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    United Engine Corporation

    Russian_Patriot_
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    Post  Russian_Patriot_ 28/09/21, 08:14 pm

    UEC has completed testing of the second gas generator of the Russian engine for the Superjet. 

    The United Engine Corporation of Rostec has successfully completed the tests of the second experimental gas generator, the "heart" of the PD-8 engine, designed for the SSJ-NEW aircraft. As part of the tests, the correct operation of the nodes, the required temperature and pressure parameters, and compliance with environmental standards were confirmed. The next stage of the project will be bench tests of the first prototype of the engine, which are scheduled for the beginning of next year.

    The gas generator, which is called the "heart" of an aircraft engine, consists of a high-pressure compressor, a combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbine — it is this part that drives the power unit.

    During the launches, the joint work of the gas generator units was evaluated at the test stand, temperature and pressure measurements were made, as well as emissions of harmful substances and smoke. According to their results, the correctness of the solutions embedded in the hot part of the power unit was confirmed.

    "The creation of the PD-8 is carried out by the method of parallel development of the hot part of the engine, so that the project takes less time to implement. Rostec State Corporation has completed the tests of the second experimental gas generator, which were successful and confirmed the correctness of the technologies used. Now the production of components is underway to start assembling PD-8 prototypes, bench tests of which are scheduled for the beginning of 2022" – Vladimir Artyakov, First Deputy General Director of Rostec State Corporation, said. 

    In parallel with the production of PD-8 prototypes, tests of gas generators will also continue.

    "Confirmation of design decisions at the testing stage of the gas generator is important for the entire course of certification work on the PD-8 engine. The plans include testing the gas generator at the CIAM high-altitude stand in conditions close to engine operation. In parallel, the compressor will be tested as part of an autonomous installation in CIAM to study and confirm the inherent characteristics" – Yuri Shmotin, Deputy General Director-General Designer of the UEC, said. 

    To date, as part of the work on the power unit, the stage of the technical project has been completed, the release of working design documentation has been completed, the production of prototypes of the engine is underway. Obtaining a type certificate for PD-8 is planned for 2023.

    The creation of the PD-8 propulsion system for use on SSJ-NEW aircraft is being carried out in a wide cooperation of UEC enterprises using the experience of creating the PD-14 engine.

    Source: 

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    Big_Gazza
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    Post  Big_Gazza 29/09/21, 08:31 am

    Excellent news.  The sooner the SSJ can be powered by a 100% indiginous engine (and the French content eliminated) the better. Another not-so-small victory for import substitution.

    russia
    Isos
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    Post  Isos 29/09/21, 02:16 pm

    Big_Gazza wrote:Excellent news.  The sooner the SSJ can be powered by a 100% indiginous engine (and the French content eliminated) the better. Another not-so-small victory for import substitution.

    russia

    Well actually the russo-french engine was to make it more successful on the export market because companies were more likely to buy it with french components. Russia haven't build civilian aircraft for a long time. No lot of trust in their products.

    It didn't sell well at the end.

    Maybe the opposite will hapen with more clients for the 100% russian ssj. Cheaper so more affordable and they will learn the lesson from the first ssj and reduce exploitation costs.
    LMFS
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    Post  LMFS 30/09/21, 02:05 am

    Isos wrote:Well actually the russo-french engine was to make it more successful on the export market because companies were more likely to buy it with french components. Russia haven't build civilian aircraft for a long time. No lot of trust in their products.

    It didn't sell well at the end.

    Maybe the opposite will hapen with more clients for the 100% russian ssj. Cheaper so more affordable and they will learn the lesson from the first ssj and reduce exploitation costs.

    If the Russian gas generator does not fail so often and gets not such a poor support as the Safran one, then they will certainly reach better availability and reputation...

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    Isos
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    Post  Isos 30/09/21, 02:32 am

    Pretty stupid from russia to go with french engines. They have more reason to sabotage it to not crrate a competitor for airbus than the opposite.

    But the whole ssj-100 is full of foreign parts from countries that are producing their own planes or involved deeply in a production.

    Just stop producing it and make it full russian or at least choose to work with a country that has no interest in sabotaging it.

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    Broski
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    Post  Broski 30/09/21, 06:19 am

    Isos wrote:Pretty stupid from russia to go with french engines. They have more reason to sabotage it to not crrate a competitor for airbus than the opposite.

    But the whole ssj-100 is full of foreign parts from countries that are producing their own planes or involved deeply in a production.

    Just stop producing it and make it full russian or at least choose to work with a country that has no interest in sabotaging it.
    NATO lackeys won't be patronizing Russian hardware no matter what concessions Russia makes, the sooner they make their civilian and military hardware with 100% Russian components and sell to countries not beholden to western imperialists, the better.

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    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB 30/09/21, 03:11 pm

    The foreign parts were to appeal to foreign customers, it made sense to include them when the west was not so hostile and abusive, but now it just makes sense to make all Russian systems instead.
    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko 07/10/21, 03:08 am

    UEC-Aviadvigatel will undergo reconstruction to manufacture a pilot batch of PD-35 engines, 06/10/2021.

    Perm enterprise "UEC-Aviadvigatel" holds a tenderon the creation of technology and working design documentation within the framework of the project "Reconstruction of the assembly and test production for the manufacture of a pilot batch of PD-35 engines". The result of the work should be an explanatory note and a 3D model of the workshop. The cost of the work is estimated at 172 million rubles.

    Acceptance of applications for participation has already been completed, the commission will sum up the results on October 21. Byopinion Perm regional newspaper "Zvezda", taking into account the interests of industrial safety, the regime of the facility, as well as other nuances of the implementation of the State Program of the Russian Federation "Development of the military-industrial complex", the winner may not be named publicly.

    To implement the program for creating a promising high-thrust engine PD-35, it is necessary to create an assembly and testing station at the Novye Lyady site. According to the tender documentation, the construction period of the station is 2021-2024. The created technology and the necessary equipment, equipment and tools for the assembly / disassembly of engines and PD-35 gas generators should be designed for at least the production of a pilot batch of engines in the amount of 19 pieces, starting from 2022 to 2027 inclusive.

    “The layout of the premises should correspond to the full cycle of work on the assembly and disassembly of gas turbine engines for aviation and ground use, including PS-90A, PD-14 and PD-35, taking into account the prospect of assembling the PD-50 engine, as well as their components, assemblies and components", - specified in the terms of reference for the construction of the facility.

    https://aviation21.ru/na-odk-aviadvigatel-projdyot-rekonstrukciya-dlya-izgotovleniya-opytnoj-partii-dvigatelej-pd-35/

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    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko 10/10/21, 06:40 am

    The heart of the aircraft: aircraft engine and technical solutions capable of bringing the promising Russian VTOL aircraft to a new level, 08/10/2021.
    United Engine Corporation - Page 8 1633545835_00

    It can be noted that with the advent of new generations of VTOL aircraft, its characteristics are getting closer to the "classic" combat aircraft of comparable weight and size characteristics. If the Yak-38 was significantly inferior to the MiG-21bis and the MiG-23ML in flight and technical characteristics (LTH), then the difference between the LTH of the Yak-141 and the MiG-29 is no longer so significant, while in some parameters the Yak-141 even won. If we talk about the American line of F-35, which contains the "classic" F-35A, VTOL F-35B and aircraft carrier version of the F-35C, then their characteristics are already quite comparable.

    When they talk about the small distribution of VTOL aircraft, they forget that this technology itself is much more complicated - not every country can handle it. For example, tiltroplanes are still very little widespread, they are not even in our country, despite the rather developed aviation industry, while few doubt the effectiveness and prospects of convertiplanes. With VTOL aircraft, the situation is similar - it is quite difficult to build them without technical groundwork. In fact, only the United States has been able to do this in the XNUMXst century.

    The countries of Europe are generally gradually losing their competence in the construction of combat aircraft, their development is extremely time-consuming and costly in finance. If we talk, for example, about Sweden, then in their "Grippen" there is a turbojet engine (TRD) based on the American General Electric F404 engine from the F / A-18 Hornet, that is, the Swedes themselves cannot create an engine even for a classic aircraft, what really here to talk about VTOL aircraft. Britain lost the competence to create a VTOL aircraft, abandoning the development of the next generation VTOL "Harrier" and switching to the American F-35B. France was just experimenting in this direction.

    The same is with the PRC, they have a lot of things being developed and produced, but it will not work out with aircraft engines - there is a serious lag in terms of thrust and turbojet engine resource. But to create an engine for VTOL aircraft is even more difficult. It can be assumed that as soon as the engine-building industry of China solves its problems, they will be closely engaged in the topic of VTOL aircraft.

    According to information from the Chinese and American media, work on the J-18 VTOL aircraft ("Jian-18", according to the NATO classification "Red Eagle") has been intensified in the PRC. The VTOL glider should be made using technologies to reduce signature, the range will be about 2 kilometers, and a radar station (radar) with an active phased antenna array (AFAR) will be installed on the J-000.

    China has been trying to develop a VTOL aircraft since the 60s of the 1994th century, for which a decommissioned Harrier was even purchased from a collector in Britain. In 141, the Russian VTOL Yak-2025 was allegedly purchased for the same purposes. It is assumed that the Chinese VTOL aircraft may appear by XNUMX.

    In terms of the creation of VTOL aircraft and turbojet engines for them, Russia got such a backlog from the USSR, which other countries could only envy. Despite the fact that a lot of time has passed, this reserve can and should be used.

    The heart of the aircraft, on which most of its flight characteristics depend, is the turbojet engine. It is not difficult to trace the logical chain - as the specific and maximum power of the turbojet engine increased, the VTOL aircraft parameters were increasingly approaching the parameters of "classic" aircraft.

    And to create a Russian VTOL aircraft, first of all, you will need to create a suitable engine for it.

    Engine for VTOL aicraft

    There are two ways.

    The first is to create an aircraft engine for a promising VTOL aircraft based on the promising product 30 turbojet engine - the second stage engine for the Su-57, which is being worked on with long delays. It is difficult to say how realistic this is, since the characteristics of the Product 30 turbojet engine are classified, there is no information about whether this engine can be equipped with a rotary nozzle, which is significantly different from a conventional nozzle with a controlled thrust vector (SVT).

    Equipping VTOL aircraft with lifting motors is not an option - this is the technology of the last century, that is, it is necessary to provide power take-off to the fan from Product 30. And whether this is possible in principle on this turbojet engine is unknown.

    However, there is another possibility - at one time the engine of the Yak-141 aircraft showed outstanding characteristics, and on its basis the development of promising turbojet engines continues, which was described in the article Soviet legacy: fifth generation turbojet engine based on Product 79.

    Potentially, the heart of the promising Russian VTOL aircraft can be the R579-300 turbojet engine developed by the Soyuz AMNTK.

    TRD R579-300

    Why turbojet engine R579-300?

    According to the manufacturer, this aircraft engine can be confidently attributed to the fifth generation of aircraft engines, and high performance is achieved through the use of effective design solutions, and not through the use of complex technological operations and materials, the development of which by our industry can cause delays in development and serial production promising turbojet engines.

    The developer's website contains a table with the characteristics of the R579-300 turbojet engine in various versions, including options for VTOL aircraft with a maximum afterburner thrust of up to 21-23 thousand kgf.

    The turbojet R579-300 has two features that make it an extremely promising solution for a promising Russian VTOL aircraft.

    The first is the ability to connect a load of more than 40 MW on the turbojet shaft.

    The second is an adaptive bypass ratio and an adjustable compression ratio.

    The ability to connect the load on the turbojet engine shaft allows you to place a lifting fan on it, similar to how it is implemented in the F-35B. The lift fan not only eliminates the need for heavy and fuel-intensive auxiliary lift motors, but also reduces the thermal load on the runway.

    In addition, with a high probability, the basis for the combat stability of combat aircraft in the XNUMXst century will be promising airborne self-defense systems, including laser systems for airborne self-defense and means of electronic warfare (EW). Increasing the power of the AFAR radar also requires a powerful source of electricity on board. This can be an electric generator on the turbojet engine shaft.

    Not less, if not great opportunities will be given by an adjustable bypass ratio, which allows you to create a cold jet stream due to a large maximum bypass ratio and, accordingly, large air volumes passed through. In this case, the speed of the "cold" jet stream will be commensurate with the speed of the "hot" jet.

    According to the developers of AMNTK Soyuz, in a promising Russian VTOL aircraft based on the R579-300 turbojet engine, vertical take-off can be realized without turning the main nozzle, by using a lifting fan and bleeding air from the external circuit, which will be ejected through small downward nozzles in the central / aft fuselage and wing tips (the latter should be used to stabilize VTOL aircraft). In this case, the temperature of the jet stream directed downward will be about 150-200 degrees Celsius, which will completely solve the problem of the destruction of runway materials during vertical takeoff (or takeoff with a short takeoff) of promising VTOL aircraft.

    Potentially, an option can be considered when even a lifting fan will not be used, and vertical take-off and landing will be carried out only due to the removal of air from the "cold" circuit into nozzles located at several points of the VTOL fuselage.

    But it is precisely the high temperature of the jet stream that significantly complicates the operation of VTOL aircraft both on ships and on land.

    In addition to providing the possibility of "cold" vertical take-off and landing, as well as providing energy to promising laser self-defense systems, electronic warfare equipment and radar systems with AFAR, a lifting fan and an adaptive bypass ratio will make it possible to realize several more advantages in a promising VTOL aircraft.

    additional benefits

    A large volume of cold air received from the second circuit of the turbojet engine can be used not only at the stage of vertical take-off and landing. One of the promising and effective ways to improve aerodynamics and controllability of an aircraft in the entire range of altitudes and flight speeds is boundary layer control.
    United Engine Corporation - Page 8 1633545797_07-upravlenie-pogranichnym-sloem

    Boundary layer control consists in ensuring uninterrupted flow around the wing in a wide range of angles of attack by increasing the energy of the boundary layer. The impact on the boundary layer is necessary to weaken or prevent stalling of the flow on the streamlined surface. In the USSR, blowing off the boundary layer was used by MiG-21 fighters to increase the lift of the wing during takeoff and landing - high-pressure air was supplied through a slot in the leading edge of the flaps.

    In the promising VTOL aircraft with the R579-300 turbojet engine, the boundary layer control will not only improve the efficiency of the controls, but also, for example, compensate for the disadvantages of the aerodynamic efficiency of the fuselage, which may arise as a result of its optimization to reduce radar signature.

    The turbojet engine's ability to create a powerful flow of cold air can be used to implement gas-dynamic control of VTOL aircraft, which, in turn, can lead to a decrease in the size of aerodynamic controls or even the abandonment of some of them and, as a consequence, to a decrease in the radar signature of a combat aircraft.

    And, finally, cold air can be used to cool the turbojet engine nozzle and other structural elements, which will reduce the detection range of a promising VTOL aircraft by infrared sensors and reduce the likelihood of its being hit by missiles with infrared homing heads (IR seeker).

    In principle, all this can be implemented on aircraft with horizontal takeoff and landing in the event that they have an engine with a large bypass ratio, but VTOL aircraft have another advantage, which is often considered only as a disadvantage - its lift fan.

    Lifting fan

    By itself, the use of a lift fan is more efficient than the use of separate jet engines, at least because of the lower fuel consumption and the cold air flow created by the lift fan, which does not destroy the runway in the same way as the incandescent jet of a jet engine directed downward does.

    In addition, the implementation of the lifting fan will require the development of the technology of taking high power from the turbojet engine shaft. A side effect of this technology will be the possibility of placing on the turbojet engine shaft, in addition to the lifting fan itself, also an electric energy generator, which is vital to provide power to the onboard laser self-defense systems, electronic warfare equipment and radar with AFAR, as already mentioned above.

    The presence of powerful sources of electricity and air supply on board the VTOL aircraft will completely abandon unreliable and fire hazardous hydraulic drives in favor of electric and pneumatic drives.

    Along with fuel, air is the most important component that allows the turbojet engine to realize all its characteristics. There are situations when the amount of air supplied to the turbojet engine installed on board the aircraft becomes insufficient. This problem can arise when the aircraft is operated at high-altitude airfields, at high flight altitudes, or during intensive maneuvering.

    In this situation, a promising VTOL aircraft can use a lift fan to pump additional air volumes to the engine, with the upper flaps open and the lower flaps closed. In this case, the air flow through special channels will enter the turbojet engine, allowing it to operate at maximum power.

    For example, somewhere at a high-altitude airfield to take off a "classic" combat aircraft with a full combat load, a runway with a length of one and a half kilometers will be required, while a VTOL aircraft, due to the provision of a turbojet engine with additional air volumes, will carry out a "horizontal" take-off from a runway with a length of 300-500 meters.

    Conclusions

    The growth of the specific and maximum, afterburner and non-afterburning power of the turbojet engine largely eliminates the differences between the "classic" aircraft and VTOL aircraft.

    It can be assumed that the characteristics of promising "classic" combat aircraft and VTOL aircraft will differ within 10-15%. For example, a VTOL aircraft will have 1–2 tons less combat load, which is tolerable if a "classic" aircraft has 8 tons, and a VTOL aircraft of 6-7 tons, all the same, the aircraft simply does not have enough suspension points, especially intra-fuselage ones, so that hang weapons on such a mass. Or the ferry range of a "classic" aircraft will be 200-300 kilometers longer than that of a VTOL aircraft, which is not critical when it is about three to four thousand kilometers.

    At the same time, VTOL aircraft will have advantages that cannot be realized on "classic" combat aircraft.

    Under the revolutionary development of space reconnaissance assets и long-range precision weapons, including hypersonic, to ensure the survivability of combat aircraft in the event of a sudden enemy strike, only the possibility of dispersing combat aircraft over small camouflaged airfields can help.

    The combination of VTOL aircraft and developed services for the operational deployment of mobile airfields will make it possible to create a fleet of combat aircraft that is most resistant to deep attacks by the enemy.

    And, of course, VTOL aircraft will find their niche in the Russian naval navy (Navy).

    AUTHOR: Andrey Mitrofanov for en.topwar.ru

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    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko 11/10/21, 09:04 pm

    Testing of the PD-35 engine gas generator demonstrator has begun, 11/10/2021.
    United Engine Corporation - Page 8 F_YXZpZC5ydS9fcmVzL25ld3MvMjI3MmltZy5qcGc_X19pZD0xNDM4MzE=

    On September 15, 2021, the assembly of a demonstration gas generator of the PD-35 engine was completed in the Perm JSC UEC-Aviadvigatel. The gas generator was installed in an enclosed test bench and is being tested under standard atmosphere conditions in accordance with the approved program. This was reported by the press service of the United Engine Corporation.

    On October 1, 2021, the idle mode was reached, the stable operation of the units and systems of the gas generator was ensured.

    According to Alexander Inozemtsev, Managing Director-General Designer of UEC-Aviadvigatel JSC, the tests should confirm the fundamental performance of the gas generator design. Based on their results, it will be possible to evaluate the parameters of the nodes laid down in the TK.

    The next stage of testing will take place at the Central Institute of Aviation Motors. P.I. Baranova. As part of the second stage of testing, the operation of a demonstration gas generator will be tested with heated air under pressure supplied to the inlet, which simulates the operating conditions of the unit as part of the engine. At the moment, a specialized test bench is being prepared at CIAM.

    The creation of a demonstration gas generator and a technology demonstrator engine is necessary for the development of design and technological solutions to confirm the readiness of new technologies for use in the design of advanced engines. The developed gas generator will later become the basis for the creation of engines in the thrust range from 24 to 38 tf.

    During the work on the project, UEC-Aviadvigatel specialists formed the appearance of a demonstration gas generator, developed its components and systems, issued design documentation and organized its production. For 18 months at the enterprises of UEC JSC, work was carried out on the manufacture of parts and assemblies of the PD-35 gas generator, the preparation of a bench base for its testing was in progress:

    • the high-pressure compressor rotor was manufactured by UEC-UMPO;
    • the stator part of the high-pressure compressor, the combustion chamber, and the high-pressure turbine were produced by UEC-Aviadvigatel, UEC-PM, NFMZ;
    • the central drive was produced at the PC "Salyut" of JSC "UEC";
    • units of the automatic control system were developed by UEC-STAR, ABRIS and others.

    In order to optimize the manufacturing process, a number of high-tech enterprises of the Perm Territory were involved.

    PD-35 is the largest in the line of Russian aircraft engines - the diameter of its fan is more than three meters. The gas generator consists of a high-pressure compressor, a combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbine - it is this part that drives the power plant.

    The PD-35 project has been implemented by the United Engine Corporation since 2017. Gas turbine engines in the 35-ton thrust class have not previously been created in Russia. When developing the power plant, the scientific and technical groundwork created during the development of the PD-14 engine is used to the maximum. Also, work is underway to master 18 new "critical" technologies: new materials, coatings are created, new design solutions and technologies are applied.

    https://aviation21.ru/nachalis-ispytaniya-demonstratora-gazogeneratora-dvigatelya-pd-35/
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    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB 12/10/21, 12:59 pm

    If the Yak-38 was significantly inferior to the MiG-21bis and the MiG-23ML in flight and technical characteristics (LTH), then the difference between the LTH of the Yak-141 and the MiG-29 is no longer so significant, while in some parameters the Yak-141 even won.

    The Yak-141 was never developed into anything approaching a fully operational aircraft and all its capabilities were assumed and estimated.

    The critical factors were that it would be more complex and expensive than a MiG-29K, have lower flight speed and pathetic payload performance... they were claiming they had a wonderful radar for it but such a radar could easily be mounted on a MiG-29 too.

    VTOL is serious design compromises for a feature that will almost never be used.... all VTOL fighter aircraft never take off vertically and the distance they normally take off from a MiG-29K can operate from just as efficiently and effectively.

    The internal puffer jets of high pressure air taken from the engine to stabilise a VSTOL fighter in a hover means high pressure air pipes through the wings to the wing tips and through the fuselage to the tail and forward to the nose of the aircraft so allow the aircraft to be balanced in a hover and indeed to change from the hover to forward flight... those tubes are horrendously vulnerable to battle damage or just failure, and the vectored nozzles often make the aircraft very vulnerable to IR guided air to air and surface to air missiles.

    Having a lift fan on the front sounds nice because having cold air blown down instead of super hot air makes things a lot better... the Yak-141 has two jet engines in the forward fuselage equal to the size and weight and power of the two engines in the Su-25 CAS aircraft and a huge powerful turbofan engine in the rear... any one of which failed during takeoff or landing would lead to the loss of the aircraft.

    The hot jet exhaust from the front two engines was ingested into the main engine intakes during a carrier landing leading to an engine stall which resulted in a heavy landing and the main undercarriage piercing a fuselage fuel tank and a huge fire...

    The lift jets means no belly mounted weapons or pods, the Yak-141 had four wing pylons for weapons and an internal 30mm cannon.

    VTOL sounds much cooler than it actually is.

    On land most fighters can operate from a 400m stretch of motorway... the Russians don't have the most extensive road network though they have massively improved that situation in recent years, but no country on the planet could take out enough of their roads to prevent their fighters from operating from motorways.

    At sea the only justification for VSTOL fighters is to be able to use them on tiny ships and generally tiny carriers are useless carriers... a significant fraction of the cost of a bigger aircraft carrier but almost none of the capability.

    I would say their new helicopter carriers would be better off with dual use Ka-52K attack and recon and fighter helicopters than they would trying to fit a VSTOL fighter on board.

    The Kuznetsov would not benefit from VSTOL fighters because there is little to no chance they could be smaller than MiG-29Ks and are unlikely to be as good as either MiG-29K or Su-33 in performance.

    A bigger CVN it would make more sense to look at probably a naval Su-57K and a twin engined stealthy replacement for the MiG-35 similar to the model MiG showed at MAKS... and drones.

    Rather than a lift fan which will make the aircraft fat and destroy a supersonic coke bottle shape traditionally used for supersonic aircraft... perhaps forward swept wings with jet engines on the wingtips that can rotate in a wide range of directions including forward for forward flight so they are not dead weight in flight... it would allow the rear engine/s to be moved further back and free up centre space for internal weapons. Modern vectored thrust engine nozzles on all three or four engines should allow fine balance control without internal high pressure engine airflow to wing tips, nose and tail puffer thrusters...

    Could also be used in combat to massively increase roll rate despite having widely separated rear engine with a big weapon bay perhaps...

    Top speed could be mach 1.8 or so...

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