Traditionally, it includes three books. Part one covers the actions of the regiment, division, brigade. This document is secret. The second part is devoted to the battalion company. The third - platoon, branch, tank.
Formally, BU is still considered temporary. But this should not be confusing. For example, before the formation of the Rosguards, the combat regulations of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation were also temporary.
The new ground forces of the Ground Forces were approved in September last year. But they began to enter the troops only in the present. It is noteworthy that the documents were distributed mainly in electronic form, through the "military Internet" - a closed segment of data transmission.
In the army, the new military units have already been called revolutionary. One of the officers-interlocutors of the “Military-Industrial Courier” even joked, as if saying, after reading the BU: “This is not the charter of my Armed Forces”. The recognition underlines how seriously the document has changed the tactics of actions of the combined-arms units and subunits. Traditionally, the smallest in terms of information is the combat regulations governing the actions of a squad, platoon, and tank. But in the new edition, the third part became equal in volume to the second.
Statutory educational program
Since the beginning of the 2000s, in the Ground Forces, three sets of controllers have changed. These documents became a good marker of the reforms that were taking place in the Armed Forces.
Until 2005, the Russian combined-arms units, units and formations fought according to the combat documents approved in the Soviet Union. But they did not take into account the experience gained by Russian motorized riflemen and tankmen in local conflicts on the territory of the former USSR and in two Chechen campaigns.
“ The actions of the fighters in pairs, threes or fours were not taken into account, although these tactics were already mastered in Afghanistan ”
The main tactical method of motorized rifle platoons and squadrons in the BU-1989 was the combat line. The actions of the fighters in pairs, threes or fours were not prescribed. Although at the time of writing the control unit, these tactical techniques had already been mastered during the war in Afghanistan.
Attempts to solve the problem have become BU 2005. Formally, the entire set of combat documents was entered by one order, but the troops received irregular regulations. Even before their approval, the 42nd Guards Motorized Rifle Division in Chechnya received the first kits. In other parts and connections, the statutes came only in 2006. And at first it was only the second part.
Six months later, the first one began to arrive. And “Platoon, secession, tank” massively went to the troops only in 2007–2008. Although by this point the development of new combat documents had already begun.
Tactical techniques in the BU-2005 have changed slightly. Added chapters on the participation of units, parts and connections in local conflicts. But by and large, the additions were declarative in nature. It outlined the tasks of platoons, companies, battalions, regiments and divisions during armed conflicts. The main tactical actions were search and reconnaissance, as well as service at checkpoints (checkpoints).
Work on the next set of BU took almost six years. Moreover, already in the process of signing these documents changed significantly several times. Work began simultaneously with the new look, the reform of Anatoly Serdyukov. And all tactical techniques were developed under the newly formed motorized rifle and tank brigades.
Part of the “Brigade, Division, Regiment” was especially hard. Indeed, in the course of the reform, the second and third were reduced, giving their places to brigades. The first temporary statutes for parts and connections of the new look were ready in 2011. But the troops received only for reference. In fact, the ground forces continued to "fight" according to documents of the 2005 sample.
In 2012, Sergei Shoigu replaced Anatoly Serdyukov as defense minister. The reform of the new look was curtailed. Other transformations began in the Armed Forces. Therefore, the set of BU had to be redone once again. Regiments and divisions returned to the place of brigades.
Finally, the BOO package was approved in 2014. In these documents, for the first time, separate articles appeared on the actions of sniper pairs.
For a long time the question remained problematic for the Ground Forces. Previously, snipers were part of motorized rifle platoons and branches and reported directly to the unit commander. Later snipers brought in separate rifle companies, subordinating directly to the brigade commander. At the time of the fighting platoons snipers attached to the infantry battalion.
Why, three years later, did the military regulations again have to be changed? The answer is obvious. New documents were created taking into account the experience of operations in Syria. This becomes clear even after a superficial acquaintance with the combat documents. For the obvious reason, we are considering the third and second parts of the BU SV, which do not have a secrecy bar.
The tendency to expand the tactics of actions of branches and platoons was outlined in the charters of 2005 and 2014. But in the BU-2017, new tactics found a logical conclusion. In the new edition, the branch is divided into maneuverable and fire groups. The first destroys the enemy in melee, using decisive action and maneuver. The second supports her with fire. The maneuverable group consists of three arrows (one - senior). A machine gunner, the number of calculation, the grenade launcher and his assistant form a fire group.
For the first time, the formation of groups on the basis of branches was formulated in the manual "The system of armed struggle at the tactical level." The training manual was released in the late 2000s. In the course of the exercises and practical exercises, the actions of the groups proved their expediency. But only now these norms are fixed in combat regulations. Several articles describe the order of actions of groups during the assault and stripping fortifications. It is noteworthy that in the BU-2017 the norm was preserved, that in the case of tactical necessity, the separation can operate in the shooting line.
The battle order of the motorized rifle platoon also underwent major changes. In particular, it now also includes several groups: command, fire support, and combat vehicles. The first includes the squad leader, his combat vehicle and signalmen. The second is the platoon-supplied fire weapons — anti-tank missile systems and automatic grenade launchers. In general, the BU-2017 pays special attention to the actions of MSW with attached fire weapons.
The group of combat vehicles is a very interesting novelty. If necessary, the platoon commander takes them from the units, forming a kind of reserve. He can provide support to the upcoming units with fire and maneuver. And in defense will help prevent its breakthrough.
The companies and battalions according to the new combat regulations form the so-called fire ambushes. Their task is to knock out the maximum number of military equipment and personnel. This is achieved by dagger fire and mine-explosive barriers.
A motorized rifle squad or a platoon may be ambushed. They are reinforced by flamethrowers, sapper units, as well as sets for installing a remote minefield. In addition to the platoon (squad), the fire ambush includes several groups: distraction (the first opens fire and distracts the enemy), cover (protects the main forces when leaving the battlefield and withdrawing) and cut off (prohibits the approach to the ambush site).
“ One of the officers even joked:“ This is not the charter of my Armed Forces ”
Great attention is paid to the new statutes of the fighting in urban environments. And if before these chapters were written on the basis of the lessons of the Great Patriotic War, then in BU-2017 fights in the cities of Syria are clearly visible.
In particular, the experience of the Middle East is clearly visible in the articles on the creation of strong points. This is a longline arrangement of the offices (one per floor). Each tier is responsible for hitting targets at a certain distance from the reference point. The higher, the farther the attack zone.
When creating a “opornika” it is recommended to set unnecessary windows. With the help of bricks, you can create loopholes and protection. It is recommended to place a mortar on the roof. And special attention should be paid to communications and underground passages.
It is noteworthy that the stronghold may be outside the building. In this case it is necessary to create barricades. The stronghold itself should block the streets and roads, departures from the squares of parks and squares.
During the offensive in the city, motorized rifle platoons are divided into maneuverable and firing groups. Each group is assigned its own side of the street. Behind there are tanks and combat vehicles. They provide fire support. For the first time in the military regulations articles appeared on how to act when storming the premises.
In BU-2017, the participation of units in internal armed conflicts has been seriously revised. Formally, "common front" solve all the same tasks. They carry out blocking of areas, conduct reconnaissance and search actions, serve at roadblocks. But tactics changed completely. In particular, reconnaissance and search actions are carried out according to a complex algorithm. Several lines are being formed, foot patrols, inspection teams and covers are distinguished.
Complicated and the system of duty at checkpoints. In fact, PPC turned into a mini-fortress. Their task is to prevent the free movement of militants, block the terrain and ensure the protection of important objects.
A motorized rifle platoon is enhanced by a sniper pair, and a company by a sniper group. Formally, the pair (group) submits to the platoon (company) commander. But the general military commanders do not lead snipers. They indicate the area, orient in the order of action units, note the places and objects that should be paid special attention. The commander also tells the fighters of the pair (group) a password and a recall.
Next snipers act independently. They create a base where they rest and prepare for combat work. Themselves form the main and spare firing positions.
The task of snipers is to destroy important targets: commanders, calculations of anti-tank missiles, machine-gunners, grenade throwers and, note, drones. It is noteworthy that, as an important component of the work of snipers, the developers of the charters noted the psychological impact on the enemy, who knows that high-precision arrows are operating in the area.
Quite interestingly described the work of sniper pairs (groups). As you know, today we do not have divisions on the first and second issues. Therefore, during combat work, one of the snipers is appointed by the spotter. At the same time he works with one or two, and sometimes three snipers. After a while, the spotter changes.
Certified by blood
The main assessment of the new BU is the reviews of military personnel about them. It's no wonder they say that every line in the statute is written in blood. All the officers interviewed by the “Military-Industrial Courier” noted that the new charter was a very important and competent document. For the first time, the most modern combat experience is reflected in the BU, as well as current trends in the development of the art of war.