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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News

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    Gazputin


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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News - Page 29 Empty Rogozin on rocket pads and rocket sizes

    Post  Gazputin Wed Apr 20, 2022 4:56 pm


    Rogozin also recently said the Vostochny Angara-A5 pad generally replicates the Angara pad at Plesetsk ....

    this bit was interesting .... it is built to withstand the equiv of a tactical nuke strike
    he was actually saying ... a loaded Angara-A5 on the pad exploding .... fully fueled .... is the equivalent of a tactical nuke

    needless to say a super-heavy ...... would go up like an fn big nuke



















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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News - Page 29 Empty Angara 1.2 launched from Plesetsk

    Post  Gazputin Sat Apr 30, 2022 6:47 am

    apparently has a military radar satellite onboard (to see through clouds in Ukraine ?) MKA_R

    MOSCOW, April 29. /TASS/. An Angara-1.2 light carrier rocket carrying a space module for the Russian Defense Ministry has been launched for the first time from the Plesetsk space center in the Archangelsk Region, the ministry told reporters on Friday.

    anyway
    it seems this was the rocket set aside for the Korean KOMPSAT but that has been delayed and now cancelled it seems - see list

    http://www.sworld.com.au/steven/space/russia-man.txt

    interesting bit is - look at Katelin Grey's shots on Twitter

    https://twitter.com/katlinegrey/status/1520156928294498305/photo/1
    https://twitter.com/katlinegrey

    this is what the exact first launch from Vostochny will look like in late 2023
    the tower is an exact replica of this one (currently they are up to the 7th floor which is that 2nd braced crossbeam)

    https://kosmosnews.fr/2022/04/18/tour-de-service-angara-a-vostochny-7eme-etage-et-premiers-equipements/

    first launch will be a 1.2 Angara

    ( hmmmm - off at a slight tangent re that Sworld list
    that's interesting Rokot-2.....
    that is the de-Ukrainised recycled ICBM .... next batch
    Rus call it Rokot-M ..... must be that )

    https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_lau_det/rokot-m.htm

    they ran out of the original Rokot launchers in late 2019 ?

    smaller than the Angara 1.2 yes


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    Post  George1 Sat Apr 30, 2022 7:40 am

    Gazputin wrote:apparently has a military radar satellite onboard (to see through clouds in Ukraine ?) MKA_R

    MOSCOW, April 29. /TASS/. An Angara-1.2 light carrier rocket carrying a space module for the Russian Defense Ministry has been launched for the first time from the Plesetsk space center in the Archangelsk Region, the ministry told reporters on Friday.

    anyway
    it seems this was the rocket set aside for the Korean KOMPSAT but that has been delayed and now cancelled it seems - see list

    http://www.sworld.com.au/steven/space/russia-man.txt

    interesting bit is - look at Katelin Grey's shots on Twitter

    https://twitter.com/katlinegrey/status/1520156928294498305/photo/1
    https://twitter.com/katlinegrey

    this is what the exact first launch from Vostochny will look like in late 2023
    the tower is an exact replica of this one (currently they are up to the 7th floor which is that 2nd braced crossbeam)

    https://kosmosnews.fr/2022/04/18/tour-de-service-angara-a-vostochny-7eme-etage-et-premiers-equipements/

    first launch will be a 1.2 Angara

    ( hmmmm - off at a slight tangent re that Sworld list
    that's interesting Rokot-2.....
    that is the de-Ukrainised recycled ICBM .... next batch
    Rus call it Rokot-M ..... must be that )

    https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_lau_det/rokot-m.htm

    they ran out of the original Rokot launchers in late 2019 ?

    smaller than the Angara 1.2 yes



    https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/mka-r.htm
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    Gazputin


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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News - Page 29 Empty MKA-R vs KOMPSAT

    Post  Gazputin Sat Apr 30, 2022 11:17 am

    this is interesting last "KOMPSAT" to fly was around 800kgs ....

    http://www.astronautix.com/t/t200.html

    so if that Angara 1.2 was originally meant for the KOMPSAT
    maybe MKA-R weights around 800 kgs ?

    2015 March 25 - . 22:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Dombarovskiy. Launch Complex: Yasniy Sh370/13. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr.
    Arirang-3A - . Payload: KOMPSAT 3A. Mass: 800 kg (1,760 lb). Nation: Korea South. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft Bus: T200. Spacecraft: Kompsat. USAF Sat Cat: 40536 . COSPAR: 2015-014A. Apogee: 538 km (334 mi). Perigee: 522 km (324 mi). Inclination: 97.53 deg. Period: 95.23 min. South Korean imaging satellite with submeter resolution. Sun synchronous orbit; 0130 GMT local time of the descending node..

    http://www.astronautix.com/t/t200.html

    I'm no satellite expert - but it seems the nearest Russian radar satellite is called Kondor and it weighs 1000kgs
    according to Gunter .... 1100 kgs

    https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/kondor-fka-1.htm

    MKA-R probably similar to this Kondor ?
    will probably never know ..... but around 1000 kgs seems a pretty good guess to me

    hmmmm
    that's interesting according to Sworld a Kondor-FKA is penciled in for 2022
    FKA ... MKA ? ....

    http://www.sworld.com.au/steven/space/russia-man.txt








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    Post  GarryB Sat Apr 30, 2022 2:02 pm

    The Rokot missiles were very good weapons and very popular... western designation was SS-19 and it was a reliable and capable rocket... but lots of bits from the Ukraine in it.

    The upgraded models with all Russian parts is a good step forward for using existing missiles... I wonder if they will make new missiles from scratch after the service weapons are used up.
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    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News - Page 29 Empty Rockot-M

    Post  Gazputin Sat Apr 30, 2022 3:24 pm

    I don't know a lot out ICBMs

    I think Rogozin said a while ago that they were going to move to fewer and bigger ICBMs ?

    seem to recall him saying bigger ICBMs were much more useful when they were "recycled" when retired
    much more useful payload to orbit options ...

    and fewer missiles were cheaper to maintain ?
    it was a while ago ...

    can't remember the source

    Sarmat is twice as big as the SS-19s aren't they ...
    moving to a more "Chinese" model of fewer but bigger ICBMs ?

    he is a bit eccentric .... but it does make sense to me






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    Post  kvs Sat Apr 30, 2022 10:39 pm

    There is no move to silo missiles in Russia. The Sarmat replaces the aging, Ukr dependent and slower Vojevoda. Russia has no intention of reducing
    its mobile ICBMs. I have not read Rogozin's statement and it would be nice to see a link to it. It does not make any sense at face value since
    he himself listed off the total number of Sarmat missiles to be produced and there was no indication of increase.

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    Post  Big_Gazza Sun May 01, 2022 9:09 am

    There are currently 46x R-36 in service, all based in silos in either Yasny or Uzhur. The stated number of RS-28 Sarmat allows a one-to-one replacement.

    The question is whether Russia has any decommissioned RS-36 silos that can be restored. IIRC at the peak of deployment in the late 80s, the USSR had ~308 R-36 in service, but had destroyed the surplus silos as missiles were withdrawn under START limitations. Have any silos been mothballed rather than blown up?
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    Post  owais.usmani Sun May 01, 2022 2:15 pm

    Big_Gazza wrote:

    The question is whether Russia has any decommissioned RS-36 silos that can be restored.

    A lot of them. At least a hundred, if not more.
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    Post  GarryB Sun May 01, 2022 5:10 pm

    I haven't read the comments Gazputin mentions from Rogozin, but comments about bigger missiles being more useful for satellite launches does make sense as they will all have limited operational life spans and it is important these days when making products to think about disposal after they become obsolete.

    Certainly the SS-18 an SS-19 weapons were very popular and very reliable satellite launch platforms, and I suspect Samartan will be very good too with it extra range potential.

    I can see that the new START agreement was extended just in time, but it is unlikely that anything will replace it for the foreseeable future with HATO encroaching on Russian borders the US will likely demand Chinese nuclear weapons be included together with Russian totals and for tactical nukes to be included and I don't think Russia will agree to either unless the UK and French and even Israeli nukes get included too, not to mention all the complication of Russias new weapons like Thunderbird and Poseidon which they will demand are counted as strategic nukes too no doubt.

    The biggest expense with ICBMs is their bases... either building silos or storage areas where they will be located... but most are already built.

    The START 2 treaty banned heavy ICBMs so single warhead weapons only were allowed but the new START and its current extension lifted the ban on heavy ICBMs so some money could be saved building big heavy ICBMs to reduce the number of missiles needed to deliver the warheads, but improvements in technology should mean train based missiles could be a future possibility with scramjet powered cruise missiles becoming a potential new area.

    Before ICBMs were possible both sides experimented with winged super long range cruise missiles... most had ranges of a few thousand kilometres and speeds of about mach 3 with ramjet propulsion... but the introduction of the R-7 and later ICBMs all work in that direction stopped because even a mach 3 aircraft could be shot down while a mach 10 plus IRBM or ICBM was relatively safe short of nuclear ABM systems.

    Well scramjets mean the upper speed limit of platforms is no longer limited to mach 5-6, and much higher speeds are possible and weight is massively reduced if you just carry the fuel and scoop the air needed to burn the fuel from the atmosphere as you fly through the air.

    3/4ths of rocket fuel by weight is oxidiser to burn the fuel... it will work in space and low oxygen environments but it basically quadruples the weight which means much more powerful rocket motors are needed which burns fuel at a higher rate meaning more fuel is needed in a vicious circle.

    In comparison a scramjet motor is lighter than a rocket motor and burns fuel more efficiently and not only that it can be throttled precisely to optimise the fuel burn... a liquid fuelled rocket can do that too of course but not a solid rocket.

    Only needing to carry the fuel makes the weapon much smaller and much lighter and also cheaper too.... meaning a missile that barely fits on an enormous custom designed truck could now fit on a rail wagon rather easily... and the mobility of a train is much better than a truck.
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    Post  Hole Sun May 01, 2022 7:56 pm

    Big_Gazza wrote:There are currently 46x R-36 in service, all based in silos in either Yasny or Uzhur.  The stated number of RS-28 Sarmat allows a one-to-one replacement.

    The question is whether Russia has any decommissioned RS-36 silos that can be restored. IIRC at the peak of deployment in the late 80s, the USSR had ~308 R-36 in service, but had destroyed the surplus silos as missiles were withdrawn under START limitations.  Have any silos been mothballed rather than blown up?

    If I remember correctly half of the silos were in Kazakhstan.

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    Post  GarryB Mon May 02, 2022 10:40 am

    An interesting implication of moving from ICBMs to hypersonic cruise missiles is that hypersonic cruise missiles would not normally leave the atmosphere... but a missile like the proposed GZUR missile which is about 5 metres long and supposed to have a range of about 1,500km and to fly at a speed of mach 6 which should be ready for service rather shortly if not already. The further development is the GZUR II which has a Kh-32 like booster attached to the rear creating a 12m long weapon with a flight range of over 12,000km and a speed of greater than mach 12.

    Such a weapon could reach most parts of the planet when carried by a PAKDA or Tu-160M, and do so rather quickly, but what do you do with them when they are obsolete?

    Perhaps a final stage solid rocket to leave the atmosphere and head up into orbit?

    It is not going to be as good a satellite launcher as an ex ICBM, but it has the potential for a shuttle launcher that could perhaps take off from an airport runway with turbojet engines, then switch to ramjets to accelerate and climb to very high speeds and altitudes to then release a much smaller rocket to make it to space... the shuttle could then turn around and slow down and land again at the airfield it took off from or another suitable runway to be reused as often as required... burning hydrogen fuel would be optimal for greenhouse gas emissions of course... it would be interesting to see what effect burning hydrogen fuel at very high altitudes might do... at 40-50km altitude and moving faster than mach 15 or so the water vapour created in the combustion of hydrogen in air would create a stream of ice crystals behind the aircraft in flight which is going to create cloud cover where there has never been cloud cover before and how long will it take to descend and what effect will it have on the weather below it?

    Super hail stones?

    Reduced sunlight reaching the earth surface is known to lower temperatures... vapour trails from normal jet airliners are known to effect climate when there are thosuands of them every day...

    But odds are there wont be thousands of space launches every day but how long before someone realises instead of carrying a solid rocket and satellite to the edge of the atmosphere you could carry passengers from Los Angeles to Sydney in hours instead of days...

    But then if it is hydrogen fuelled how hard would it be to carry a tank of oxygen too so when you leave the atmosphere you close off the air intakes and start pumping oxygen into the now rocket scramjets... the precise control of the mixture should make it very efficient and totally air independent... but obviously then you will need the craft to be capable of operations in a vacuum and also able to survive multiple reentries too.
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    Post  owais.usmani Wed Jun 08, 2022 11:41 pm

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    Post  owais.usmani Sun Jun 26, 2022 12:44 am

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    Post  Big_Gazza Sun Aug 14, 2022 10:24 am

    Nice archive footage of Buran shuttle processing!  Very Happy   New stuff, never seen before AFAIK  russia

    It makes one realise what has been lost... but then again, the Murkans don't have shuttles anymore either...  Razz

    Great stuff available on this twotter account for those who are into Soviet-era space program.

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    Post  thegopnik Sat Aug 20, 2022 6:15 am

    ion engines displayed https://topwar-ru.translate.goog/200461-ot-vintovok-do-kosmicheskih-dvigatelej-osnovnye-novinki-armii-2022.html?_x_tr_sl=ru&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=en&_x_tr_pto=sc

    Russian Launch Vehicles and their Spacecraft: Thoughts & News - Page 29 16607510 (there are more pics on web related to this)

    dont want to double post but got more news https://www.gazeta.ru/science/news/2022/08/17/18345194.shtml?ysclid=l7119e38n3971661861

    In Russia, krypton and argon are considered as an alternative to xenon in ion engines
    Alexandra Ippolitova
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    Depositphotos
    General Director of the Keldysh Center Vladimir Koshlakov at the Army-2022 forum told TASS that specialists of the Russian Keldysh Center are looking for alternative working bodies to xenon in ion engines. As an option, inert gases krypton and argon are considered as a working medium for high-power ion engines - 30-100 kW.

    Koshlakov noted that if we are talking about near-Earth orbit, then the issue becomes more complicated. "Since it is necessary to consider the mass of the working body not here, but in orbit, and it turns out to be still an expensive working medium," the expert concluded.

    An ion engine is a type of electric rocket engine, the principle of operation of which is based on the creation of jet thrust based on ionized gas accelerated to high speeds in an electric field. The advantage of this type of engine is low fuel consumption and long operating time.

    The disadvantage of the ion engine is negligible thrust compared to chemical engines. Compared to magnetically accelerated motors, the ion motor has greater energy consumption at an equal level of thrust. Ion motors use increased voltages, have a more complex circuit and design, which complicates the task of ensuring high reliability and electrical strength of the engine.

    Scope of application: control of orientation and position in orbit of artificial satellites of the Earth (some satellites are equipped with dozens of low-power ion engines) and use as the main thruster of small automatic space stations.

    The ion engine is characterized by low thrust and high specific impulse. The resource of work is estimated in the range of 10 thousand - 100 thousand hours. Currently, a new generation of ion engines is being developed, designed to consume 450 kilograms of xenon, which is enough for 22 thousand hours of operation with maximum afterburner.

    Earlier, Roscosmos reported that guests of the Army-2022 forum will also be able to see the Marker robotic complex (developed by NPO Android Technics), which was tested as a security complex at the Vostochny cosmodrome, as well as ultra-economical and high-resource spacecraft engines based on Hall and ion engines.


    Edit: more news found https://glav.su/forum/threads/1668028

    Roscosmos at the "Army-2022":
    The Keldysh Center presented ion engines with record characteristics

    The Keldysh Center at the joint exposition of the Roscosmos State Corporation at the Army-2022 forum for the first time shows correction systems for geostationary spacecraft based on the KM-60 and KM-75 engines, as well as the KM-10 marching one.

    The system based on the Hall-type KM-75 engine is the first in the world with an accelerating voltage of 810 V, according to the manufacturer. This is almost 3 times higher than the indicators of foreign analogues, which saves up to 40% of the working fluid (xenon).

    We checked: at the nearby stand of the OKB Fakel, ion engines operate at 300 V. Due to the higher operating voltage, the KM-75 provides the highest specific impulse among hall engines of this class. It has passed a full cycle of ground-based experimental testing with full confirmation of the resource. Here, in fairness, it is worth noting that OKB "Fakel" presented serial engines.

    Of the engines already used on the satellites, the KM-60 was introduced. It operates at a voltage of 500 V, which provides a 25% saving of the working fluid.

    The KM-10 can already be used as a main engine for satellites, inter-orbital tugs and orbital stations - the thrust is 575 mN (for comparison, the KM-60 has 42 mN). It passed most of the ground flight tests.

    In the photo next to the engines are their control systems. And the tank in the crate for the working body allows you to store 350 kg of xenon.

    Due to the high cost of xenon on the world market, the company is also conducting research on the possibilities of using other gases and their mixtures.

    https://t.me/realprocosmos/3790

    Roscosmos at the "Army-2022":
    the engine for "Zeus" and deep space

    The Keldysh Center at the joint exposition of the state corporation "Roscosmos" at the forum "Army-2022" showed the first domestic ion engine for deep space ID-200KR.

    Traditionally, Russian (and Soviet) developments were based on plasma (Hall) engines. They are simpler in execution and lighter in weight. However, ion engines have a noticeably higher efficiency (70% versus 55% for Hall)) and specific impulse. In addition, a good understanding of the processes in them provides a long time of active existence. With a thrust of 85 mN, it has a specific impulse of 4500 s. For comparison, the Hall's KM-75 has a thrust of 95 mN and 2680 s, respectively.

    Previously, one of the limiting factors was the wear of the grid (electrode), through which ions are emitted. But id-200KR uses a carbon composite, which makes it possible to make spacecraft with an active existence of more than 10 years on it. In the second photo — the same grid. In fact, it is a cathode that accelerates ions and throws them into space, accelerating the device.

    The engine undergoes ground tests until spacecraft for it are designed. Its use makes sense for correcting the orbit of heavy vehicles in GEO and in probes for deep space. In addition, a more powerful modification of the ID-500 is being developed as potential engines for the Zeus.

    It is clear that these are promising developments that still require spacecraft for their testing. But these are no longer paper, but real devices, close to the completion of ground tests.

    The third photo shows the control system for id-200KR (created by JSC SPC Polyus). In the fourth photo — xenon supply unit. Maintains the same gas characteristics before being fed into the engine, regardless of the conditions in the tank with the working medium.

    https://t.me/realprocosmos/3798

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    Post  Big_Gazza Sat Aug 20, 2022 9:07 am

    Roscosmos on "Army-2022": an engine for flying into deep space

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    Post  owais.usmani Wed Sep 28, 2022 9:45 pm

    https://www.roscosmos.ru/38239/

    New record holder


    One of the main links in the holding of rocket engine building is the Voronezh Design Bureau of Chemical Automation (KBKhA). Recently, fire tests of the latest RD-0124MS engine for the second stage of the promising Soyuz-5 launch vehicle were carried out there.


    KBKhA has been engaged in medium-thrust oxygen-kerosene engines since the late 1950s, when for OKB-1 S.P. Korolev, power plants for the third stages of space carriers were created on the basis of the famous R-7 intercontinental rocket. Today RD-0124MS is the most modern example of the Voronezh school.

    For the first time in the practice of the enterprise, the engine is composed of two independent blocks. Each block has two chambers and is equipped with a turbopump unit, booster pumps, a gas generator and automation units. The blocks are placed on a common frame and are protected from nozzle jet radiation by a bottom screen. Thrust vector control - by swinging each chamber in two mutually perpendicular planes. Independent modes of operation of the blocks allow you to change the thrust in a wide range - from 30 to 100% of the nominal value, which is 60 tons.

    According to the representative of the enterprise, “the prototypes of the engine are RD-0124 and RD-0124A developed and manufactured by KBKhA, they are operated as part of the carriers of the Soyuz-2 and Angara families. At the same time, the RD-0124MS surpasses the prototypes in terms of the most important parameter of efficiency - the specific thrust impulse. And since the predecessors had a record figure (359 units) among all oxygen-kerosene engines in the world, the RD-0124MS will become a new record holder.”



    Working off
    Work on the engine began in 2017. The preliminary design was defended in 2018, and the development contract was signed in December 2018. Design documentation for the newly developed engine units (energy chamber installations) and a model for dynamic testing of the launch vehicle unit were released by the summer of 2021. The newly developed engine units were manufactured and tested under offline testing programs.

    Programs and methods for ground experimental testing of the engine have been created. Preparation of production has been carried out, hundreds of items of technological equipment have been developed and manufactured.

    On two stands, fire tests of installations and the engine are carried out. Seven firings of a single-chamber installation for testing the camera have already been completed; a series of tests is planned to be completed before the end of the year. Two fire tests of a two-chamber block were carried out, and for the first time a four-chamber engine was tested on fire. KBHA is assembling a product with full-size nozzles, which is planned to be tested before the end of 2022.

    A comprehensive program of experimental testing includes a full scope of testing of finishing motors at the enterprise's stands, including tests for vibration resistance, storage, resistance to lightning and electrostatic discharges, and electromagnetic compatibility. Then interdepartmental tests will follow, confirming the compliance of the characteristics with the terms of reference, as well as the completeness and degree of development of the set of design documentation. Next, a transition to mass production is envisaged.

    It is planned to manufacture three versions of RD-0124MS: for finishing bench tests, for cold and fire bench tests as part of a stage, for flight tests as part of the Soyuz-5 launch vehicle.


    Opportunities and prospects
    Currently, KBKhA is involved in launching all operated domestic space launch vehicles and is working in a number of areas. In addition to RD-0124MS, KBKhA develops oxygen-hydrogen and oxygen-methane engines for promising domestic rocket and space systems.

    As part of the integrated structure of rocket engine building under the auspices of NPO Energomash named after Academician V.P. The Glushko-Voronezh enterprise received additional development opportunities in the main area. Competence centers for foundry and tool production, specialized production of titanium spherical balloons and rocket engine chambers have been formed on the basis of KBKhA.

    Under the current tasks and future needs of the enterprise, new machines and equipment are purchased, test benches are modernized. At the same time, KBKhA is implementing a large-scale project for the technical re-equipment of production to increase output and sales of products as part of diversification.

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