PD-14 - the engine of progress
October 30, 2015 began testing the new Russian aircraft engine PD-14 on IL-76LL flying laboratory. This is an event of exceptional importance. According to appreciate its value to help 10 interesting facts about the turbojet engines in general and on the TP-14 in particular.
1. Achievement of humanity
Turbojet (THD) - one of the major technical achievements of mankind, which can be put on a par with the invention of the wheel, sail, steam engine, the internal combustion engine, rocket engine and nuclear reactor. It is thanks to TRD our planet suddenly became small and cozy. Anyone can in a matter of hours comfortably and safely get to the most remote corner of it.
According to statistics, only one flight of 8 million end accident with loss of life. Even if you do every day to sit on an occasional flight, you will need 21,000 years to die in a plane crash. According to statistics, walking many times more dangerous than flying. And all this is largely due to the incredible reliability of modern aircraft engines.
2. The miracle of technology
But THD - an extremely complex device. In the most difficult conditions of work of its turbine. Its most important element - the blade with which the kinetic energy of the gas stream is converted into mechanical energy of rotation. One paddle, and them in each step of aviation turbine, there are about 70, develops a power equal to the power of "Formula 1" car engine, and at the speed of about 12 thousand. RPM centrifugal force acting on it is equal to 18 tonnes, equivalent to load on the double-decker London bus suspension. But that's not all. Gas temperature, which is in contact with the blade, almost equal to half the temperature on the surface of the sun. This value is 200 ° C higher than the melting point of the metal from which the blade is made. Imagine this task required not to melt an ice cube in a furnace heated to 200 ° C. Designers manage to solve the problem of cooling the blade by internal air channels, and special coatings. It is not surprising that one blade is eight times more expensive than silver. To create just this little part that fits in your palm, you need to develop more than a dozen sophisticated technologies. And each of these technologies as a major guarded state secret.3. Technology Turbojet important atomic secrets
In addition to domestic companies only US company (Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Honeywell), England (Rolls-Royce) and France (Snecma) possess a full cycle of creation of modern turbojet technology. That is, countries that produce modern aircraft turbojet engine, smaller than the countries possessing nuclear weapons or launching satellites into space. Long-term efforts in China, for example, has so far not led to success in this area. The Chinese quickly copied and equipped with the Su-27 Russian fighter own systems, releasing it under the symbol J-11. However, the copy of his engine AL-31F they did not succeed, so China still has to buy this is no longer the most modern turbojet engines in Russia.
4. PD-14 - the first domestic aircraft engine 5th generation
Progress in the aircraft engine is characterized by several parameters, but it is considered one of the main gas temperature before the turbine. The transition to each new generation of turbojet, and account for a total of five, was characterized by an increase of the temperature of 100-200 degrees. Thus, the temperature of the gas from TRD 1st Generation, introduced in the late 1940s, no more than 1150 ° K, in the 2nd generation (1950-ies.), This figure rose to 1250 ° K, in the 3rd generation (1960.), this parameter rose to 1450 ° K for engines 4th generation (1970-1980.) the gas temperature reached to 1650 ° K. The blades of the turbine engine 5-th generation, the first examples of which emerged in the West in the mid-90s, working at a temperature of 1900 ° K. Currently, only 15% of the world engines in use are of the 5th generation.
One blade of aviation turbine develops power, "Formula 1" equal to power a car engine
Increasing the temperature of the gas, as well as the new design scheme, primarily dual-circuit, allow for 70 years of Turbojet made impressive progress. For example, the ratio of thrust to weight ratio has increased over this period by 5 times and to modern models came to 10. The degree of compression of the air in the compressor is increased by 10 times: from 5 to 50, the number of compressor stages decreased by half - from an average of 20 to 10. Specific fuel consumption of modern turbojet halved compared with the engines of the 1st generation. Every 15 years there is a doubling of passenger traffic in the world with almost constant total cost of fuel worldwide fleet of aircraft. At present, Russia produces only a civil aircraft engine 4th generation - the PS-90. If we compare it with the PD-14, then two engines similar weight (2950 kg in the basic version of the PS-90A and 2870 kg at the PD-14), the size (diameter of the fan in both 1.9 m), the compression ratio (35.5 and 41) and the take-off thrust (16 and 14 ton).
In this high-pressure compressor PD-14 consists of 8 stages, while the PS-90 - 13 at a lower total degree of compression. Bypass ratio in PD-14 is twice as high (4.5 in PS-90 and 8.5 in PD-14) with the same fan diameter. As a result, the specific fuel consumption at cruise flight at 15% PD-14 will fall, according to preliminary estimates, compared with existing engines: up to 0,53-0,54 kg / (kg · h) vs. 0.595 kg / (kg · h ) of PS-90
5. PD-14 - the first aircraft engine, created in Russia after the collapse of the USSR
When Vladimir Putin congratulated Russian experts with the beginning of the test the PD-14, he said that the last time such an event took place 29 years ago in our country. Most likely, there was a mean 26 December 1986 when the first flight of the IL-76LL the program PS-90A test.
The Soviet Union was a great aviation power. In the 1980s in the USSR worked eight most powerful aircraft engine design bureau. Often, firms compete with each other, as was the practice to give the same job two OKB. Alas, times have changed. After the collapse of the 1990s had to collect all the power industry to implement a project to create a modern engine. In fact, the formation of the 2008 UEC (United Engine Corporation), with many enterprises which actively cooperates VTB Bank, and was aimed at creating an organization capable of not only preserve the competence of the country in gas turbine manufacture, but also to compete with the leading companies of the world.
The prime contractor of the project is a PD-14 OKB "Aircraft Engine" (Perm), which, by the way, to develop and PS-90. Mass production is organized at the Perm Engine Plant, but parts and accessories will be manufactured in the country. In cooperation involved Ufa Engine Industrial Association (UMPO), NPO "Saturn" (Rybinsk), NPTSG "Salute" (Moscow), "Metallist-Samara" and many others.
6. PD-14 - motor for the main plane of the XXI century
One of the most successful projects in the field of civil aviation of the USSR was a medium-range Tu-154. Released in 1026 piece quantities. He was for many years the basis of "Aeroflot" park. Alas, the time is coming, and the workaholic does not meet modern requirements either in economy or ecology (noise and emissions). The main weakness of the Tu-154 - engine 3rd generation D-30KU with high specific fuel consumption (0.69 kg / (kg · h).
States producing modern turbojet aircraft, less than countries with nuclear weapons
The newcomer to replace the Tu-154 medium-range Tu-204 engines with 4th generation PS-90 in the disintegration of the country and the free market could not compete with foreign manufacturers, even in the fight for domestic airlines. Meanwhile, the medium-range single-aisle aircraft segment, which is dominated by Boeing-737 and Airbus 320 (only in 2015 were delivered to airlines in the world 986 pcs.), - The mass, and the presence on it - a necessary condition for the preservation of the domestic civil aircraft. Thus, in the early 2000s, an urgent need to create a new generation competitive TRD has been identified for the medium-haul aircraft in the 130-170 seats. That plane should be MS-21 (the main plane of the XXI century), developed by the United Aircraft Corporation. The problem is incredibly difficult, as competition with Boeing and Airbus could not bear not only the Tu-204, but no other aircraft in the world. It is under the MS-21 and PD-14 is being developed. Success in this project will be akin to the economic miracle, but such initiatives - the only way for the Russian economy to get off the oil needle.7. The PD-14 - basic design for the engine family
The letters "PD" stands for forward-looking engine, while the number of 14 - ton thrust in-confidence. PD-14 - is the base engine for the family of turbojet thrust from 8 to 18 ton. Business idea of the project is that all these engines are based on the unified gas generator a high degree of perfection. The gasifier - TRD is the heart, which includes a high pressure compressor, combustor and turbine. It is these nodes manufacturing techniques, especially the so-called hot parts, are critical. The family of engines based on PD-14 will equip modern powerplants almost all Russian planes from PD-7 for short-haul "Sukhoi Superjet 100" to the PD-18, which can be installed on the flagship of the Russian aircraft - long-range Il-96. Planned to develop a helicopter engine PD-10 to replace the Ukrainian D-136 on the world's largest Mi-26 helicopter on the basis of PD-14 gas generator. The same engine can also be used on the Russian-Chinese heavy helicopters, of which the development has begun. On the basis of the gas generator PD-14 can be created, and so the necessary Russian gas compressor plants and gas turbine power plants with capacity from 8 to 16 MW.
8. PD-14 - it's 16 critical technologies
For the PD-14, under the leadership of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), the head SRI industry and OKB "Aircraft Engine" was developed 16 critical technologies: monocrystalline blades of high pressure turbine promising cooling system for operation at the gas temperature to 2000 ° K, hollow wide-fan blade is made of titanium alloy, which made it possible to increase the efficiency of the fan stage by 5% compared to the PS-90, low-emission combustion chamber of the intermetallic alloy, sound-absorbing structures made of composite materials, ceramic coatings on the details of the hot part, the hollow blades of low pressure turbine and etc.
PD-14 will continue to improve. At MAKS-2015 it was already possible to see created in CIAM prototype of wide blades of carbon fiber fan, the mass of which is 65% by weight of hollow titanium blades used today. The stand CIAM could see the prototype gear, which is supposed to equip the PD-18R modification. Reducer will reduce the fan speed, so that is not tied to the turbine turns, it will work in a more effective manner. It is expected to raise to 50 ° K and the temperature of the gas before the turbine. This will increase the PD-18R to 20 ton thrust and reduce specific fuel consumption by 5%.
9. PD-14 - 20 is the new materials
When you create a PD-14 developers from the outset staked on domestic materials. It was clear that Russian companies under any circumstances do not provide access to new materials of foreign production. Here the leading role played by the All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), with the participation of which is for PD-14 developed about 20 new materials.
But to create a material - is half the battle. Sometimes Russian metals superior to overseas, but for use in civil aircraft engine certification is required by international standards. Otherwise, the engine, no matter how he was good, was not allowed to fly outside of Russia. The rules here are very strict, since we are talking about people's safety. The same applies to the motor manufacturing process: industry enterprises required by the European Aviation Safety Agency certification standards (EASA). All this will make to strengthen the culture of production, and under the new technologies necessary to the industry upgrading. The very development of PD-14 took place on the new digital technology, allowing for 7-th instance of the engine has been assembled in Perm on the technology of serial production, while earlier experimental batch was produced in an amount of up to 35 copies.
The development of modern engine takes 1.5-2 times longer than the development of the aircraft
PD-14 is to get to the next level of the entire industry. But what to say, even a flying laboratory IL-76LL after several years of inactivity in need of retrofitting equipment. I found a job and stands for the unique CIAM, allowing on the ground to simulate flight conditions. In general, the PD-14 project will preserve Russia more than 10,000 highly skilled jobs.
10. PD-14 - the first domestic engine, which directly competes with western analogue
The development of modern engine takes 1.5-2 times longer than the development of the aircraft. From a situation where the engine does not have time to test the top of the aircraft, for which it is intended, aircraft manufacturers are facing, alas, regularly. That's MS-21 rolled out the first instance will take place at the beginning of 2016, and the test of PD-14 has only just begun. However, in the project from the outset envisaged alternative: MS-21, customers can choose between PD-14 and PW1400G company Pratt & Whitney. It is with the American engine of MS-21, and will take the first flight, and with it the PD-14 to compete for a place under the wing. In comparison with a competitor, PD-14 is slightly inferior to the economy, but it is lighter, has a significantly smaller diameter (1.9 m vs. 2.1), and therefore less resistance. And one more feature: Russian experts deliberately went for a simplification of the design. Baseline PD 14 uses a fan drive gear, and are not adjustable nozzle applies an external circuit, it has lower gas temperature before turbine, which simplifies achieving reliability and life. Therefore, the engine PD-14 is cheaper and, according to preliminary estimates, it will require less costly maintenance and repair. By the way, in a fall in oil prices is lower operating costs, and cost-effectiveness are not skhemoobrazuyuschim factor and the main competitive advantage of the aircraft engine. In general, direct operating costs MS-21 PD-14 may be 2.5% lower than with the American version of the engine.
Today ordered MS-21 175, 35 of them - with the engine PD-14.