Even with best fuel available it smoked more than Kitty, alot more actually.
Mazut-100 is not "leftover" of anything. Its one of legit high calory oil fractions.
And there is no connection between the metallurgy and the smoking of engines. - I will bold this here. And copy few lines from the simpliest ever explanation of how jet engines work, from Stanford college notebook:
"The continuous flow of gas to which the turbine is exposed may enter the turbine at a temperature between 850 and 1700C, which is again far above the melting point of current materials technology. The desire to produce a high engine efficiency demands a high turbine inlet temperature, but this causes problems as the turbine blades would be required to perform and survive long operating periods at temperatures above their melting point. These blades, while glowing red-hot, must be strong enough to carry the centrifugal loads due to rotation at high speed. To operate under these conditions, cool air is forced out of many small holes in the blade. This air remains close to the blade, preventing it from melting, but not detracting significantly from the engine's overall performance. Nickel alloys are used to construct the turbine blades and the nozzle guide vanes because these materials demonstrate good properties at high temperatures"
Metalurgy is the core of turbine development, literally. RD-33 (despite often burning lower quality fuel) also has issues of lower burning temperature due to not very adequate materials used, so compromise was made with lowering the temperature, tradeoff was smoke and abit less power, gain was prolonged lifetime. This was the reason why first jet engines were an absolute rubbish with 50 hours lifespan.
If burning temperature is high enough, you wont have anything to form the smoke. Badly optimised injection can cause the smoke but it can cause at the best that "blue" smoke, not this.. pillar of...doom Kuz is forming.
The Russian metallurgy capability is the same / better than the US capabilities , search the RD-180 if you have concerns.
The problem is with the engine management systems.
Say on an jet engine the target is not that to keep the average
temperature under a certain limit, but to keep the maximum
temperature under a certain limit.
Means that you can go above a certain temperature regardless of the actual parameter.
So let see what parameters we talk about : )
engine inlet air temperature
air flow speed
angle of attack
thrust vector direction
Aircraft control position
I think I left out from the list a lot of other important parameters, but based on the above data the engine management system has to define the controlled parameters of the engine including the fuel volume.
the system try to get as close as possible to the engine maximum allowed temperature as possible.
But if you don't have the proper flow model for the engine, and the correct n dimension surface that define the connection between input parameters and controlled parameters, then you have to keep a safety distance from the possible critical point.
Means your engine will have less power, or will smoke and so on.
Russia /CCCP used to be 20 years behind the curve, but now they are left behind only by 5 years, and catching up fast.
This is the case with the K engine as well.
They don't have correct control of the air/fuel mixture .
Additional the fuel is rubbish as well, this type of fuel generate the same type of smoke in the commercial ships as well.
Last edited by Singular_Transform on Mon Nov 21, 2016 8:19 pm; edited 1 time in total