The Russian Navy’s Black Sea Fleet can now deploy its submarines to the Mediterranean. This is despite an international treaty which many thought would prevent it. The Montreux Convention, agreed in 1936, prohibits submarines from passing through the Bosporus Strait, which connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. There are exceptions in the treaty for special cases for Black Sea nations: delivery of new submarines to the Black Sea, and exits for repairs. Russia is now routinely using these clauses to reestablish a permanent submarine presence in the Mediterranean. This is changing the balance of power there.
The deployment of these submarines to the Mediterranean is a serious concern for NATO leadership. Speaking at the International Institute for Strategic Studies on June 25, Admiral James Foggo, Commander of U.S. Naval Forces in Europe and Africa, described the Eastern Mediterranean as “one of the most kinetic areas in the world.” He said, “the Russians are deploying quiet, modern, diesel submarines capable of launching the Kalibr cruise missile.” This refers to Kilo-class boats deploying there via the Bosporus.
Full article at https://www.navalnews.com/naval-news/2020/07/russia-is-using-treaty-clause-to-change-submarine-balance-in-mediterranean/