New tankers and weapons transports for the Russian Navy
The effectiveness and sustainability of the navy is determined not only by warships and their capabilities. Auxiliary vessels of different classes make a significant contribution to the common cause, incl. tankers and weapons transports. Currently, our country is implementing several projects for the construction of ships of these classes, aimed at restoring and expanding the capabilities of the auxiliary fleet.
In general, at the moment, the situation with maritime weapons transports (MTV), as well as medium and small sea tankers (SMT and MMT) gives cause for concern. All the formations of our Navy have a total of several dozen ships of these classes. At the same time, the overwhelming majority of such pennants were built in the days of the USSR and are distinguished by their great age. In addition, not all vessels meet current requirements.
The preconditions for a change in the situation appeared at the beginning of the last decade, when several new projects of auxiliary vessels were developed. Since 2012, several MTVs and tankers of all new projects have been laid down at various enterprises in the interests of several fleets. The construction of the first ships of new types was completed in the middle of the last decade.
Due to financial, organizational and other constraints, the construction of auxiliary vessels lags behind the renewal of the combat strength in terms of its pace. At the same time, this program is already yielding noticeable results, and in the foreseeable future the Navy will transfer new ships, which will give well-known advantages, and will also allow starting the decommissioning of long-obsolete hulls.
Arms transports "20180TV"
Changes in the MTV field were outlined at the turn of the two thousandth and tenth years. Then, on the basis of the rescue vessel, project 20180, a transport of ice-class weapons "20180TV" was developed. The order for the lead transport of this type, Akademik Kovalev, was issued in September 2011. In December, the Zvezdochka Ship Repair Center (Severodvinsk) laid the keel of this vessel. In July 2014, the new MTV was launched. In December of the following year, the ship entered the Northern Fleet.
In mid-2015, the second MTV, pr. 20180TV, Akademik Makeev, was laid down. According to various sources, it will be launched in 2021 or later. By 2023-24 the ship can be handed over to the customer. With its help, they plan to strengthen the logistics of the Pacific Fleet. There are no plans for the further construction of MTVs of this type or have not yet been disclosed.
The armament transport project 20180TV or "20181" is a 108 m long vessel with a displacement of 6300 tons. The hull lines and structure correspond to the operating conditions in the Arctic (Arc5 class). In the volumetric holds of such an MTV, a variety of missile and other naval weapons can be transported. For the loading and transfer of ammunition, there is its own crane with a lifting capacity of 90 tons. The propulsion system with thrusters and propeller-steering columns allows you to maintain position in space and to reload even in the open sea.
It should be noted that in parallel with the 20180TV transports, oceanographic research vessels of the unified project 20183 are being built. Last year, KSF received the first vessel of this type, Akademik Aleksandrov. In the near future, it is planned to lay another one. The rescue vessel "Zvezdochka" is still the only representative of the base project 20180.
In 2013, MTV pr. 20360 “Dubnyak” was added to the Caspian flotilla. Based on the results of the construction and testing of this vessel, the customer decided that the project was unsuccessful. As a result, further construction of Dubnyakov was canceled, and the project was sent for deep modernization. This work took several years, and in March 2016 the Ministry of Defense issued an order for the construction of two vessels of the improved project 20360M.
In May 2017, the laying of the first such MTV, named Gennady Dmitriev, took place at the Vympel plant in Rybinsk. Construction of the second transport Vladimir Pyalov began in March 2018 at the Nobel Brothers Shipyard in Rybinsk. By now, most of the work on both buildings has been completed. At the same time, as reported, the construction was faced with certain difficulties. However, we manage to cope with them and gain the necessary experience. For example, “Dmitriev” became the largest vessel in the history of “Vympel” and should positively influence further work.
On June 1 this year, a solemn ceremony of launching MTV Gennady Dmitriev took place at the Vympel plant. Now the ship is being completed at the wall. "Vladimir Pyalov" is still being built on the slipway. The timing of its launching and the exit of two vessels for testing is unknown. However, most of the work has already been completed and it can be expected that two vehicles will be commissioned within the next few years.
MTV pr. 20360M is a 77 m long vessel with a displacement of 3625 tons with a diesel-electric power plant. The hull is reinforced for operation in the northern regions. Provides volumetric holds and a platform for cargo in containers and without them. Loading is carried out by its own 20-ton crane. Transport "20360M" is intended for the transportation of various weapons of the fleet with unloading in ports or with the transfer to ships and submarines directly at sea.
Medium sea tankers
Since the mid-tenths, two types of tankers for several fleets have been under construction. This process began in April 2014, when the laying of the Akademik Pashin medium tanker, pr. 23130, took place at the Nevsky Shipyard. It was launched in May 2016, and sea trials began two years later. In January 2020, the ship entered the Northern Fleet.
In December 2014, at the Zaliv plant in Kerch, the laying of two tankers of the modified project 23131 took place. Over the next several years, newsthese courts have not been reported. In the fall of 2018, it became known that the plant has completed the formation of the buildings, and the work is proceeding according to the schedule. However, the tankers have not yet been launched, and the timing of their entry into the Black Sea Fleet is unknown.
Last year, a contract was signed for the next three SMT pr. 23130. The first of them, named "Vasily Nikitin", was laid down in March 2021 at the Nevsky Shipyard. This enterprise has experience in the construction of a modern SMT, and there is every reason to believe that the work on the new building will be completed within a reasonable time frame. In addition, the construction of two other ordered tankers should start in the near future.
The tanker pr. 23130 has a length of 130 m and a total displacement of 9 thousand tons. The hull of the vessel corresponds to the Arc4 class. The main volumes of the hull are given for tanks for liquid and dry cargo. The tanker is capable of transporting various types of fuels and lubricants, food and other property. There is equipment for the transfer of liquids and goods by the traverse method.
Small sea tankers
In 2015, Vostochnaya Verf from the Primorsky Territory received a contract from the Ministry of Defense for the construction of two small sea tankers, project 03182. The first of them, Mikhail Barskov, was laid down at the end of October of the same year. In August 2019, it was launched. The transfer of the Navy is expected in late 2021 or early 2022. In February 2018, construction began on the second MMT, Boris Averkin. In the near future it is planned to launch it. Both vessels are destined for KTOF.
In 2016, an order for two MMT pr. 03182 for the Black Sea Fleet was issued to the Volga plant (Nizhny Novgorod). On September 1, 2016, the enterprise laid down the keel of the first tanker "Vice-Admiral Paromov". At the end of 2018, it was launched. At the end of last May, this MMT was handed over to the customer. The second tanker has been under construction since March 2017. Its descent has not yet been reported. The terms of commissioning were also not specified.
The small sea tanker, project 03182, is a 78 m long vessel with a displacement of 3500 tons. It is capable of transporting liquid and other cargoes weighing more than 1300 tons. A crane, a helipad and equipment for transferring cargo are provided. The diesel-electric power plant provides high driving and maneuverability, incl. the possibility of transshipment at sea.
The problem is in the process of solving
The well-known events of thirty years ago still have a negative impact on the development of our navy, both its combat component and auxiliary. The process of updating the auxiliary fleet, incl. weapons transports and tankers could not be launched on time, which is why its current state is far from ideal and negatively affects the overall capabilities of the Navy.
However, in the last decade, the most serious measures have been taken, and the Navy receives new pennants for various purposes. Almost all the main fleets managed to get modern ships, and their construction continues, which makes it possible to count on obtaining all the desired results in the future. Unfortunately, the current construction is faced with certain problems, and this regularly leads to delays and relocations. Nevertheless, the industry is coping with such challenges - and the fleet is carrying out a slow but systematic re-equipment.