The USSR reacted to the Apache AH 64A by designing the SA 19 Grison which can increase the effective range of defensive fire & react quickly enough to kill the AH 64A before it can complete it's anti missile engagement cycle. The SA 19 achieved this by combining 30mm SPAAG and missile system using a radar package similar to the SA 15 but armed with very high speed 2 staged tube launched missiles .
The Tunguska system was developed to combine the missiles and gun of previous generations systems to reduce likely future costs of systems.
Very simply the Shilka had an expensive radar and fairly basic optics, while the SA-9/-13 had fairly basic optics... in the case of the latter a small ranging only radar, and passive sensors to detect radio altimeters and other electronic emissions from manned aircraft and guided missiles.
The Tunguska increased the number of ready to fire missiles of more than double range, and added longer range harder hitting cannon with a higher rate of fire than the Shilka. It was intended for use against the Apache and the A-10.
The radar package of Tunguska is far superior to the system on Shilka but it is no where near as good as the system on the SA-15 TOR.
However, with the advent of the Apache AH 64D Longbow this threat from the SA 19 has been neutralized to a large extent.
Not really. The Tunguska in the 1980s had a range of 8km with missiles but from the 90s when the D model Apache was in service it had 10km range upgraded missiles that still outrange MMW Hellfire. More critically the TOR SAM can actually engage individual Hellfires in flight.
The new system will have a range of 20km or more.
The AH 64D combined a mast mounted millimetric wave band search and engagement radar with the ‘fire-and-forget’ millimetric band active radar seekered equipped Hellfire variant.
You have to be able to get a proper lock on the target to achieve fire and forget capability and with the widespread use of a Nakidka type camouflage that might become an issue.
A passive precision radio-frequency interferometer was added to permit the system to sniff out the emissions of the SA-8, SA-13, SA-15 and SA-19 search radars.
SA-13 had all sorts of sensor boxes mounted on it to detect threats including MMW radars.
Most ELINT systems will have the same and will pass on detected threats to the IADS.
The Longbow Apache could remain behind cover, raising only the mast mounted sensor package to search for targets, only popping up for a few seconds to fire a salvo of Hellfires at a detected target
There is cover and there is concealment. Looking over the lip of a hill could be considered cover but if the IADS detects that MMW radar scan it could pass that data to nearby armoured units... even a T-90 could detect the IR plume of a helicopter sitting behind a hill crest and fire an ANIET HE shell to explode above the hovering helo.
If it is hovering behind a tree then an APFSDS round will easily travel through the tree and do serious damage to anything behind...
The Attack Helo was the queen of the battlefield before tanks got auto target trackers, modern ballistic computers and long range thermal sights... and excellent communications and datalink capability. Now it has to be used very carefully... hovering behind a hill top looking for enemy air defences and a light team with a Metis-M1 ATGM could fire at you from behind and really ruin your day.
What I was referring to is the ability of the AH 64D Longbow to avoid threats from missiles like the SA 19
How does Apache avoid SA-19?
Its current in service model has a range of 10km and a flight speed of well over mach 3 which is 3 times faster than Hellfire in any model.
For the Tunguska sitting still and scanning for targets with its thermal sight with its CM wave and MMW radar passively listening for threats suggests if anything the Tunguska will detect the Apache first, can engage first and is most likely to win.
For the Apache it might detect the radar emissions of one Tunguska but what about the other 5 vehicles in the battery? In optical guided mode there is nothing for the Apache to jam and no DIRCM target. Just a very fast approaching missile...