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    S-400 SAM for India

    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB Fri Jan 14, 2022 1:09 am

    How exactly can S-400 engage targets 360 degree when several targets will be over the horizon? S-400 is part of a network. The network needs to detect targets over the horizon first before the S-400 can engage it.

    In the case of Russia they have dozens of OTH radar all linked together scanning for targets all the time, and the air defence force has its own radars that can be used to look for targets and of course civilian radar is scanning also...

    Any radar in an IADS can be used to find targets including airborne radar including AWACS or MiG-31s for instance... that is what an IADS network is... a network of air defence batteries and radar and other sensors all working together looking for threats... the radar that detects the target does not need to be anywhere near the radar of the SAM that engages the target... S-400 missiles have their own radar so if you know a target is there because it was detected by other platforms you can launch the missile to the general area of the target and the missiles radar can find the target itself.

    S-400 missiles are all vertical launch so the launcher does not have to be pointed at the target before launch like Pantsir or Patriot.

    This is why S-400 won't be able to detect over the horizon targets in Syria.

    There are lots of Russian SAMs at each of their bases, all of which will operate their own radar, and of course they do have A-50s there that can also find targets over rather large distances down to very low level too.

    Not to mention ships sitting off the coast with radar as well if they are going that way...

    EDIT: would also add the OTH radar that Russia used to detect F-35s on the border of Iran and Iraq should therefore also be able to see all of Syrian airspace too.


    The same can be said about PAC-3 as well. If the network of which PAC-3 is a part of can detect OTH targets then PAC-3 can engage them.

    The angled launcher of the PAC family means it needs to be pointed in the correct direction to be useful.

    In practise obviously you can't be 100% sure where the threats will come from... low flying cruise missiles can only be engaged at relatively short range and their flight range is generally rather long so it would be quite easy for the attackers to look at satellite images of your Patriot batteries and determine which way they are facing and attack from the weakest side to overwhelm the battery.

    If you have 6 launchers you might orient them for all round defence.... but in reality you would point them in the direction the attack is most likely to come from... you could angle them so there is overlap and so you cover more than 120 degrees... but even if you do and you leave a gap in the rear... with no missiles pointed that way there is no point in having radar coverage that way either because there would be nothing you could do about them... which is probably what happened in Saudi Arabia... but even if one launcher is pointing in at least every direction you use waypoints to attack from that angle with only one launcher protecting it.

    They don't have TOR or Pantsir protecting the site, so the missiles that make it through destroy the radar and missiles of the remaining vehicles and then a full frontal attack starts on whatever the SAM is protecting.


    Last edited by GarryB on Mon Jan 24, 2022 5:31 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Post  Sujoy Sun Jan 23, 2022 8:42 am

    Pakistani commentators on what Pakistan needs to do to counter India’s S-400

    Can Pakistan counter India’s new S-400 air defense system?

    Overconfidence in its newly acquired S-400 air defense system may give India a false sense of invulnerability and increase the likelihood of a military miscalculation involving archrival Pakistan, analysts warn.

    “Indian rhetoric appears to suggest a belief that the S-400 effectively makes its airspace impenetrable and its forces invulnerable,” Mansoor Ahmed, a senior fellow at the Pakistan-based think tank Center for International Strategic Studies who studies the country’s nuclear program and delivery systems, told Defense News.
    Consequently, there are concerns “India may be emboldened to resort to military adventurism, believing its ‘Cold Start’ doctrine for punishing strikes and destabilizing incursions into Pakistan” is an assured success, he said.

    Formidable features

    Deliveries of India’s five S-400 regiments began in December 2021, with initial deployments along the Indo-Pakistan border.
    On paper, the defensive — and potentially offensive — anti-access, area denial capabilities of the S-400 appear formidable. The system is reportedly effective against aircraft, UAVs, and ballistic and cruise missiles, with the latter capability potentially neutralizing Pakistan’s nuclear deterrent.

    Its layered coverage is provided by a combination of the 40-kilometer-range 9M96E, 120-kilometer-range 9M96E2, 250-kilometer-range 48N6, and 400-kilometer-range 40N6E missiles, enabling it to protect large areas, high-value targets and itself from attack.
    It is also highly mobile, can be made operational 5 minutes after arriving at a new location and therefore can be regularly relocated to avoid detection.
    However, aerospace expert Douglas Barrie at the International Institute for Strategic Studies think tank, told Defense News the S-400 “should not be underestimated, neither should it be over-estimated.”

    A notable claimed feature of the S-400 is its potential offensive capability that would restrict an adversary’s use of its own airspace. For Pakistan, due to its geography and the long border it shares with India, the weapon system would cover most of the country.

    However, Barrie is unconvinced. “Its much-touted maximum engagement range is dependent on the variant of surface-to-air missile deployed, the acquisition ranges of the associated radars in the operational area, the capacity of the personnel to effectively exploit the system, and also the steps and countermeasures any opponent might take.”
    India plans to integrate the S-400 into its existing air defense network, which consists of indigenous and Indo-Israeli systems
    .

    Consequently, Barrie said, India might “use the system more often to defend high-value targets or critical national infrastructure from air attack, rather than forward-deploy to hamper the Pakistani Air Force’s use of its own airspace [thereby] putting the systems at greater risk of attack.”
    “In and of itself, I see the S-400 acquisition having little to no impact on the overall credibility of the Pakistani [nuclear] deterrent,” he added.

    Similarly, Ahmed believes “its effectiveness against ballistic or cruise missiles is open to question and will depend on a variety of factors,” such as the effective engagement range. This specific factor takes into account the curvature of the Earth, the nature of nearby terrain and the location from which the system was deployed.
    If deployed too far forward, an S-400 — or at least elements of the system, such as the launch vehicle — could be in danger of direct targeting. Ahmed specifically pointed to the Fatah-1, Pakistan’s 150-kilometer-range guided round for the Chinese A-100 multiple launch rocket system, as a weapon that could jeopardize the S-400. The Fatah-1 round was successfully tested in August 2021.

    Additionally, suppression or even destruction of the S-400 could be aided by effective electronic warfare measures — a capability Pakistan demonstrated when its Air Force successfully launched retaliatory strikes into Indian-held territory during a flare-up in February 2019.
    Pakistan’s Strategic Plans Division, or SPD, develops and protects all aspects of the country’s nuclear deterrent, and it’s likely the organization will be charged with determining the threat posed by the S-400 and how to respond.

    Defense News tried to contact the SPD via the Army’s Inter Services Public Relations media branch, but received no response.
    However, Ahmed pointed to improvements Pakistan is making to its existing arsenal to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent.
    “Pakistan’s missile tests over the past several years appear to demonstrate enhanced accuracy and penetration capability in view of India’s growing investment in missile defenses. It has also introduced the [multiple independent reentry vehicle]-capable Ababeel ballistic missile system, designed to defeat any dedicated Indian anti-missile system,” he said. “While the S-400 remains a highly capable air defense system at best, its utility against missiles has yet to be proven in real-time conditions.”
    Nevertheless, the S-400 does pose a considerable threat to Pakistan’s conventional deterrent.

    “Suppression or destruction of enemy air defense (SEAD/DEAD) will likely have taken greater priority for the Pakistani Air Force in response to the S-400 acquisition,” Barrie said. “Options include acquiring more capable anti-radiation missiles, improved electronic countermeasures and aircraft self-protection.”

    Outsmarting the system

    Pakistan potentially has something in development that could be used against the S-400.
    A stealthy combat drone design, the ZF1 was specifically created to attack heavily defended targets. It was promoted at Pakistan’s biennial arms exhibition IDEAS in 2018 by the UAS Global, whose CEO Rafay Shaik told Defense News at the time the aircraft would make its first flight soon.
    The concept is not new to South Asia. India has its own stealthy UCAV program, the Ghatak, run by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
    Despite requests for information on the state of the program sent to UAS Global, there has been no news regarding its development since early 2019, and it’s unclear if ZF1 work is even ongoing.
    Pakistan might also benefit from military exercises “with friendly countries that operate the S-400, such as China and Turkey, who may at least indirectly help identify its strengths and weaknesses for exploring opportunities to suppress and defeat Indian S-400 systems,” Ahmed said.

    For its part, China has “multiple options” available for Pakistan, according to Richard Fisher, a senior fellow at the International Assessment and Strategy Center in Alexandria, Virginia.

    “It is very likely that, to the degree that China has aided North Korea’s new hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV) missile warhead, it has or will similarly assist a Pakistani HGV, or simply sell the DF-17,” he said, referring to a medium-range missile system equipped with an HGV. “Or Beijing now has the option of allowing North Korea to sell its HGV to Pakistan.”
    China could also help Pakistan redress the balance with a similar air defense system, Fisher added, and its ability to do so “can be expected soon.”
    “In contrast to China’s flagrant abuse of the intellectual property of [Russia’s] Sukhoi Corporation, S-300 and S-400 maker Almaz-Antey in the 1990s agreed to sell China the means to make their own fourth-generation SAMs [surface-to-air missiles] along with sales of their SAMs,” he explained.

    Fisher noted that Pakistan’s recently acquired Chinese-made HQ-9B missile — which reportedly has a 240-kilometer range and is locally referred to as the HQ-9/P — is based on Almaz-Antey technology. He said this transfer of advanced Russian technology enabled China to develop the initial land-based HQ-9 and ship-based HHQ-9 systems, which have a range of 125 kilometers and entered service in the mid-2000s.

    These Chinese systems are quite advanced, Fisher added. “Like later variants of the S-300 family acquired by China, the HQ-9 featured a hard-to-jam phased array guidance and tracking radar, and its missile uses an active radar for terminal guidance.”
    The longer-range HQ-9B is reported to have a dual semi-active radar homing/passive infrared seeker, while the HQ-9C, which is under development, will reportedly feature active guidance.

    Citing the recent conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as the civil wars in Libya and Syria, Ahmed noted that “increasingly more potent and sophisticated” air defense systems are being “matched by systems and technologies designed to beat them, such as standoff weapons, anti-radiation missiles, electronic countermeasures, UCAVs and drone swarms, and low-flying cruise missiles.”
    “The race for offense-defense dominance is therefore increasingly favoring the offense,” he said.

    https://www.defensenews.com/global/asia-pacific/2022/01/16/can-pakistan-counter-indias-new-s-400-air-defense-system/
    medo
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    Post  medo Sun Jan 23, 2022 5:32 pm

    S-300 was very effective in war in Arcah on both sides. Azerbaijani S-300PMU2 shot down Armenian ballistic missiles (Scud, Tochka-U), defending hydro power plant. On Armenian side S-300 shot down Azerbaijani missiles attacking Erevan, it is not yet clear if it was dome by Armenian S-300PS or by Russian S-300V.

    How effective will be Indian S-400 against Pakistan mostly depend on how will Indian Army use them.
    Isos
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    Post  Isos Sun Jan 23, 2022 6:29 pm

    Armenian s-300 were sleeping while being under attack. If a s-300 was used it was russian.

    Is India operating S-300V ? I saw on wikipedia written they operate 6 or so of them from 2006 but never saw picture of them. If it is true then they will have a potent mini IADS.
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    Post  ALAMO Sun Jan 23, 2022 7:27 pm

    @medo, do you have any references for that? Language is a secondary matter Wink
    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB Mon Jan 24, 2022 5:44 am

    Consequently, Barrie said, India might “use the system more often to defend high-value targets or critical national infrastructure from air attack, rather than forward-deploy to hamper the Pakistani Air Force’s use of its own airspace [thereby] putting the systems at greater risk of attack.”

    The systems are mobile and there will be more than one system so maybe they might do both...

    Ahmed specifically pointed to the Fatah-1, Pakistan’s 150-kilometer-range guided round for the Chinese A-100 multiple launch rocket system, as a weapon that could jeopardize the S-400. The Fatah-1 round was successfully tested in August 2021.

    S-400 should be able to defend itself from rocket attack.

    Additionally, suppression or even destruction of the S-400 could be aided by effective electronic warfare measures — a capability Pakistan demonstrated when its Air Force successfully launched retaliatory strikes into Indian-held territory during a flare-up in February 2019.

    Suppression and even destruction could be aided by drinking Red Bull in the morning every day... but I wouldn't rely on it...

    A stealthy combat drone design, the ZF1 was specifically created to attack heavily defended targets. It was promoted at Pakistan’s biennial arms exhibition IDEAS in 2018 by the UAS Global, whose CEO Rafay Shaik told Defense News at the time the aircraft would make its first flight soon.

    Will it be as stealthy as the F-35, which Israel refuses to enter Syrian airspace while Syria has S-300?

    “The race for offense-defense dominance is therefore increasingly favoring the offense,” he said.

    Yeah, that is why HATO ignores international flight rules and just flys over Russian territory when it pleases.... NOT.

    Ironic if Pakistan getting glide vehicles in response to India getting S-400 leads to India getting S-550 which completely negates Pakistans entire nuclear deterrence.

    I would expect most Indian S-400s will be on their borders with China, rather than Pakistan, but in time as they get more and more they will become more widely deployed.
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    Post  Isos Mon Jan 24, 2022 9:01 am

    Indian S-400 survivability will be weak. They lack the other systems to protect it like pantsir/tor/buk.

    The rest of their AD system lack number and lack number of simultaneously launched or carried missiles

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    jhelb
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    Post  jhelb Mon Jan 24, 2022 9:39 am

    Isos wrote:Indian S-400 survivability will be weak. They lack the other systems to protect it like pantsir/tor/buk.

    The rest of their AD system lack number and lack number of simultaneously launched or carried missiles  
    Selling to India has been a very bad advertisement for Russian military hardware. Incompetent Indians have regularly crashed Russian made helicopters and aircraft. I'm certain they won't be able to use S-400 effectively despite the fact that it is a much weaker version of the Russian S-400 that has been exported to India.

    Isos wrote:Is India operating S-300V ? I saw on wikipedia written they operate 6 or so of them from 2006 but never saw picture of them. If it is true then they will have a potent mini IADS.
    How does having S-300V make their IADS potent?

    Why are they purchasing S-400 if they already have S-300V?
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    Post  Sujoy Mon Jan 24, 2022 10:15 am

    Isos wrote:Is India operating S-300V ? I saw on wikipedia written they operate 6 or so of them from 2006 but never saw picture of them. If it is true then they will have a potent mini IADS.
    According to some Western defence analyst India does. Indian government never accepted or denied it.

    Isos wrote:Indian S-400 survivability will be weak. They lack the other systems to protect it like pantsir/tor/buk.

    The rest of their AD system lack number and lack number of simultaneously launched or carried missiles  
    The other missile systems that will operate in conjunction with the S-400 are:

    1.QR-SAM: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QRSAM

    2.MRSAM: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1753559

    3.Upgraded ZSU-23-4 Shilka

    4. Akash -1S

    5.EW systems like Samyukta https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samyukta_electronic_warfare_system

    This is a capable loadout. Enough to get the better of Pakistan.

    Re numbers, how many LACM, TBMs and fighter aircraft can China field against India?

    Even Chinese IADS will have to deal with a barrage of Indian cruise missiles like BRAHMOS and TBMs like SS-150 and Pralay.
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    Post  Isos Mon Jan 24, 2022 7:20 pm

    China has hundreds of missile type. Let alone number of missiles.

    India will need to add numbers to their AD. Having 2 s-400 and 6 bark 8 won't help. They need at least 200 medium range systems like buk-m2 and 20 S-300/400/350. And another 50 pantsir or buk to protect them.

    The system you posted are all using ARH missiles. They will be expensive. And they are not proven. Buk and S-300 are.

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    Post  GarryB Tue Jan 25, 2022 8:10 am

    One core advantage of Pantsir is that its missiles are command guided and therefore very cheap... no expensive IIR or ARH seeker in the missiles.

    Of course India also has Tunguska don't they?

    Plus S-400 might include 9M96 type self defence missiles too, but no single part of an air defence should be considered on its own because it is part of a network of sensors and weapons that will all be coordinated together.
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    Post  Sujoy Tue Jan 25, 2022 8:52 am

    GarryB wrote:Of course India also has Tunguska don't they?
    Yes. They have been upgraded as well. Additional batteries were procured in 2015.
    https://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-india-signs-400mn-contract-for-24-anti-aircraft-systems-1003342

    Isos wrote:The system you posted are all using ARH missiles. They will be expensive.
    Therefore more accurate. Possibility of interception much higher.


    Isos wrote:And they are not proven. Buk and S-300 are.
    S-300 was proven where exactly?
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    Post  Isos Tue Jan 25, 2022 9:15 am

    What makes you think ARH missile makes it more accurate ? Jamming their onboard radar is easier.

    S-300 is deployed for decade and integrate all the experience of soviet SAMs from vietnam and arab wars.

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    Post  Sujoy Tue Jan 25, 2022 9:17 am

    Isos wrote:What makes you think ARH missile makes it more accurate ? Jamming their onboard radar is easier.

    S-300 is deployed for decade and integrate all the experience of soviet SAMs from vietnam and arab wars.

    Being deployed does not give it any real time operational experience.

    Effective range of  S-400, S -300, HQ-9 against maneuvering targets at low altitude is much less, even down to 20 km for smaller targets hugging the terrain.

    There are several measures for countering A2/AD systems. Some are passive, such as flying around the coverage area of sensors, or stationing troops at a location in good time. Others are active countermeasures like jamming.

    Indian Air Force, Army can neutralize an entire Chinese SAM system by knocking out just one link in a functional chain, for example a data link or fire-control radar. And since seeing over the horizon requires airborne radar, it may then be enough to shoot down the radar aircraft by employing the S-400.
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    Post  Isos Tue Jan 25, 2022 10:39 am

    S-300 is proven. It's not because it wasn't used that it isn't. It was deployed everywhere and tracked pretty much any flying aircraft. And like I said it benefits exerience from older systems.

    They are also protected by shorr range system agaibst which you don't want to fly low.
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    Post  Sujoy Tue Jan 25, 2022 4:42 pm

    GarryB wrote: Plus S-400 might include 9M96 type self defence missiles too, but no single part of an air defence should be considered on its own because it is part of a network of sensors and weapons that will all be coordinated together.
    I would think Indian S-400s are well protected by QRSAM, MRSAM, Akash, Upgraded Shilka, EW system and probably even Tungushka and Igla.

    The broad parameters of the S 400 are already known to China, so China probably knows how to evade it.

    DRDO is developing the XR SAM with a range of 350 kms. It is derived from India's AAD missile defence system. XRSAM is expected to be deployed by 2023-2024. It might prove to be a wildcard.
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    Post  medo Tue Jan 25, 2022 5:21 pm

    ALAMO wrote:@medo, do you have any references for that? Language is a secondary matter Wink

    https://bulgarianmilitary.com/2020/10/02/armenia-used-s-300-system-and-intercepted-two-missiles-over-yerevan-video/

    Videos are mostly deleted, so now it is quite hard to find. Anyway, S-300 intercepted Azeri 2 ballistic missiles and 3 drones in attack on Yerevan in Oktober 1st 2020.

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    Post  GarryB Wed Jan 26, 2022 1:47 am

    I would think Indian S-400s are well protected by QRSAM, MRSAM, Akash, Upgraded Shilka, EW system and probably even Tungushka and Igla.

    An IADS should manage the defence and that means defending the targets but also protecting itself from attack, because obviously being the air defence system it will come under direct attack to weaken it.

    Other air defence platforms protecting each other is important but also having aircraft to work with the air defence is important too, because they are essentially airborne SAM systems with no low altitude blind spots and are highly mobile and flexible... even if they don't launch any missiles their radar and IRST information fills in gaps for the ground forces and provides useful information for the defence.

    Pantsir and TOR are selected systems by Russia to defend their large SAMs because they are small and cheap but also very capable and able to engage munitions as well as aircraft and drones. The key however is numbers, which is why I think India should be making Pantsir missiles, Kornet missiles and Igla-1 missiles.

    AFAIK they are already making the Igla-1s and they might have a local alternative to the Kornet, but air defence missiles will be needed in enormous numbers because drones and standoff weapons are going to be a problem.

    Indian Air Force, Army can neutralize an entire Chinese SAM system by knocking out just one link in a functional chain, for example a data link or fire-control radar. And since seeing over the horizon requires airborne radar, it may then be enough to shoot down the radar aircraft by employing the S-400.

    Yeah... that is the problem with talking about the kill chain and how you can defeat it by destroying a link.... it is bullshit.

    IADS are designed more like the Internet... a huge group of linked computers... the original idea was military and was a communications network that could not be defeated by destroying a single central hub... they expanded it to include universities for information sharing and then it exploded.

    Suggesting you can destroy the Chinese air defence network by knocking out one link is like saying you can take out the whole internet by hacking and deleting one website. All of the components of the network have links to other components... if you break one link you might not even stop anything because the information will just find another route to deliver the information... which is a good thing because if that were true then the Indian IADS would be just as easy to take out.

    The broad parameters of the S 400 are already known to China, so China probably knows how to evade it.

    Which means it has done its job if China decides to remain outside its engagement envelope...

    DRDO is developing the XR SAM with a range of 350 kms. It is derived from India's AAD missile defence system. XRSAM is expected to be deployed by 2023-2024. It might prove to be a wildcard.

    Why is India spending money buying S-400s if it is developing its own system in the same broad performance range?

    Surely it would make more sense to buy missiles you are not developing... it sounds like they want them sooner than they can get them so they order S-400s to fill the gap... that is an expensive gap filler...

    I would think it would make more sense to be licence producing large numbers of Pantsir systems for reliable short range defence... it makes sense to make them yourself because you will want them in enormous numbers.


    Videos are mostly deleted, so now it is quite hard to find. Anyway, S-300 intercepted Azeri 2 ballistic missiles and 3 drones in attack on Yerevan in Oktober 1st 2020.

    I remember in the 1990s western experts were complaining about the damn Russians taking their SAMs to defence events in the Middle East and showing testing of them where real targets were engaged to simulate a range of threats like Lance 2 and MLRS rockets. Their main complaint was that launching such large SAMs would be too expensive and that the millions they spent in these demonstrations would be too expensive for western companies to do the same... and was shown as an example of the Russians not knowing what they are doing... spending more money than they would likely earn.

    But of course they likely had enormous numbers of missiles on hand because they always make anti tank and anti aircraft missiles in enormous numbers because they know they will need them. This also means evolutionary upgrades of missiles makes sense because you probably have a backlog of already made missiles you can upgrade simply by replacing a few components and then you have lots of backup stock you can use... not every MANPADs needs to be the top performing model and not every ATGM has to penetrate frontal tank armour all the time... in fact with ATGMs sometimes putting a HE warhead makes it more effective if the target is terrorists in a ute or sandbagged ATGM missile firing position...
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    Post  Sujoy Wed Jan 26, 2022 4:29 pm

    GarryB wrote: Other air defence platforms protecting each other is important but also having aircraft to work with the air defence is important too, because they are essentially airborne SAM systems with no low altitude blind spots and are highly mobile and flexible... even if they don't launch any missiles their radar and IRST information fills in gaps for the ground forces and provides useful information for the defence.
    Following the footsteps of Russian cruise missile that fly in a swarm share data before attacking a target, SAM's and air to air missiles too can follow a similar strategy. In flight the group of missiles could co-ordinate their actions

    For example, a swarm of 40N6E, 48N6E2, 9M96E can fly in a swarm share data before attacking a target. Air to air missile or air to ground missiles like R73, R77 and Kh-29, Kh59 can also follow the swarm strategy already perfected by Russain cruise missiles like Vulcan and Yakhont.

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    Post  Isos Wed Jan 26, 2022 4:50 pm

    Not really possible. Anti ship missiles attack targets that are almost not moving.

    Air to air and anti air missiles spend 100% of the computer processing to analyze target speed and trajectories. If you add a communication between the missiles themselves you will quickly go beyond the limits of your missile's computers and the Pk will fall to 0%. It will also be easier to jamm by sending fake signals on their datalink making them spend processing time on useless information which matter when you know that active guidance part of the attack is just few seconds.
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    Post  GarryB Thu Jan 27, 2022 2:47 am

    For example, a swarm of 40N6E, 48N6E2, 9M96E can fly in a swarm share data before attacking a target. Air to air missile or air to ground missiles like R73, R77 and Kh-29, Kh59 can also follow the swarm strategy already perfected by Russain cruise missiles like Vulcan and Yakhont.

    This issue there would be that a swarm attack is expensive and really only makes sense against very well defended targets that need multiple hits to defeat, but are also very high value to make the dedication of such resources necessary.

    Most of the time a single SAM will be launched against a single air target.

    In air to air use the Soviets did use a mix of air to air missiles to improve kill probability where an IR guided medium range missile would be fired together with a SARH missile to improve hit probability and make evasion much harder for the target... to evade an incoming air to air missile you would normally engage full ab so you have max energy to manouver, which makes the IR missile more likely to kill you.... equally manouvering to evade the first missile uses up height and energy so you wont be able to evade the next missile for instance.

    I think the best solution would be to make the missiles smarter and give each missile multiple sensor types and options, so IIR and radar guidance are examples...
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    Post  Sujoy Mon Apr 18, 2022 9:42 am

    The delivery of the 2nd S-400 regiment to India has been delayed.

    https://www.financialexpress.com/defence/delivery-of-s-400-air-defence-system-to-be-delayed-simulators-arrive-from-russia/2493716/
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    Post  lancelot Mon Apr 18, 2022 10:19 am

    I doubt the conflict would delay the delivery of the systems. Russia has plenty of batteries in their own territory they can redeploy to the conflict if they needed to and thus far it does not seem to be happening.
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    Post  Hole Mon Apr 18, 2022 11:58 am

    The news I saw in the last days is that the whole delivery is earlier then expected from the indian side.
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    Post  Sujoy Mon Apr 18, 2022 6:08 pm

    Hole wrote:The news I saw in the last days is that the whole delivery is earlier then expected from the indian side.
    Only the simulator has arrived. Journalist who reported about that event thought it was the 2nd regiment.

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