Atomic submarine forces of the Pacific Fleet: present and future
The nuclear submarine of the Pacific Fleet is experiencing now not the best of times, but not the worst - quite recently (in 2011-2015) its strategic component consisted of only two combat-ready SSBNs, far from a new 667BDR project, and there was no multipurpose component at all. In this publication, we give a brief overview of the available naval composition (active, temporarily inactive and hopeless), and an attempt is made to forecast the short and medium term.
Reliable assets: SSBN
1. RPSCN prospect 955 (09551) K-551 "Vladimir Monomakh" - as part of the permanent readiness forces (LNG); age 3.0 years; on the Pacific Fleet from 26.09.2016 (after the interflot transfer from the Northern Fleet along the Northern Sea Route, combined with combat patrolling); the last launch on 14.11.2015 (from the White Sea) - a salvo, two ballistic missiles (SLBM), according to some sources, unconfirmed by the Ministry of Defense, partially unsuccessful (ref. 1).
2. RPKSN prospect 955 (09551) K-550 "Alexander Nevsky" - as part of the LNG; age is 4.0 years; on the Pacific Fleet from 30.09.2015 (after the MFP with the Northern Fleet on the Northern Sea Route); the last launch of an SLBM (one) on 11/28/2014 (from the Barents Sea); xx.10? -24.11.2015 (combat patrol in the Pacific Ocean).
3. RSKSN prospect 667BDR K-44 "Ryazan" - as part of the LNG; age 35 years; at the Pacific Fleet since 30.09.2008 (after the MFP with the SF on the NSR); in 2011, a "maintenance" repair was started in the Zvezda DWZ (ref. 2), lasting about 5.5 years (until February 15, 2017); the last launch of the SLBM (R-29R) on 26.10.2017.
4. SSBN pr. 667BDR K-433 "St. George the Victorious" - in the LNG; age 37 years; on the Pacific Fleet since 16.09.1983 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); 02.1993-07.2003 average repair in the Zvezda Distillery (about 9.0 years minus 18 months, during which work was not carried out for various reasons - reference 3); the extreme "fulfillment of planned tasks in the sea" by July 5, 2016 (ref. 4), before this - until 29.12.2015, in the summer of 2015, until 29.12.2014, "Vostok-2014" (a very busy schedule, taking into account the fact that the boat has not been repaired for more than 14 years); the last launch of the SLBM 12/10/2017.
5. RPGSN pr. 667BDR K-223 "Podolsk" - as part of the LNG; age 38 years; on the Pacific Fleet from 10 (14?). 11.1980 (after the MFP with SF over the NSR); from 2006 (approximately) (reference 5) to 04.05.2011 the average repair in the Zvezda DWZ is about 5.0 years; the final sounded launch of the SLBM on 30.10.2015, but there is information that the K-223 was also fired in 2016.
Reliable assets of general purpose
1. APKR (APKRRK) prospect 949A K-150 "Tomsk" - as part of LNG; age - almost 21 years; on the Pacific Fleet since 24.09.1998 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); from 11.2008 to 25.12.2014 VTG (repairs on the technical condition) (6.1 years) in the Zvezda DWT (in this case, in the best traditions of the Soviet court industry, after the commissioning of the Christmas tree order, the work continued in Viluchinsk until at least 07.05 .2015 - reference 8, reference 9); extreme firing with the main caliber (3R45 SCR of the Granit missile system) for the maritime target 09.10.2017 (together with GRC "Varyag"), along the coastline - 12.07.2017.
2. APKR prospect 949A K-456 "Tver" - as part of the LNG (as we would like to hope); age 25 years; on the Pacific Fleet since 14.09.1993 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); from 12.1996 to 25.02.2004 (7.2 years) in reserve after the failure of the line of the starboard shaft during the BS - first VTG in the Zvezda DWZ (approximately until 2001 incl.), then - by the forces of the personnel in Vilyuchinsk (ref. 11); presumably 03-12.2013 dock repair on the "Star" (reference 12 - purchasing documentation 52-13, appendix 3, item 5), the last firing of the Civil Code in 2016 (ref. 13).
3. APKR prospect 949A K-186 "Omsk" - in a short-term repair (if only "Star" is capable of such); age 24 years; on the Pacific Fleet since 10.09.1994 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); was noticed at the quay embankment of the plant on 03/07/2017 (during the visit to Zvezda by Deputy Defense Minister Y. Borisov - reference 14), where, apparently, is from the II quarter. 2016 (reference 15, No. 444) - the last message about "Omsk" from Vilyuchinsk is dated 26.05.2015 (reference 16), on the return from the BS - on 09.12.2014 (reference 17), on the shooting of the Civil Code - September 23, 2014 (link 18); the end of work should be expected no earlier than 11.2018 - it is known that they consist in particular in "extending the service life to an average repair of 3.5 years and maintenance in the volume of" 25000 hours of operating time "products" Azurit-DM / 3/4 "(link 20, No. 973) (most likely, we are talking about BPTU - block steam-turbine units from the GEA APKR).
4. APKR prospect 949A K-132 Irkutsk - in the long-term medium repair with modernization at 949AM avenue in the Zvezda DWZ; age is almost 29 years; on the Pacific Fleet from 27? .09.1990 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); on the "Star" from 11.2001, the actual start of work on 05.12.2013 (the contract with the Defense Ministry was signed on 05/04/2013). The transfer of the ship of the Navy was planned in 2019, but it was postponed half a year ago in 2021 (reference 22), in the purchases of the "Star" in 2017, a more precise period of 12.2021 (in the part of "installation, commissioning, adjustment works, at the stages of mooring, factory running, state tests and revision (control output, delivery of an order) "of some products of the head 619 pr. 949AM - reference 20, No. 1053). In this case, the 33-year-old Irkutsk will go to sea after 20 years in the factory and 8 years in repair. As of August 15 this year. APKR is raised from the water and is on a solid foundation (title photo).
5. APKR prospect 949A K-442 "Chelyabinsk" - in the long-term average repair with modernization at 949AM avenue in the Zvezda DWZ; age is not less than 27 years; on the Pacific Fleet from 12 (14?). 09.1991 (after the MFP with SF on the NSR); in reserve at least since 2008, on "Zvezda" from 07.09.2014 (the contract with the Defense Ministry was signed on 05/04/2013); as of August 15 this year. is located afloat in the water area of the plant. The term of the transfer of the Navy will directly depend on the construction and state tests of Irkutsk as the lead ship of the 949AM series (I think the interval will be at least two years).
6. PLAC pr. 971 K-419 "Kuzbass" - as part of the LNG; age is not less than 25 years; in 2009 it was put on repair in the Zvezda DWZ (the works were carried out under the state contract dated 17.08.2009, additional agreement to it dated 25.02.2011 and one more contract dated 18.12.2012 - reference 23), conditionally transferred to the fleet on the Day of the Submariner on 19.03. 2016 (according to some sources, it was in Primorye prior to Navy Day on July 31, 2016 - reference 24, reference 25, completing repairs and training, and only after that it went to the point of permanent deployment - Vilyuchinsk); even if you count from the first contract to the "fake" transfer, the repair took more than 6.5 years, and all seven; from the last (this year) sounded achievements of "Kuzbass" can be called the torpedo attack of a detachment of warships 08.09 and an underwater duel with the RSASN "Ryazan" September 15,
7. PLAC pr. 971 K-295 "Samara" - in the long-term medium repair with modernization at Pr. 971M in the "Zvezdochka", Severodvinsk; age 22.4 years; in the reserve, presumably from 2011; 28.08-26.09.2014 on the docking vessel "Transshelf" together with "Bratsk" was delivered from Kamchatka to the North in the calculation for a fairly rapid repair in the CSP (according to the plan for about three years - reference 26), but hopes did not materialize; initially Samara based in the White Sea Navy, is currently floating in the Zvezdochka water area, awaiting the start of slip operations (staging in the workshop), which is expected not earlier than the withdrawal of the Leopard or Wolf. tentatively in 2019-2020 or 2021-2022 gg.).
8. PLAC pr. 971 K-391 "Bratsk" - in the long-term average repair with modernization at Pr. 971M in the Central Park "Zvezdochka", Severodvinsk; age is almost 28 years; in the reserve since 1998 (withdrawn from the LNG in anticipation of factory repairs in connection with the end of the lifetime of the battery - reference 27); from 10.2003 imitation repair in the Northeast repair center (SVRTS); from August 28, 2014 - the same as "Samara" (except BelVMB).
Unreliable and unconsolidated assets
1. PLAC pr. 971 K-331 (Magadan) - in an indefinite status (whether in repair, or in sludge) in the DVZ Zvezda; age is not less than 27 years; in the reserve, presumably from 2012 (28.09.2012 was already on "Zvezda" - reference 28); 05.21.2015 The media reported on the planned completion of the repair of four nuclear-powered boats, including K-331, at the end of November the same year - reference 29, but soon (27.05) "Magadan" was removed from the list; in plans of purchases of "Stars" for 2015-2017. order head. No. 515 is missing; on the application of the General Director of the Admiralty Shipyards A. Buzakov dated 11.08.2017, the real name "Magadan" was transferred to the third DEPL of 636.3 for the Pacific Fleet (ref. 30).
2. PLAC Pr. 971 K-322 ("Kashalot") - in long-term storage in the Amur Shipyard; age is almost 29 years. The ASH that built the boat and where it was delivered for repair at the Zeya transport dock in 2003 (possibly on October 27, 2003 - ref. 31), has long lost the relevant competencies and will not be able to repair the ship. DVZ "Zvezda" and TsS "Zvezdochka" - not an option (overloaded with orders and working very slowly).
To date, the nuclear submarine forces of the Pacific Fleet have and can count on a total of 5 SSBNs, 5 APCGRKs and three PLACs from those that are part of the LNG and in the unreasonable repair. At the same time, catastrophic shortage of multipurpose submarines is evident, and the venerable age of the ship's personnel - on average 24.5 years (without Boreyev - 28.3 years) with a share of modern combat projects of only 15.4% (2/13), if we ignore the fascinating advertising slogans of USC and the Navy, about "new ships in old buildings" (949AM and 971M).
In the next decade, during the implementation of the State Program of Armaments 2018-2027, the situation should improve significantly. First of all, this refers to the naval strategic nuclear forces - one of the constituents of the triad, allowing us to build our future (including the Navy) regardless of someone else's will (few people on this planet have such a unique opportunity). Despite the fact that the NSAC does not strengthen the general-purpose marine component, but rather weakens it due to the diversion of warships to ensure its deployment (as repeatedly stated in the blog), their development deserves special attention.
The fact that in addition to the two existing "Borei" Pacific Fleet will receive two more "Borea-A" (prospect 955A or 09552), has already been reported in the press (ref. 32). The desire to establish (and maintain) parity between the SF and the Pacific Fleet is quite reasonable - it should be followed with respect to all the main ship formations of both fleets. In this sense, after the completion of the 955A series, it seems logical to write off the remaining three 667BDRs (by the end of 2021, when the Navy will transfer the last Borey-A Prince Pozharsky, the average age of these obsolete boats with obsolete missiles is approaching 41) and six 667BDRM to divide equally between the two fleets, after which they systematically replace them with new Borey Bs, bringing the number of SSBNs in the two divisions to 2x8 = 16 units.
06/03/2017 Yuri Borisov announced plans of the Defense Ministry to modernize four Pacific Antey at 949AM in the framework of the new SPV (with the replacement of Granite by Caliber and the behind-the-scenes Onyx reference 22). The intention is extremely good, but with the slowness of the "Star" it is difficult to achieve. In my opinion, it would be more correct to return one 949A to the North (thus equating the number of their groupings) and to modernize two boats on the "Star". In this case, both the SF and the Pacific Fleet, we will have two purely "anti-aircraft" (949A) and two multi-purpose (949AM) nuclear submarine cruisers, the latter of which will primarily be designed to carry out non-nuclear deterrence tasks as part of the appropriate fleet forces - REMOVE.
In part of one of the most painful topics for the Pacific Fleet and for the Russian Navy in general - the multipurpose component of nuclear submarine forces, the following assumptions can be made. Until 2027 (inc.), The "Star" should be handed over at any cost to "Samara" and "Bratsk", while "Magadan" will probably go to India, and "Kashalot" will be disposed of - thus, only three will remain in the Pacific Fleet but the fully combat-ready PLAC pr. 971 and 971M. In addition, the Ministry of Defense intends to strengthen the Pacific submarine with three "Yasenyam-M" (pr. 885M or 08851) (reference 32) - judging by the geography of the names, it will be Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Perm (head ship pr. 885M "Kazan", as well as pr. 955A "Prince Vladimir" will serve in the North - reference 35, reference 36, which is due to the need for their scrupulous testing and debugging at the shipyard - builder - Sevmash).
Six multipurpose boats by the end of 2027 on the Pacific Fleet against 12 units on the SF (3-885M, 1-885, 2-971M, 4-971 and 2-945A, 671RTMK and 945 probably will write) is not a fair ratio. The Pacific and Indian oceans are no less significant and much more extensive operating area than the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. It is also important that the distance from Gadzhievo and Vilyuchinsk to the Persian Gulf will be approximately the same (about 7,700 miles) only if the boats of the Northern Fleet go through the Suez Canal, which implies a complete loss of secrecy, and therefore impossible in practice; If you go around Africa, the sea route is extended to 12,500 miles. As for the PLA, at a standard autonomy of 90 days and an average speed at the junction of 16 knots, they can be on combat duty in the Persian Gulf for at least 50 days. Therefore, probably the Glavkomat and GSh of the Navy has a reason to think about the equalization of the number of naval personnel of the multipurpose nuclear submarine forces of our two oceanic fleets due to the transfer from the SF to the Pacific Fleet of three PLAC Pr. 971 (in order to maintain the technical readiness of the 945A PLAA, the skills of working with titanium , which among the current SRH is only on the snow and snow "Nerpa").