combat piracy and terrorism at sea, including by developing international cooperation. As stated in the doctrine, this work will be carried out, in particular, by " developing a system of political, legal, socio-economic and military measures aimed at preventing, preventing and suppressing pirate and terrorist acts against ships flying the state flag of the Russian Federation." In addition, it provides for the development of "international cooperation and cooperation in the fight against piracy and terrorism at sea."

    The doctrine prescribes prompt response of the authorities to pirate and terrorist acts against ships flying the Russian flag or carrying Russian citizens, and in general assistance to ships in such situations.

    Construction of fishing vessels at domestic shipyards
    It follows from the doctrine that the Russian Federation plans to implement the construction of new fishing vessels at Russian shipyards. "Priority areas for the development of marine fisheries and fish farming (aquaculture) are the implementation of projects for the construction of new fishing vessels and the creation of conditions for preferential placement of orders for their construction at Russian shipbuilding enterprises," the document says.

    Also, within the framework of the doctrine, the Russian Federation will create highly efficient vessels for the extraction of aquatic biological resources outside the exclusive economic zone of Russia and in remote areas of the World Ocean.

    Within the framework of the fishing fleet, it is planned to develop systems for monitoring the activities of the fishing fleet and processing information based on the use of modern means of communication and surveillance.

    Technological independence in shipbuilding
    Technological independence in the field of shipbuilding has become one of the priority directions in the development of the Russian shipbuilding complex. "Priority areas of development of the Russian shipbuilding complex are:<...> ensuring the technological independence of the Russian Federation in the field of shipbuilding, " the document says.

    The text of the doctrine also notes that among the priority areas are the development and provision of construction of warships, military auxiliary, transport, fishing, research and other civilian vessels, objects of civil marine equipment equipped with equipment of domestic production and maximum localization of shipbuilding in the Russian Federation.

    As part of the Maritime Doctrine, it is planned to create an opportunity for the construction of large-capacity vessels. So, in the Far East, it is planned to build a high-tech shipbuilding complex designed for the construction of large-capacity vessels.

    According to the doctrine, Russia will introduce advanced digital technologies and digital platforms at all stages of the life cycle of ships, vessels and marine equipment. For this purpose, conditions will be created "for innovation and investment activity in the field of shipbuilding, allowing for comprehensive modernization, reconstruction and technical re-equipment of existing and construction of new shipbuilding facilities."

    State control over strategically important organizations in the field of shipbuilding and shipbuilding will be preserved.

    Construction of modern hospital ships
    The new Naval Doctrine of Russia provides for the construction of modern hospital vessels capable of ensuring the autonomous presence of Naval forces in remote areas of the World Ocean. "Medical and sanitary support for maritime activities provides <...> for the construction of modern hospital vessels capable of ensuring the autonomous presence of Naval forces in remote areas of the World Ocean and their performance of humanitarian tasks," the document says.

    In addition, the document says about equipping ships with telemedicine complexes with the possibility of connecting them to national and departmental telemedicine systems.

    Currently, the Russian Navy has three hospital ships that were built according to the project in Poland. The Yenisei ,built in 1981, is based at the main base of the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol. The Northern Fleet hospital ship Svir (built in 1989) is based in Severomorsk. Irtysh (built in 1990) is based in the Pacific Fleet in Vladivostok. The fourth, the lead ship Ob, built in 1980 for the Pacific Fleet, was scrapped in 2007.

    Creation of a state system for informing about the location of vessels
    Russia plans to create a single interdepartmental state system for informing about the location of Russian and foreign vessels and conducting search and rescue operations. "The priority areas of development-search and rescue support for maritime activities are: < ... > the creation of a unified state interdepartmental automated system that ensures the exchange of information about the location of Russian and foreign vessels and the conduct of search and rescue operations," the document says.

    It is also planned to ensure the development of global information systems within the framework of maritime information activities, including the unified state information system on the situation in the World Ocean, the unified state system for covering the surface and underwater situation, which represent a common information and communication infrastructure.

    Development of digital systems in the field of maritime transport
    Within the framework of the Maritime Doctrine, Russia will create and continue to develop domestic independent navigation systems as an alternative to global navigation satellite systems.

    In the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, it is planned to create a unified protected information and telecommunications system for the transport complex, including the construction of a trans-Arctic main underwater fiber-optic communication line.

    In the field of health safety, it is planned to equip vessels with telemedicine complexes with the possibility of connecting them to national and departmental telemedicine systems.

    According to the Russian Maritime Doctrine, marine robotic complexes and systems will be used to study the World's oceans, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles will be used to monitor processes in the upper sea layers.

    Development of export gas pipelines in the Black Sea
    The new Maritime Doctrine of Russia provides for the development of export gas pipelines in the Black and Azov Seas, as well as the creation of new complexes for processing and transporting hydrocarbons. "In the Black and Azov Seas: further development of the export gas transmission system, including the system of underwater pipelines," the document says.

    The doctrine also provides for geological exploration, updating of data on deposits and development of economically profitable deposits in the Azov-Black Sea basin.

    It is planned to create new complexes for processing and transporting hydrocarbons in the Baltic Sea. "In the Baltic Sea: development of domestic coastal and port infrastructure - railways, logistics centers and port complexes, including those for processing and transporting hydrocarbon resources, in the interests of reorienting export and import cargo to domestic ports," the document says.

    The doctrine also prioritizes the development of the Arctic's natural fuel and energy resources, including on the shelf, and the creation of favorable conditions for the activities of Russian oil and gas producing and gas transmission companies.

    In addition, the document notes the priority of ensuring the independence of the Russian Federation in the field of laying offshore pipelines. In the Atlantic, priorities include the development and implementation of new technologies and deep-sea technological complexes for the exploration and extraction of mineral resources on the Atlantic Ocean floor.

    Building up a satellite constellation
    According to the document, Russia will increase its satellite constellation, which is necessary for hydrometeorological, oceanographic and heliogeophysical support of marine activities. "The priority areas of ensuring the safety of navigation are <...> increasing and improving the orbital grouping of spacecraft used for hydrometeorological, oceanographic and heliogeophysical support of marine activities, " the document says.

    In particular, the expansion of the satellite constellation will include the deployment of a highly elliptical space system to provide hydrometeorological data for the polar region of the Earth and the grouping of spacecraft used for radar sensing of the Earth to receive information about the ice situation in any cloud cover and at night, including in the polar night.

    The doctrine also notes that for the formation, development and maintenance of a single information space in the field of ensuring maritime activities, it will be necessary to integrate and use departmental and other information systems, including the advanced satellite communication and broadcasting system Express-RV.

    Guarantee of ensuring and protecting the interests of the Russian Federation
    The text of the new Naval doctrine of the Russian Federation states that modern Russia cannot exist without a strong fleet, and the presence of sufficient sea power guarantees the provision and protection of its national interests. "The modern Russian Federation cannot exist without a strong navy. The world's largest territory and length of maritime borders, huge reserves and diversity of marine natural energy, mineral and biological resources, the quality and quantity of the population of the Russian Federation objectively determine its existence and development in the XXI century as a great continental and maritime power," the document says.

    It notes that Russia, guided by the text of the new doctrine, "will firmly and resolutely defend its national interests in the World's oceans, and the presence of sufficient sea power guarantees their provision and protection."

    "The implementation of the provisions of this doctrine will contribute to the sustainable socio - economic development of the Russian Federation, ensuring its national security and strengthening its authority in the international arena," the text summarizes.

    The possibility of using force to protect the interests of the Russian Federation in the ocean
    Russia, according to the new Maritime doctrine, can use force along with other methods to protect its interests in the World's oceans. The doctrine notes that "implementation of an effective national maritime policy and activation of maritime activities are one of the priorities of the Russian Federation in the XXI century" and require consolidation of the scientific and business communities.

    It also notes that Russia " uses the full range of political, economic, informational, military and other instruments of state policy in order to realize and protect its national interests in the world's oceans."

    The new document divides the areas of ensuring the national interests of the Russian Federation in the World Ocean into vital, important and other areas of importance. Thus, in vital areas of the Russian Federation, along with political and other tools, "fully uses military-forceful methods, including naval presence, demonstration of the flag and force," and if necessary " uses military force in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and generally recognized principles and norms of international law."

    In important areas, the document notes, Russia "mainly uses political, diplomatic, informational and other non-violent tools", and if their capabilities are exhausted, "it can use military force adequately to the current situation."

    In the zones that are classified as "other", the Russian Federation, following the principles and norms of international law, primarily uses political and diplomatic mechanisms, as well as other nonviolent methods.

    Situation on the sea line to Baltiysk
    The sea route is the main alternative for cargo delivery to the Kaliningrad region, bypassing the territory of Lithuania. In June, Lithuania stopped the passage of goods included in the EU sanctions lists, which were traveling to the Kaliningrad region from other regions of the Russian Federation by truck and by rail. The Russian authorities called these restrictions illegal. Later, the European Commission gave explanations on transit to Kaliningrad, according to which the ban on the transit of goods by road, organized by Russian operators, remains, while restrictions on transit for rail transport are lifted, while cargo control is observed. As the Kaliningrad Region Governor Anton Alikhanov said, a complete ban on land transit in the future may require up to 22 vessels of various types for the import and export of goods from the region.

    Earlier, the head of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation Vitaly Savelyev said that Kaliningrad will not be in the transport blockade. Rosmorport has considered the possibility of reducing the delivery time of cargo to the Kaliningrad region on the Ust-Luga - Baltiysk line. If necessary, the issue of redirecting oil products bound for the Kaliningrad Region from ferries to tankers may be considered. Also, starting from September 2022, the ferry fleet's carrying capacity will increase due to the start of work on the line of the fourth automobile and railway ferry "General Chernyakhovsky". If necessary, additional cargo can be diverted from rail and road transport to the ports of Bronka or Ust-Luga and transported as general cargo on vessels of the Northern Shipping Company.

    Rosmorport stressed that now the load of sea car and railway ferries operating on the Ust-Luga - Baltiysk line is almost 100%.

    Situation in the fishing fleet of the Russian Federation
    In early July, Russian Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Viktor Yevtukhov reported that 75 fishing vessels are being built at Russian shipyards.

    In May, the head of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, Alexey Rakhmanov, reported that the Kronstadt Marine Plant of USC, together with a Norwegian company, has mastered the production of about 80% of components for fish factories. Also earlier, the head of the Ministry of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov said that Russian fishing vessels have difficulties with Western equipment, and currently they are being redesigned for the products of friendly countries.

    At the end of April, Russian President Vladimir Putin instructed the government to consider providing an additional 7 billion rubles for import substitution of ship equipment for fishing vessels.

    Updated doctrine
    In May, Yuri Borisov, who then served as Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, announced an adjustment of the Naval Doctrine against the background of the deployment of a total hybrid war by the collective West against Russia. He pointed out that the updated version of the document provides for a number of fundamentally new provisions, in particular those related to mobilization training and mobilization readiness in the field of maritime activities.

    Putin signed a decree approving the new Naval doctrine on July 31. The previous Naval Doctrine of the Russian Federation was approved in June 2015.

    https://tass.ru/politika/15353849

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    Post  GarryB Mon Aug 01, 2022 8:19 am

    So not just a boost and shift in focus to the Navy but also a boost in the civilian fishing and cargo and transport fleet as well...

    Predicted this a while ago.... the west made good money with Russia where they acted as a middleman and took a cut from trade and also from selling them equipment and products to enable them to fish or ship goods around the world... not only will Russia become self sufficient, it will also have to produce all the technology and equipment it needs which it can sell to the rest of the world too.

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    Post  ALAMO Mon Aug 01, 2022 8:44 am

    From a wider perspective, leaving Spitsbergen with the end of the Soviet Union turned out to be another in a line of mistakes that won't be easy to fix. Russians have a foot on the ground there, while any try to return the status quo there will be presented as Russkies thirsty and violent invasion against a NATO member.
    Nobody will really care that Norway broke de facto any of the points of the Spitsbergen treaty, starting from the militarisation of the archipelago under cover of air safety.
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    Post  Mir Mon Aug 01, 2022 8:54 am

    Finally we will see the much needed rapid expansion of the Russian Navy and the re-creation of the Soviet era Merchant Navy!
    There is now no doubt that the Russian will start to build a couple aircraft carriers and a lot more submarines.

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    Post  ALAMO Mon Aug 01, 2022 9:03 am

    You need to do something with this rain of cash falling down on you because of ... ekhm ... sanctions Laughing Laughing

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    Post  Arrow Mon Aug 01, 2022 9:29 am

    Mir wrote:
    There is now no doubt that the Russian will start to build a couple aircraft carriers and a lot more submarines.

    They are already building more submarines at the same time than the US, I don't know if not more than China. A total of over 20 submarines under construction including conventional ones !! This is an impressive number. For this they build several different classes. Now they also need more water vessels more.
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    Post  Mir Mon Aug 01, 2022 9:59 am

    Arrow wrote:
    Mir wrote:
    There is now no doubt that the Russian will start to build a couple aircraft carriers and a lot more submarines.

    They are already building more submarines at the same time than the US, I don't know if not more than China. A total of over 20 submarines under construction including conventional ones !! This is an impressive number. For this they build several different classes. Now they also need more water vessels more.

    The Russian Naval doctrine just expanded their scope significantly - and rightly so. What the Russians need (in my opinion) is to expand their multi-purpose nuclear submarine fleet (SSN's) quite significantly. This will likely accelerate the Husky project. In fact most naval projects will probably see rapid acceleration. Priority will likely also be given to destroyer sized ships like the modified Gorskov, and they will need overseas bases and support ships for this expansion. Not to mention naval aviation!

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    Post  AlfaT8 Mon Aug 01, 2022 5:06 pm

    Russia was always going to expand and modernize its navy, the issue was always the lack of proper infustructure and industrial capabilities, which would reqiure at least a decade to rebuild.
    Its been more than 10yrs since Russia began its rearmament so they are very much on schedule, the biggest problem for the Russian navy is simply the political will to properly rearm the Navy.
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    Post  GarryB Tue Aug 02, 2022 9:46 am

    From a wider perspective, leaving Spitsbergen with the end of the Soviet Union turned out to be another in a line of mistakes that won't be easy to fix. Russians have a foot on the ground there, while any try to return the status quo there will be presented as Russkies thirsty and violent invasion against a NATO member.
    Nobody will really care that Norway broke de facto any of the points of the Spitsbergen treaty, starting from the militarisation of the archipelago under cover of air safety.

    HATO never lets the facts get in the way of a good story... hense Russia started the war in Syria and in Georgia and the Crimea and now the Donbass... pretty sure they started WWII together with Germany as well...

    The point is that the Norwegians backtracked on their blockade of that region very quickly when the Russians mentioned a complete revisit of the agreements over that region for air and sea and land rights and that a new agreement might be needed.

    All of a sudden the issue was resolved and material was suddenly on its way... maybe they should follow through and have a revision examined...

    You need to do something with this rain of cash falling down on you because of ... ekhm ... sanctions

    The west gave them no choice... submit to be a western colony for the US to plunder or you are out... I knew their future didn't lie with the west but I didn't realise the west was going to help them so much and to fund the whole transition away from the west.

    Pretty funny really.

    Priority will likely also be given to destroyer sized ships like the modified Gorskov, and they will need overseas bases and support ships for this expansion. Not to mention naval aviation!

    I an not so sure they see the improved Gorshkov as being a destroyer... it is more like an enlarged and more useful frigate that is more versatile and independent and more multirole.

    I rather suspect their new design destroyers and new design cruisers will be nuclear powered and all electric drive type vessels.

    Most things in the sphere of naval operations take decades and lots and lots of planning and preparation, but all these years of rebuilding Russian towns and cities and also populated areas in former war zones like South Ossetia and Syria and now the Ukraine they will be in a good position to build up infrastructure in lots of places they trade with, which should make, if not Russian bases on foreign territory, then at least Russia friendly ports more common and more positive.

    the biggest problem for the Russian navy is simply the political will to properly rearm the Navy.

    The biggest problems have been low hanging fruit... it is easier for ammo makers in Russia to sell in bulk to German and American companies and have them sell on to other countries in smaller batches so Russian companies don't have to worry about the logistics and complexity and issues down the track, but they were not doing that to help Russia... it enabled them to make good money selling Russian products to third parties around the world and made their hand more powerful because if you buy from them you get diversity, but if you don't sell this or that (ie lithium or oil or cobolt or whatever they need at the time) then it was another string they could cut to inflict pain on you.

    Trading directly they can cut out the middle man and get more control and also more control of prices the customers pay for their products etc.

    Once more countries realise BRICS is not about China or Russia telling the other members what to do and more importantly how to think and what model government they must have the way the US does with the west then more and more countries will want to join...
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    Post  Tolstoy Thu Aug 04, 2022 10:42 am

    LMFS wrote:It is also noted that Russia plans to expand cooperation with Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia, as well as naval cooperation with India. "The priorities of the national maritime policy in the Indo-Pacific regional direction are the development of strategic partnership and naval cooperation with the Republic of India, as well as the expansion of cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Iraq, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other states of the region,"
    How does this help Russia?

    Iran is important because only Iran can create a corridor from Russia to the Indian Ocean. Saudi Arabia too needs to be waned away from the Yankees, and help regulate oil price, so that makes the Saudis an important partner. But what purpose does India and Iraq serve? Both are dirt poor, failed states that offer little or nothing to Russia.

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    Post  LMFS Thu Aug 04, 2022 11:42 am

    Tolstoy wrote:How does this help Russia?

    Iran is important because only Iran can create a corridor from Russia to the Indian Ocean. Saudi Arabia too needs to be waned away from the Yankees, and help regulate oil price, so that makes the Saudis an important partner. But what purpose does India and Iraq serve? Both are dirt poor, failed states that offer little or nothing to Russia.

    You are doing a fine effort to sound deranged aren't you?
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    Post  Isos Thu Aug 04, 2022 12:52 pm

    India is the most populated country. Now that chinese are asking for higher living standards, companies will start producing in India and make it the in the top 5 world economy.

    A huge clients for russian raw materials and energy.
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    Post  Tolstoy Fri Aug 05, 2022 10:42 am

    Isos wrote:India is the most populated country. Now that chinese are asking for higher living standards, companies will start producing in India and make it the in the top 5 world economy.

    A huge clients for russian raw materials and energy.
    India can't even make the metallic point of a pen.  Can't even make elastic band used in underwear.  India just can't innovate.

    Dmitri Mendeleev was a poor school teacher and yet he designed the periodic table. AK-47 was designed by lowly sergeant recovering in hospital. It is culture that produces men of reckoning. India lacks any such culture.

    At best they will continue to import oil and gas from Russia.
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    Post  GarryB Fri Aug 05, 2022 11:44 am

    Iran is important because only Iran can create a corridor from Russia to the Indian Ocean. Saudi Arabia too needs to be waned away from the Yankees, and help regulate oil price, so that makes the Saudis an important partner. But what purpose does India and Iraq serve? Both are dirt poor, failed states that offer little or nothing to Russia.

    Don't mean to be rude but how old are you?

    Even as recently as the mid 1990s most Chinese people didn't own a car... even in their biggest cities the streets were filled with bicycles in enormous numbers.

    China was dirt poor... but its current state proves it did not have to be.

    India got fucked over by the British and now the US wants a ride... Iraq has been fought over by European countries since it was created 100 years ago... but it didn't just appear from nowhere 100 years ago... these people have more history and culture than Europe with all its resources and technology and control of information has managed to steal.

    Iran, China, Iraq, India... these countries have enormous histories and amazing cultures... and the US wants them erased and replaced with Paris Hilton Worshippers...

    The work and effort in making these dirt poor third world countries into something worth a damn is what will make Russia rich... both financially and culturally... nation building is more profitable and morally and ethically satisfying than destruction and dismemberment as practised by the west...

    Obviously it is not Russias job to save the world, but creating a world order where each country has a say and does not have to give up its culture and beliefs to please other countries is a much better future for everyone than the melting pot future based on the American model that the Yanks want everyone to follow.

    India is the most populated country. Now that chinese are asking for higher living standards, companies will start producing in India and make it the in the top 5 world economy.

    A huge clients for russian raw materials and energy.

    That is right but not just China and India... but the worlds population will want a better standard of living and some comfort... Russia has been giving away resources... cheap energy to Europe and Europe has massively benefited from cheap energy and cheap natural gas resources and their response was the lecture Russia about how they don't do as they are told when they are told and are naughty owners of the land where Europes resources happen to be... Napoleon tried to get them and then Hitler tried too and HATO wants to do the same... they never learn...

    The point is that Putin has finally got the message... they hate Russians like Russians hate nazis, and they want them dead, so the cheap energy is over... Russia let them pull all their shit regarding pipelines and how much they can use of the pipelines they built and going to spot price auctions instead of long term contracts which was what Russia prefers because it creates stability and allows long term planning.... because they knew going to spot prices meant increase in prices... when the price goes too low Russia can stop selling and wait till the price goes up and then sell again... the Europeans thought they could weather the storm with US gas and only buy Russian gas when it was at its cheapest.

    Russia will likely now focus on selling gas and oil and coal and other resources to the rest of the world... interesting that the US demands the EU give up Russian gas but no question of them reducing their oil and gas and Uranium buys from Russia... not interested in inflicting pain on their own economy it seems...

    But all their BS has driven energy prices up really high so selling oil to India at a 30% discount means Russia still makes good money and India gets relatively cheap energy in a difficult time.

    China and India and Iraq will all want to trade their way out of their current economic situations and develop and grow as countries... and there is an enormous amount of money to be made helping them to do that... the west has been asset stripping them to keep them down, but letting them grow and develop makes them more valuable a trade partner for Russia who needs to replace western vendors for products and services... let the rest of the world fill that gap... maybe the US and the EU will learn their lesson and act with a bit of maturity and respect to the other countries they deal with... if not... ignore them... let them sort out their own energy supplies...


    India can't even make the metallic point of a pen. Can't even make elastic band used in underwear. India just can't innovate.

    Dmitri Mendeleev was a poor school teacher and yet he designed the periodic table. AK-47 was designed by lowly sergeant recovering in hospital. It is culture that produces men of reckoning. India lacks any such culture.

    At best they will continue to import oil and gas from Russia.

    I am old enough to remember the same accusations leveled at China and Russia... their scientists copy western stuff and their technology specialists do the same... all they can do is copy and any veneer of wealth ends at the gates of Moscow... 20km down the road they don't have light bulbs or flushing toilets.

    Funny thing is that sort of ignorance is easy to believe... when I was a kid Attenborough was on the TV all the time showing other countries and other cultures... these days you have programmes like Big Brother and Hollywood Housewives and the Kardashians...

    The west is broken and is eating itself and Russia and China and India and Brazil and South Africa have decided not to follow and more and more countries are realising that is a good choice too.

    When someone in the west says perhaps the west is headed in the wrong direction you will always get some idiot saying go back to Russia or China or imagine Russia or China was in charge of the world (like the US and the west is... by implication) suggesting that the world is a result of the 12-13% that is the west by population.

    The answer of course is that Russia and China don't want to run the world like the US and the west so clearly are desperate to do... otherwise all the dirty underhanded shit the west is/was doing in Chechnia and Ukraine and Georgia and the Baltic countries as well as in Taiwan and around the world... Russia and China would be doing too with separatist groups in Ireland and Spain and the US and Canada and Australia and New Zealand... convincing native groups to rise up and fight their oppressors... pretending war is a good solution... when it is the last solution.

    This is getting too OT so I might move some bits later on to the BRICS thread perhaps?

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    Post  GarryB Fri Aug 05, 2022 11:47 am

    BTW the US Army imports the fabrics they use in their Army tents... because the country that makes that can sell for rather less than any US company can make them for... that is just economics.

    As the US turns on China the west is going to have to shift its investments somewhere else... somewhere poor with little or nothing in the way of labour laws... which is probably why India is listening to the US... but I suspect their labour laws are not weak enough and anger over past relations with US chemical companies in India might lead to the west moving to Bangledesh instead.
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    Post  LMFS Fri Aug 19, 2022 3:50 am

    Innovations of the new Naval Doctrine

    navy_korabel
    August 9th, 18:30
    .
    Despite the fact that today all the thoughts of the country's military and political leadership, including the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, would seem to be occupied with a special military operation in Ukraine, the Navy did not become a stepson, pushed to the sidelines of parental attention, which, frankly, the author of the blog feared. On the contrary, taking into account the new challenges that Russia will inevitably face in the process of establishing and strengthening a new (multipolar) world order, the Navy is becoming much more important than it was before February 24.g. The new Naval doctrine of Russia, and the approval at the highest level (and not by the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, as before) of the new version of the Ship's Charter, and the Main Naval Parade, which took place despite everything, and the fact that the GVMP, as in less tense times, speaks about a clear understanding at the top of the growing role of the years, hosted personally by the Supreme Executive Committee.

    Navy Day 2022 (07) 31 St. Petersburg kremlin.ru.jpg
    Boat with the Supreme Command bypasses the parade formation of ships on the Neva River, St. Petersburg, 31.07.2022 (photo from kremlin.ru)


    Below are the main, in the opinion of the author and on the topic of the blog, provisions of the MD-2022 (link 1), which were not in the MD-2015, as well as expectations from the implementation of the new doctrine in practice, that is, what lies between the lines.

    1. The national interests of Russia as a great maritime power extend to THE ENTIRE WORLD OCEAN [Article 8]. In other words, the Americans and everyone else, whether you want to or not, will have to move. At the same time, the extension of Russia's national interests to the entire World Ocean implies the self-evident presence in the Navy of a sufficient number of ships of the far sea and ocean zone, which in turn should inevitably affect the shipbuilding program (by adjusting the Program of Military Shipbuilding until 2050).

    2. Modern Russia CANNOT EXIST without a STRONG navy* [Article 104] - a fundamental policy statement that places the creation of a strong Navy in the category of top state priorities.

    * Note: Let me briefly outline my understanding of a strong navy. There is an opinion that the future of the Russian Navy lies with submarine forces (primarily nuclear ones), the marine component of long-range aviation, coastal missile forces and a large number of inexpensive, easy-to-build combat surface ships of the 3rd rank, united according to the network-centric principle, the loss of each of which is much less painful than the GRKR "Moscow", which the near-term adoption of hypersonic missile weapons by foreign fleets, i.e., the use of nuclear weapons.I can't agree with that. It makes sense to talk about the Navy of tomorrow only outside the context of the Third World War, since in the event of a nuclear apocalypse, the probability of a nuclear catastrophe is very high. In fact, we are talking about a coastal defense fleet with an advance guard of multi-purpose submarines and DA aircraft. which, according to the author, is quite small, the role of general-purpose forces will be small.

    In order to understand the need for a balanced underwater-surface ocean fleet, one example is enough. Let's imagine that a request from the outside Syria (or some other geographically remote coastal state) was asked for military assistance when only one capital and not a single airfield or seaport remained under the control of government forces. There is no doubt that under such circumstances, only an operational squadron led by a full-fledged aircraft carrier of significant displacement with a full-fledged air group of up to 40 state-of-the-art fighter-bombers and the mandatory presence in the squadron of a ship landing group consisting of UDC and several BDK with a reinforced marine infantry battalion (up to 1200 people)could provide real assistance with heavy weapons-tanks, self-propelled guns, MLRS. The plan of the operation is simple: the KDG Marines, supported by the CAG air group and other DA aircraft, capture the airfield and port to further build up the expeditionary force. It is quite obvious that in such a situation, neither the submarine forces, nor the DA, nor the BNK of the 3rd rank, nor even the DBK BRAV are able to protect the interests of Russia and its allies.

    3. In terms of their importance, the areas of Russia's national interests in the World Ocean are now divided into VITAL ONES (in addition to internal sea waters, the 12-mile territorial sea, the 200-mile exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf - this is the Arctic basin adjacent to the coast of Russia, incl. The Northern Sea Route, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea), IMPORTANT (areas of the oceans and seas adjacent to the coast of Russia, incl. Sea of Azov and Black Sea, eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea The Black Sea, Baltic and Kuril Straits, areas of passage of world sea transport communications, including those running along the Asian and African coasts) and others [articles 12-16].

    At the same time, in vital areas (such as the Northern Sea Route and the Sea of Okhotsk) Russia will use military-forceful methods in full, including the use of military force, in particular-to use military force when the possibilities of using non-forceful tools are exhausted [Article 103]. In other words, in these areas, you should not be too impudent, so as not to get your hands on it.

    4. As the Americans and their satellites like to do, pointing to us and China, OUR MAIN ENEMY AT SEA is identified for the first time, which, of course, is the United States, which has taken a strategic course to dominate the World's oceans and to have a global influence on the development of international processes, striving together with NATO and other allies to limit Russia's access access to ocean resources and vital maritime transport communications, as well as to achieve the overwhelming superiority of their naval forces over the Russian Navy (and the PLA Navy) [art. 22]. This challenge and threat to Russia's national security and sustainable development can only be countered by preventing the US Navy from gaining a significant advantage over the Russian Fleet, as stated in art. 39 Fundamentals of the Russian state policy in the field of naval activities for the period up to 2030 (reference 2). It is clear that for this prevention, it is necessary to build ships (quickly and a lot) and continuously improve their weapons (so that one of our ships is equal in strength to two others).

    In conclusion − about two particular, but very important provisions of the Naval DoctrineRussia 2022.

    5. Despite the continuing, extremely annoying statements of some officials about the dubious need to create a new aircraft carrier (s) for the Russian Navy (in particular, Yu. Borisova-link 3 − the dismissal of which from the post of Deputy Prime Minister for the defense industry, of course, will benefit the fleet), the state does not intend to refuse to work on this topic. This is clearly stated in Articles 52-3 and 66-9 of the MD-2022 on the construction of large-capacity vessels (including in the Far East), including modern aircraft carriers for the Navy (there is confidence that they are not referring to the UDC). Moreover, the inclusion of aircraft carriers in addition to Osnov-2030 (Article 45) in the Russian Naval Doctrine dramatically increases the level of their significance.

    6. No less dramatically increases the level of importance of creating a network of logistics points (PMTO), in other words-naval bases, in remote areas of the World Ocean. In the 2015 MD, they were not mentioned at all and, as a result, over the past seven years, nothing has been added to the only PMT in Tartus except for sluggish negotiations with the Sudan. MD-2022 declares the need to create PMTOS in the Asia-Pacific region [Articles 52-6], in the SPM (in addition to Tartus) [Articles 56-4] and in the Indian Ocean [Articles 59-4] (only the absence of Latin America and West Africa in the document raises questions − perhaps this was done to avoid premature disclosure of intentions in order to avoid pressure on partners from the United States and the European Union). ■

    https://navy-korabel.livejournal.com/276033.html#cutid1

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    Post  Isos Fri Aug 19, 2022 9:03 am

    Tolstoy wrote:
    Isos wrote:India is the most populated country. Now that chinese are asking for higher living standards, companies will start producing in India and make it the in the top 5 world economy.

    A huge clients for russian raw materials and energy.
    India can't even make the metallic point of a pen.  Can't even make elastic band used in underwear.  India just can't innovate.

    Dmitri Mendeleev was a poor school teacher and yet he designed the periodic table. AK-47 was designed by lowly sergeant recovering in hospital. It is culture that produces men of reckoning. India lacks any such culture.

    At best they will continue to import oil and gas from Russia.

    I think you are not aware how west and China see India. I had a job interview at Bosch. Half of the engineering team was in India.

    Just like China, India is sending a huge number of student in the best universities meanwhile west is sebding its production lines there with all the knowledge needed.

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