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    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    x_54_u43
    x_54_u43

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    Post  x_54_u43 Fri Mar 12, 2021 7:02 pm

    https://scitechdaily.com/new-high-temperature-superconductor-synthesized-by-scientists/amp/

    Yttrium Hydride superconductor synthesized at Skolkovo.

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    Post  George1 Fri Mar 12, 2021 8:23 pm

    Newest Russian device to significantly reduce satellite size, cost

    The new installation also makes it possible to shield the operator from harmful electromagnetic radiation

    MOSCOW, March 9. /TASS/. Scientists from the Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology developed an installation that automatizes soldering operations on waveguides, used in rocket and space industry communications systems, Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Foundation press service announced Tuesday. The new installation will make it possible to significantly decrease the mass and size of waveguides and, consecutively, of spacecraft, the announcement says.

    Waveguides are tubes that conduct radio waves at frequencies of about 16 Gigahertz with minimal distortions and losses. These tubes are assembled via induction soldering. However, this technology is complicated, which increased the risk of fault. In order to solve this problem, the Siberian scientists have developed a software-controlled equipment.

    "The new design features soldering regime control, which makes it possible to monitor and control the soldering temperature via software. […] The temperature is being controlled via optical pyrometers. This design rules out burning through or melting of elements, as well as the human factor. The patented device is developed in cooperation between the Siberian State University and the Reshetnev information Satellite Systems JSC," says the project leader, senior Siberian University scientist Alexander Murygin.

    According to the announcement, the new design has already been implemented at the Reshetnev ISS. According to ISS representative Vladimir Khalimanovich, the new installation is being introduced within the import replacement program.

    "One waveguide costs between 400 and 1000 euro, and one satellite may include up to 1,500 waveguides. Therefore, automation of waveguide production will significantly reduce the expenses and increase the productivity," he explained.

    The new installation also makes it possible to shield the operator from harmful electromagnetic radiation. Previously, the process required the operator’s direct presence, while now the process could be controlled remotely.

    https://tass.com/science/1264009

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    Post  GarryB Sun Mar 14, 2021 11:00 am

    I would think the main appeal would be for businesses to have hardware that has no hardwired backdoors with the keys to those backdoors in the hands of western intel agencies...

    Getting to the bleeding edge of computer gaming would require constant upgrades and improvements, but more importantly they would need to encourage game makers to code using their hardware... which would be the main problem.

    Certain patches or emulation modes of software will always be a handicap in terms of delivering the best possible performance, but for a business flexibility and compatibility might make it a valuable cross platform tool... especially if it can have PC and Apple and Android emulation modes that are native... especially if it means you can keep all your existing software.

    Having software ready to go will be most important.

    I will be hard but I think a lot of people especially those interested in security will buy some if they aren't too expensive.
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    Post  GarryB Tue Mar 16, 2021 8:54 am

    Underwater telescope placed below Siberia’s Lake Baikal as Russian scientists aim to detect particles from billions of years ago

    Neutrino detector:

    https://www.rt.com/russia/518132-underwater-telescope-baikal-detect-particles/

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    x_54_u43
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    Post  x_54_u43 Fri Mar 19, 2021 11:47 am



    Rosatom industrial laser, as well as showing CGI for a planned robotic arm equipped with such a laser for decommissioning of reactors.

    For note, the laser itself is a 20 kilowatt fiber optic laser, with it's equipment manufactured by IRE Polus, which is a Russian company that was the original founding company behind world renowned IPG Photonics. (Italy pried off this company way back in 2000s IIRC)

    It is good that Russia is has preserved and expanded it's fiber optics laser production, this is a key strategic technology.

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Tue Mar 23, 2021 11:28 pm

    Russian developers conducted aerodynamic tests of the wing microrelief

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Zigzagoobraznyi_mikrorelef_na_perednei_kromke_modeli_kryla-owyqhxud-1616433300.t

    The Zhukovsky Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute conducted aerodynamic tests of the wing surface microrelief. According to the Institute, the development is a polymer complex of zigzag vortex generators, which should help solve the problem of falling lift on the wing when approaching critical angles of attack in adverse weather conditions or in case of crew errors.

    The angle of attack is the angle between the plane of the aerodynamic surface and the vector of the incoming air flow. When the speed and angle of attack on the aerodynamic surface increases, the lifting force increases. However, when a certain one, called critical, is reached, the uniform flow of air around the aerodynamic surface is disrupted, and its separation occurs with the formation of turbulence zones.

    When the critical angle of attack is reached or passed, the drag of the aerodynamic surface increases significantly, and the separation of the air flow from it leads to a sharp decrease in lift. The zigzag microrelief developed by TSAGI is designed to delay the separation of the flow from the aerodynamic surfaces of the aircraft and slow down the rate of reduction of lift.

    Aerodynamic tests of the microrelief were carried out by specialists in the T-129 tube at air flow speeds from 15 to 20 meters per second. A model of an airplane wing with a microrelief applied to it was used for testing. The studies were conducted at angles of attack from 0 to 35 degrees. At the same time, the researchers tested several locations of the microrelief on the wing.

    Studies have shown that the greatest effect of the microrelief was seen when it was located on the leading edge of the wing. In this case, it was possible to increase the maximum lift coefficient and significantly slow down the rate of its decrease at subcritical angles of attack. The specialists also tested the microrelief on the wing with mechanization, where it showed high efficiency when installed on the slat.

    At the next stage of testing, TSAGI specialists intend to conduct studies of the microrelief on the main rotor blades of the helicopter. It is assumed that the microrelief on the blade will also be effective, improving the characteristics of the main rotor in conditions of non-stationary flow separation. The appearance of the latter is associated with the rotation of the screw and the constantly changing flow around the blades.

    TSAGI experts believe that the use of microrelief on the main rotor blades of the helicopter will improve its aerodynamic characteristics. Thanks to this, in particular, it will be possible to increase the flight speed of the rotorcraft.

    Last fall, TSAGI tested a model of the fuselage of an aircraft made in the form of a projectile and having jet vortex generators in the tail section. They are small holes through which air jets are blown out at certain angles under low pressure. Tests of the model at an air flow rate of 30-50 meters per second showed that the vortex generators of the new design work quite efficiently.

    Vasily Sychev

    https://z5h64q92x9.net/proxy_u/ru-en.en.583c8126-605a4406-a1ef98ca-74722d776562/https/vpk.name/news/494243_rossiiskie_razrabotchiki_proveli_aerodinamicheskie_ispytaniya_mikrorelefa_kryla.html

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Thu Mar 25, 2021 10:45 pm

    Scientists of the Mendeleev Russian state technical University have grown crystals for optical computers
    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 F_Y2RuaS5ydC5jb20vcnVzc2lhbi9pbWFnZXMvMjAyMS4wMy9hcnRpY2xlLzYwNWI0MWU2MDJlOGJkN2I4ODU3MjE4NS5qcGc_X19pZD0xNDAzMjk=

    Russian researchers have discovered a way to produce nonlinear optical crystals in glass. Such crystals allow you to control the properties of light passing through them, to turn invisible infrared radiation into visible.

    To obtain them, the glass was treated with intense laser pulses. According to scientists, in the future, such crystals can act as elements of the architecture of a super-productive optical computer.

    As the mendeleevs explained, they first synthesized glass, which consists of germanium and lead oxides. Then, to obtain crystals with the specified parameters, the researchers processed such glasses with intense laser pulses. Laser heating caused the glass (which was not originally a crystalline material) to melt, and subsequent cooling caused it to crystallize.

    The resulting crystals, scientists note, are called nonlinear-optical. These seemingly unremarkable transparent materials have a special symmetry of structure and allow you to control the properties of light passing through them, including turning invisible infrared radiation into visible light.

    Such crystals are used in laser technology, the researchers explain. However, for applications in the field of photonic computing, it was necessary to reduce optical elements to a micron size and integrate them together to create optical microchips. This was done by scientists who grew crystals directly in the glass.

    "We use the direct laser recording method: using a powerful femtosecond laser, we heat the glass to high temperatures, but we do it very carefully — the heating zone is limited to only a few microns. As a result, with the help of such gentle heating, it is possible to crystallize the specified micro-volumes of glass and create long tracks with an almost monocrystalline structure, which have all the properties of a nonlinear optical crystal," Sergey Lotarev explained.

    This is not the first time that the rhtu team has worked on the creation of nonlinear optical crystals. Previously, scientists were able to grow lanthanum borohermanate crystals in glass, which can be used to change the wavelength of laser radiation. Currently, researchers are studying various possibilities of glass crystallization using a laser in order to create other materials with a given microstructure.

    A successful combination of the properties of crystals and glass in one material will allow it to be used in the creation of an optical computer, the researchers believe. According to Sergey Lotarev, in the future, microscopic nonlinear optical crystals can function as an integrated electro-optical modulator - an element of the architecture of a super-productive optical computer.

    https://translate.yandex.com/translate?lang=ru-en&url=https%3A%2F%2Fsdelanounas.ru%2Fblogs%2F140329%2F

    According to the Dunning-Krugers on this board the Federation isn't developing optical computers, it's simply just signal processing for radars. clown clown clown

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    kvs
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    Post  kvs Thu Mar 25, 2021 11:57 pm

    "Backwards" Russia is one of the few countries on the planet with enough scientific depth to be able to develop quantum computers.  
    But Dunning-Kruger is as Dunning-Kruger does.

    Edit: I meant optical. But this is true for quantum as well.

    The critic peanut gallery that uses vicarious achievement as its basis is in no position to judge Russia's "backwardness".


    Last edited by kvs on Fri Mar 26, 2021 7:32 pm; edited 1 time in total

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    thegopnik
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    Post  thegopnik Fri Mar 26, 2021 7:14 pm

    Quantum and optical computers are two different thing. https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-a-quantum-computer-and-an-optical-computer.

    https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-optical-computing-and-quantum-computing

    https://www.quora.com/Which-computer-will-be-preferred-quantum-or-optical

    https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-benefits-of-optical-computers-over-electronic-computers

    Based on answer results overall this is pretty great news anyways. Its just that it gets tiresome when the subject of quantum/photonic computers and radars get mixed up.
    Kiko
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    Post  Kiko Sun Mar 28, 2021 2:26 pm

    Russia to debut world’s first electric plane at MAKS 2021 airshow
    28.3.2021

    The first aircraft with an electric motor will be demonstrated at the MAKS International Air and Space Salon, taking place on July 20-25 in Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov told reporters this week.

    “This is what was done with the Fund of Advanced Studies – an electric airplane based on superconductivity principles,” Borisov said. The electric motor is part of the hybrid powertrain demonstrator that Russia’s Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) is developing.

    An innovative electric motor based on high-temperature superconductors with a capacity of 500 kW (679 HP) was created by materials specialist Superox.

    Trials of a promising superconductive aircraft electric motor started on February 5. A special flying laboratory has been created on the basis of the Yak-40 aircraft.

    For flight tests, one of the three Yak-40 engines, which are located in the tail section, was replaced by a turboshaft gas turbine engine with an electric generator developed by CIAM together with the Ufa Aviation Technical University. The electric motor, which uses high-temperature superconductivity and a cryogenic system, was installed in the trijet’s nose.

    According to the CEO of CIAM Mikhail Gordin, this is one of the most important projects in modern aviation. The use of a hybrid power plant based on the high-temperature superconducting platform, or HTSP, is designed to solve a number of technological issues that air transport is already facing, he said.

    Andrey Vavilov, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Superox, said that Russian scientists are the first in the world to start testing an electric aircraft engine on the HTSP. “Our developments are based on many years of research and testing: We have hundreds of manufactured windings prototypes and about ten manufactured and tested engine samples of different capacities,” he said.

    It is planned that the new technology will be used to create engines and electric power complexes for all-electric aircraft and helicopters.

    https://www.rt.com/business/519052-russia-first-electric-airplane/

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    Post  kvs Sun Mar 28, 2021 7:46 pm



    Russia is developing a quantum supercomputer.

    Russia is not going to focus on keeping up with conventional computers but instead is betting on quantum computers.
    Currently there are no general purpose quantum computers in spite of flashy announcements based on single task
    demonstrators. Russia has given itself the target to develop 100 qbit computer and the associated software in the
    next 3 years.

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Sun Mar 28, 2021 8:11 pm

    kvs wrote:

    Russia is developing a quantum supercomputer.

    Russia is not going to focus on keeping up with conventional computers but instead is betting on quantum computers.  
    Currently there are no general purpose quantum computers in spite of flashy announcements based on single task
    demonstrators.   Russia has given itself the target to develop 100 qbit computer and the associated software in the
    next 3 years.  

    From my understanding they managed to create 2-qbit computers already. Do you think they would interconnect and stitch together '50' different 2-qbit computers to get to their 100-qbit goal, or do you think they'll get a 100-qbit computer as a singular device?

    I recall some years back they were talking about developing a 'work-around' solution by creating a photonic optical computer with a quantum cpu, which would achieve a 10 million fold increase in processing power.
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    Post  kvs Sun Mar 28, 2021 8:55 pm

    https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/hardware/qubit-supremacy

    To see what quantum supremacy might actually demand, researchers analyzed three different ways quantum circuits that might solve problems conventional computers theoretically find intractable. Instantaneous Quantum Polynomial-Time (IQP) circuits are an especially simple way to connect qubits into quantum circuits. Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) circuits are more advanced, using qubits to find good solutions to optimization problems. Finally, boson sampling circuits use photons instead of qubits, analyzing the paths such photons take after interacting with one another.

    https://quantum-journal.org/papers/q-2020-05-11-264/

    For quantum polynomial-time we have:

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.02336

    Yao [40] expanded Deutsch’s notion of quantum network [12] and formalized
    a notion of quantum circuit, which is a quantum analogue of classical Boolean circuit. Different from the
    classical Boolean circuit model, a quantum circuit is composed of quantum gates, each of which represents a
    unitary transformation acting on a Hilbert space of a small, fixed dimension. To act as a “programmable”
    unitary operator, a family of quantum circuits requires the so-called uniformity condition, which ensures that
    a blueprint of each quantum circuit is easily rendered. Yao further demonstrated that a uniform family of
    quantum circuits is powerful enough to simulate a well-formed quantum Turing machine. As Nishimura and
    Ozawa [26] pointed out, the uniformity condition of a quantum circuit family is necessary to precisely capture
    quantum polynomial-time computation. With this uniformity condition, BQP and FBQP are characterized
    exactly by uniform families of quantum circuits made up of polynomially many quantum gates.

    Looks like the current stage is the equivalent of custom gate arrays for specific problem solving. I am not an expert
    in this field but I am not getting the sense of any general purpose quantum Boolean logic as found in CPUs. Looks
    like direct transformation logic in function space. Where is the memory and where are the math registers? The video
    I link is totally lacking in detail. If taken at face value it seems that Russian researchers have come up with
    multi purpose logic designs and are working on actual software. In other words, one should be able to program on
    the prototype computer instead of it being task specific device.

    This is not a trivial task since it looks like quantum computers require allocation of logic gates for problem solving and
    do not have the classical computing structure of memory and registers for data operations (math, addressing, etc.).


    magnumcromagnon
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    Post  magnumcromagnon Tue Mar 30, 2021 4:15 pm

    Concrete of incredible strength was created in Russia

    A new type of concrete was developed by specialists from the Far Eastern Federal University together with colleagues from the Kazan State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The material is distinguished by high strength, environmental friendliness and frost resistance, due to which it can be used for the construction of structures in the Far North.
    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 1566556119_53_0

    The main difference between the new mixture and those used in construction today is the increased early strength. According to the developers, this property will speed up the concreting process by 3-4 times. In addition, the new concrete does not require thermal treatment during pouring, which makes it more environmentally friendly and allows a 70% reduction in overall energy consumption.

    When creating a new type of concrete, scientists focused on natural stones, the strength of which is many times greater than modern building mixtures. In the process of developing a promising material, the science of geonics was used, the essence of which is the study of nature-like building materials.

    Despite the fact that the mixture created by domestic specialists is several times stronger than ordinary concrete, work on improving its properties will continue. The goal of FEFU engineers is to achieve a material strength rating comparable to that of mountain conglomerates or sandstones.

    https://topcor.ru/10730-v-rossii-sozdali-morozoustojchivyj-beton-neverojatnoj-prochnosti.html

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    Post  x_54_u43 Sat Apr 03, 2021 5:37 pm

    https://immit.spbstu.ru/science/ispolzovanie_provoloki_udeshevit_additivnoe_proizvodstvo_v_desyatki_raz/

    https://immit.spbstu.ru/science/uchenye_immit_sobrali_3d_printer_dlya_skorostnoy_pechati_izdeliy_iz_titana/

    Two new robotic arm based 3d printers using wire from St Petersburg Maritime University.

    One printer is open air and is used for standard wire products with arc welding, and the other is in a sealed chamber which means it's atmosphere can be controlled and therefore can print titanium products.



    These two links are freshly recent about the two printers, with the YouTube video being from 2020 that shows more about the two printers.

    EDIT: The printer within in the sealed chamber can also use two different wires at the same time as well. You can see it at the end of the YouTube video.

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    Post  Nomad5891 Tue Apr 06, 2021 10:28 am

    kvs wrote:

    Russia is developing a quantum supercomputer.

    Russia is not going to focus on keeping up with conventional computers but instead is betting on quantum computers.  
    Currently there are no general purpose quantum computers in spite of flashy announcements based on single task
    demonstrators.   Russia has given itself the target to develop 100 qbit computer and the associated software in the
    next 3 years.  

    Why would they stop investing in conventional computers?
    I dont say invest billions for the sake of having the fastest supercomputer in some fancy chart but they sure need computational power now.
    Almost all current R&D projects can benefit greatly by serious computational power.

    Sure invest in quantum as it seems to be the future, but do not neglect conventional computers just yet.

    Of course unless some serious breakthroughs have been made that actually make the general purpose quantum computing achievable in shorter time span.

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    Post  thegopnik Tue Apr 06, 2021 7:34 pm

    Here you go, you quantum computer people Laughing https://naukatehnika.com/era-rossijskih-kvantovyh-kompyuterov.html

    Experts of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Laboratory of Artificial quantum systems (LYCS) claim that the new quantum integrated circuit is unique and fully controlled. According to them, even at the current stage of development it can be applied in quantum machine learning.

    Representatives of MIPT noted that the creation of the Russian multi-cubit integrated circuit was made possible by four factors, and the first among them is a significant improvement in the control of the geometric and electrical parameters of tunnel contacts. According to the representatives of the university, these contacts can be considered the "heart" of superconducting qubits, as the quality and reproducibility of their manufacture directly depends on the performance of the entire quantum scheme. The second factor is the setting up of the technology of making microwave resonators, the goodness of which in a single photon mode is hundreds of thousands. This is also a very important part of quantum integrated circuits - they are needed to read the quantum state of qubits. The third factor is the debugging of the process of making "air bridge" (air bridge) necessary to suppress parasitic resonant mods, which positively affects the goodness of structures. But the most important component that allowed MIPT specialists to create a multi-cobit scheme, in their opinion, is their experience in this area over the past few years. THE IFTI does not specify when the era of Russian quantum computers will begin, as well as do not disclose their future plans to develop new multi-cubit integrated circuits and their implementation. For any further action in this area, it is necessary to modernize both the CCP and the IX laboratory within the IFTI. Of Russia's large companies, Rosatom is particularly interested in quantum computing. In 2020, they were offered a plan of work - a "road map" of the development of quantum technologies in Russia




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    Post  GarryB Wed Apr 07, 2021 6:31 am

    Why would they stop investing in conventional computers?

    Current levels of computing power are likely sufficient for most tasks, but a generational improvement in computing power is a better investment... especially if it renders older technology largely obsolete.

    They will likely start using hybrid designs where some functions use existing technology, while new technology speeds up and improves things conventional computers could never achieve on their own.

    In a sense it is like stopping making Su-27 fighters... you start developing Su-57s and use new technology developed for the Su-57 to create the Su-35 at the same time.
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    Post  Kiko Thu Apr 08, 2021 2:50 pm

    Zoom pushes Russia to abandon Western software
    April 7, 2021

    The Zoom video conferencing service, to which everyone is accustomed during self-isolation, may limit their work in the Russian Federation. The company that owns it, out of fear of sanctions, plans to close access to the product for Russian government agencies, including schools and universities. Experts believe that it is time for Russia to get rid of its digital dependence on the West, because following Zoom, other IT giants can make similar decisions.

    The owners of the Zoom online conference service, which is not only popular, but also became extremely popular around the world during self-isolation, have banned access to this program for Russian government agencies and companies. Note that government institutions include schools and universities that en masse use video conferencing when teaching remotely.
    As Kommersant reported on Wednesday , the American company Zoom Video Communications Inc has banned its distributors from selling access to the service to government agencies and state-owned companies not only in Russia, but also in other CIS countries. The Russian distributor WrightConf, representing Zoom in the Commonwealth countries, informed its partners about this a week ago.

    Note that on Tuesday, the Moscow Higher School of Economics (HSE) reported that the university will not be able to use a corporate license in Zoom. Reason: restrictions on Russian legal entities with state participation, which were introduced unilaterally by Zoom Video Communications, conveyed a message to the HSE IT Directorate to TASS . Kommersant notes that the owners of Zoom made this decision following another Internet giant - Microsoft, which, due to the risk of sanctions from the US authorities, refused to supply software to another leading Moscow university - the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. It has been speculated that the owner of Zoom Video Communications Inc, a Californian billionaire of Chinese origin, Eric Yuan, also fears sanctions.

    According to estimates given by the Russian company TrueConf (a developer of similar services), Zoom remains the most popular corporate video communication service and controls a quarter of the market. The second place is taken by TrueConf products (23%), the third place, with 14%, is taken by the Skype service, developed by Microsoft.

    Press Secretary of the Russian President Dmitry Peskov said that Zoom's refusal to work with Russian government agencies should spur the work of domestic developers of similar services, which could be a good alternative. “Of course, our operators of similar platforms will need to work hard to complete their services, we still have gaps in this area. But at the same time - they are, and they will be able to compensate for the absence of such a popular service as Zoom. As they say, a holy place is never empty, ”Peskov noted.

    The deputy head of the relevant ministry - the Ministry of Digital Industry of Russia - Maxim Parshin informed that "at least five video communication systems that are included in the register of Russian software (software) can become an alternative to Zoom."

    In turn, the head of the Ministry of Education Sergei Kravtsov assured that a possible disconnection from Zoom will not affect the work of schools. According to the minister, the educational system is focused on the use of domestic video services in the educational process, in particular, the new Russian video-conference system "Spherum".

    This joint development of Rostelecom and Mail.Ru Group, which should be the Russian answer to Zoom, was announced at the end of last year. It is assumed that it will be possible to register in Spherum through a VK Connect account (Mail.Ru Group is the owner of the VKontakte social network) or through the Gosuslugi portal operated by Rostelecom.

    "Spherum" was planned to be launched during the first quarter of 2021, but judging by the reports of some regional media, for example, in schools of the Tyumen region "Spherum" is planned to be introduced before the end of the year.

    “It is our happiness that we go offline,” commented Alexander Malkevich, First Deputy Chairman of the Commission on Mass Media of the Public Chamber of Russia. You can imagine how disconnecting from Zoom would have affected in 2020, when, due to self-isolation, work and study completely went on this platform, the interlocutor added.
    In an attempt by Zoom, contrary to its own interests, to restrict the access of Russian government agencies to its product, political overtones are visible, believes the head of the Digital Economy Development Fund, ex-adviser to the President of Russia on the development of the Internet, German Klimenko. “It is difficult to explain from the economic point of view, it is a manifestation of political preferences in business,” Klimenko told the VZGLYAD newspaper. - At one time there was a thesis - the capitalists will trade in anything, up to the supply of goods to various belligerent countries. But now we see how the politics of companies are dictated by political bias. May be.

    Zoom owner Eric Yuan's motive is that despite being an ethnic Chinese, he is trying to prove that he is ready to participate in the trade war with Russia shoulder to shoulder.

    However, the interpretation of this act is a task for political scientists. The most important thing is that there is a trend towards the politicization of business ”.

    For his part, the deputy of the State Duma, a member of the profile committee on information policy, information technology and communications Anton Gorelkin sees economic motives in the Zoom demarche. "Zoom has banned Russian state-owned companies from using its service, because we have a supposedly" toxic "market ... At the same time, it is clarified that Russia provided only 1% of Zoom's revenue," Gorelkin said in his Telegram channel . According to the parliamentarian, the Internet market in Russia is highly competitive, there are many Zoom analogues that are popular with users. “Among them are Russian ones, albeit in need of some work in progress. The accusation of "toxicity" against this background is just a convenient excuse to merge. Instead of not admitting our competitive failure, ”Gorelkin believes.

    Note that the Western IT giant can still back up. The head office of Zoom Video Communications told Kommersant that they were "clarifying the information," while the Russian distributor WrightConf admitted that Zoom might still release some special software product for Russian government agencies.

    "The head office of the company reported that the suspension of the service was allegedly announced by the partner office Zoom, which sells its products in Russia," said Malkevich. "Thus, the company itself is trying to mitigate the consequences of this statement and is trying to shift the blame on its partners or representatives." But if we assume that Zoom's demarche is really dictated by political pressure, then one should not cherish special hopes that everything will work out, experts say.

    According to Klimenko, the transition of Russian users, including schools, to Western analogues of Zoom, for example, to the Microsoft Teams service, is unlikely to be productive. "Microsoft may sooner or later do the same as Zoom," the expert believes. He believes that “the state has the only hard way here” - protectionist actions, support of its own developers. “China has enough strength for this,” said Klimenko.

    “There is a well-known answer - a perfectly working VKontakte,” the source said. - Obviously, no one will make effectively working conferences, except for Mail.Ru and Yandex. Only those companies that professionally serve the mass sector".

    “In any case, we urgently need to develop several alternative services in order to break the umbilical cord of our digital dependence on the West,” Malkevich is convinced. “But such situations are good for us. If we ourselves cannot refuse harmful candy, then the confectioner did it for us".

    Text: Elena Leksina,
    Natalia Makarova

    https://m.vz.ru/politics/2021/4/7/1093433.html

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    Post  miketheterrible Thu Apr 08, 2021 3:13 pm

    If Russian alternatives exist, one that exceeds Microsoft's Skype, then they might as well just move to that.

    Why did zoom get the contract in first place?

    These businesses are doing the job for the Russian government - leaning them off of Western crap.

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    Post  lancelot Thu Apr 08, 2021 7:59 pm

    Skype, which used to be a Finnish company, is just one example of how Uncle Sham's corporations systematically dismantle competition.

    It is also an example of how it uses its corporations to spy on users. Skype used to have a decentralized service where communications were done directly between clients. After US based Microsoft acquired Skype they moved the software to be centralized with all communications going through Microsoft controlled servers. This was supposed to be to improve performance and user experience of the software. Right.

    There was talk about banning Zoom in the US some time back because of the owner being Chinese. I guess this is just his way of stepping into line to preserve his business.

    To be honest it should not be too hard to make video conference software. A lot of the work is readily available like video and audio codecs. It is a matter of making a working system with already existing components.

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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Apr 09, 2021 1:54 am

    When will electric powered spaceships fly?

    Electric rocket motors have an extremely high specific impulse of up to 100 km / s or more, they are not limited in energy, their exhaust velocity (or specific impulse) can be much higher than that available in a chemical jet engine.

    Chemical jet engines of spacecraft create thrust due to thermodynamic expansion of a heated propellant gas through a nozzle. But missions that require large speed increments require an alternative method of propulsion that has a higher specific impulse velocity or exhaust gas velocities than can be achieved using thermodynamic expansion on chemical fuels. The spacecraft's electrical installation offers just such an opportunity.
    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-1

    The propulsion system of the Space Shuttle combines the main types of chemical rocket engines: side boosters - solid propellants; sustainer engines - liquid-propellant rocket engine. But such engines are energy limited because chemicals have a fixed amount of energy per unit mass, which limits the achievable exhaust velocity or specific impulse.

    Many rocket motors are extremely small. For example, attitude thrusters on satellites do not generate much thrust at all. Sometimes satellites practically do not use fuel - gaseous nitrogen under pressure is ejected from the reservoir through a nozzle.

    The spacecraft's electric propulsion systems create thrust using electrical and possibly magnetic processes to accelerate particles using energy generated by solar panels. New designs must find a way to accelerate ions or atomic particles to high speeds to make thrust more efficient.  

    Electric propulsion systems are not limited in energy. By neglecting component life considerations, an arbitrarily large amount of energy can be delivered (from a solar or nuclear power system) to a given mass of propellant, so that the exhaust velocity (or specific impulse) can be much greater than that available from a chemical propulsion system.

    Electric vehicles have a lower thrust-to-mass ratio (and therefore lower acceleration), but they can have higher total impulses (the product of specific impulse and fuel mass equal to the total impulse change) than a chemical propulsion system. Thus, while a chemical propulsion system can provide a high thrust-to-mass ratio, fuel is consumed in a short time at a low specific impulse. In contrast, an electric propulsion system with a low thrust-to-mass ratio can operate for periods ranging from hours to years and generate greater overall momentum.  

    Exceptionally high specific impulse  

    Electric rocket motors have an exceptionally high specific impulse of up to 100 km / s or more. However, this also requires a significant energy consumption (1-100 kW / N of thrust) and a small ratio of thrust to the cross-sectional area of ​​the jet stream (no more than 100 kN / m2), which limits the maximum expedient thrust of the EP to several tens of Newtons. The disadvantage of electric rocket engines is also the low acceleration of the spacecraft, which is tenths or even hundredths of the gravitational acceleration (g), which limits the use of such engines only in outer space. Therefore, to launch a spacecraft from Earth to other planets, it is necessary to combine conventional chemical rocket engines with electric ones.

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-2
    The principle of operation of electric propulsion systems is based on the conversion of electrical energy into directed kinetic energy of particles, using the electrical energy of the onboard power plant of the spacecraft.

    Conceived by Tsiolkovsky

    For the first time, the idea of ​​using electric energy for the flight of rockets was expressed by K.E. Tsiolkovsky back in 1912. In his article "Exploration of world spaces by jet devices" (Bulletin of Aeronautics, No. 9, 1912), he wrote: "... with the help of electricity, it will be possible to impart tremendous speed to the particles ejected from the jet device ...". In 1916-1917. R. Goddard experimentally confirmed the reality of the implementation of this idea.

    One of the first operating electric rocket engines was created under the leadership of V.P. Glushko in 1929-1933. Subsequently, for some time, work on the development of the electric propulsion engine was discontinued.

    They only resumed in the late 1950s and early 1960s. and by the beginning of the 1980s. in the USSR and the USA, about 50 different designs of electric rocket engines were tested as part of spacecraft and high-altitude atmospheric probes.

    Currently, EJEs are widely used in spacecraft: both in satellites and in interplanetary spacecraft. There are three main types of electric propellers, which are classified according to the method used to accelerate the fuel as electrothermal, electrostatic and electromagnetic. Practical propulsion systems often use two or even all three of these methods at the same time. Let's take a look at some of them.

    Electrothermal engine

    Electrothermal propulsion systems accelerate the movement of fuel by heating. There are three subtypes: resistive, jet, and inductively or radiation heated systems.

    Resistive devices work by passing gaseous fuel through an electric heater and then expanding it through a conventional nozzle to create thrust. They usually operate as advanced chemical propulsion systems, where electrical heating is used to further expand and accelerate fuel that has already undergone a chemical reaction.

    To date, the most successful application of this method is overheating of catalytically decomposed hydrazine, which gives an advantage in the use of fuel with the often used mono-fuel chemical propulsion system.

    The specific impulse that can be achieved with hydrazine resistive jets is limited because the molecular weight of the gases used is relatively high, while the maximum heating surface temperature that can be maintained with available materials is limited to about 3000 K. about 3500 ms -1 (I sp = 350 s), about 40% better than without overheating, with an efficiency of up to 80%.

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-3
    An electric rocket propulsion system consists of the EJE itself, the structure of which depends on its type, working fluid supply systems, control systems and power supply. Electrothermal RD heats the flow of the working fluid due to the heat generated by the heating element or in an electric arc. Helium, ammonia, hydrazine, nitrogen and other inert gases are used as a working fluid, less often hydrogen.

    Resistive motors were first used experimentally in space in the mid-sixties. Their first operational use was in the 1980s to hold north-south stations on Intelsat-V series geostationary communications satellites. They were also used for orbiting, attitude control and orbit control of the Iridium satellite constellation.

    For electrothermal propulsion systems, in order to achieve exhaust gas velocities significantly higher than 10,000 ms-1, portions of the flow must reach temperatures in excess of 10,000 K while still not in contact with the engine walls. Jet engines do this by passing gases through an electric arc, which heats them up before they expand through a nozzle.

    Core temperatures from 10,000 to 20,000 K mean that when catalytically decomposed hydrazine is used, exhaust velocities of 5000 - 6000 m s -1 (I sp = 500 - 600 s) are possible with an efficiency of about 40%.

    Arcjet engines were brought into commercial use for north-south stations supporting the Telstar-4 series of geostationary communications satellites in 1993. More powerful engines have been demonstrated in test flights, providing sufficient thrust for orbiting or for primary thrust maneuvers, but problems with erosion and availability of electrodes, sufficient electrical power delayed their use for operational tasks.

    Ion engine

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-4
    The propulsion system of the Space Shuttle combines the main types of chemical rocket engines: side boosters - solid propellants; sustainer engines - liquid-propellant rocket engine. But such engines are energy limited because chemicals have a fixed amount of energy per unit mass, which limits the achievable exhaust velocity or specific impulse.

    Electrostatic propulsion systems accelerate ionized fuel using an electric field. The main methods are field electrostatic thrusters (FEEP), colloidal thrusters, and grid-ion accelerators.  

    In gridded electrostatic ion accelerators, also known as ion thrusters, ions are generated in a magnetically insulating ionization chamber using DC discharge, RF energy, or tuned electronic cyclotron resonance. The exit from the ionization chamber is closed by a double lattice structure with a space between the lattices from half to one millimeter through which the ion acceleration potential is supplied. Ions that approach the inner (screen) grid are extracted from the chamber and accelerated by the field between the grids. Ionic optics are designed to minimize collisions with the external accelerating grid.    

    Electrons are extracted from the chamber by the anode and pumped by a power supply to an external cathode / neutralizer held slightly above the potential of the accelerating grating. Electrons from the cathode combine with the outgoing ion stream to neutralize it. Neutralizing the ion flux is necessary because the release of charged particles from the spacecraft causes the vehicle itself to receive a charge that affects the operation of other systems in the spacecraft and can cause permanent damage. In addition, without neutralization, the resulting ion beam will depend on its own internal potential. Ion engines achieve an exhaust speed in the region of 30,000 m s -1 (I cn = 3000 s). The ESA spacecraft EURECA demonstrated the operation of RITA, an ion engine using radio frequency ionization, in 1992. Ion engines have been in service since the mid-nineties to service stations on geostationary satellites. In 1998, NASA's Deep Space 1 became the first interplanetary mission to use ion propulsion.  

    Ion engines suffer from a low thrust density (available thrust per unit of exhaust area) because the maximum ion current density that can be maintained is limited by the space charge distortion of the applied electric field. One of the advantages of the Hall-effect thruster chosen for the SMART-1 over an electrostatic ion motor is that, since the plasma in a Hall-effect motor remains virtually neutral due to the presence of electrons that make up the Hall current, they are capable of withstand higher ion current densities and therefore offer greater thrust density.

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-5
    One of the options is the "mini-helicon plasma pusher" by the Russian scientist Oleg Batishchev. The gas enters the cylindrical quartz chamber. A metal winding is wound on it, which creates a strong magnetic field inside the chamber. A special design antenna is located nearby, which serves as a source of short-wave radio emission. It creates an electrical breakdown in the gas, which leads to the birth of an ion-electron plasma. The external magnetic field is calculated in such a way that it strongly accelerates the plasma flows and directs them to the exit from the chamber. Thanks to this, jet thrust arises. This thrust can be controlled by changing the rate of gas supply and the supply of electromagnetic energy.

    A plasma rocket engine is a type of electric motor that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma. This type of thruster often generates a plasma source using radio frequency or microwave energy using an external antenna. This fact, combined with the absence of hollow cathodes (which are very sensitive to all gases except a few noble gases), allows this type of thruster to be used on a huge range of propellants.

    Benefits

    Why are plasma engines better than conventional chemical engines, in particular liquid-propellant rocket engines (LRE)? The main advantage is in the specific impulse, i.e., roughly speaking, in the speed with which the engine throws out the jet stream.

    The jet speed of liquid-propellant rocket engines ranges from about 2 km / s for the simplest thermocatalytic engines, up to 4.5 km / s for the best models of engines operating on hydrogen and oxygen.

    What is a record for liquid-propellant rocket engines is a mediocre result for plasma engines, typical only of the first unfinished prototypes. As a rule, the speed of a jet of a plasma engine is at the level of 10 km / s or more. Some engines provide 30-50 km / s. There is essentially no limit here! The speed is limited only by the fact that the higher it is, the more electricity the engine spends to create the same thrust. Therefore, an excessive increase in speed is not justified, for each situation there is some optimal value.

    In addition, plasma engines of this type have the following advantages: extreme simplicity and, accordingly, low cost of the design (in particular, there are no separate storage and supply systems for the working fluid); very high reliability; the ability to work on a variety of working bodies; compactness and low weight; absence of compressed gases, toxic, chemically active, fire hazardous, etc. substances, i.e. absolute safety of the engine in the off state; simplicity of power consumption adjustment, operability at an arbitrarily low power supply (you can charge a capacitor in a tenth of a second, or you can - in tens of seconds).

    Plasma engines have a much higher specific impulse (Isp) value than most other types of rocket technology. Thus, the VASIMR engine is capable of reaching a pulse value of more than 12,000. This is much higher than the bicomponent chemical engines, which can reach a pulse of 450. With high momentum, plasma-powered rockets are capable of reaching relatively high speeds.

    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia - Page 34 Kosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami-6
    The propulsion system of the Space Shuttle combines the main types of chemical rocket engines: side boosters - solid propellants; sustainer engines - liquid-propellant rocket engine. But such engines are energy limited because chemicals have a fixed amount of energy per unit mass, which limits the achievable exhaust velocity or specific impulse.

    The future of plasma engines lies in two diametrically opposite directions: engines for nanosatellites (spacecraft weighing within 10 kg) and high-power engines for large orbital maneuvers and flights to other bodies of the solar system.

    Alas, there are also disadvantages ...

    First, the low efficiency, which is usually 8-15% for this type of engine.

    Secondly, a small supply of working fluid. After all, the engine does not have any external tank with a working fluid, all that is is a small amount inside the engine itself. As a result, for such engines, such a parameter as “specific impulse” loses its meaning; instead, “full impulse” is used - the product of the mass of the working fluid in the engine and the speed of its expiration. In the very first engine, this value was at the level of 1500 N * s, which is quite a bit.

    Electric rocket motors currently have the following applications:

    - orientation of spacecraft in space (rotations around the axes);
    - correction of small orbital disturbances;
    - small orbital maneuvers (for example, leaving a geostationary orbit to a disposal orbit);
    - transfer between remote orbits (for example, from a geostationary transfer orbit to a geostationary one);
    - flights to other bodies of the solar system, since plasma engines are better suited for long-distance interplanetary space travel.

    Science and technology are developing rapidly and we will probably soon hear news about new electric rocket engines created.

    https://translate.yandex.com/translate?lang=ru-en&url=https%3A%2F%2Fnaukatehnika.com%2Fkosmicheskie-korabli-s-elektrodvigatelyami.html

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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Apr 09, 2021 3:14 am

    Russia is working on a hybrid reactor, the fusion component for it has already been tested

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    Post  magnumcromagnon Fri Apr 09, 2021 3:28 am

    A robotic arm was created for cosmonauts and military personnel

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    Post  GarryB Fri Apr 09, 2021 4:59 am

    Note that the Western IT giant can still back up. The head office of Zoom Video Communications told Kommersant that they were "clarifying the information," while the Russian distributor WrightConf admitted that Zoom might still release some special software product for Russian government agencies.


    Full of spyware linked directly to the NSA...

    I think this hostile action by this company will likely spur the Russians to look elsewhere... and most likely inside Russia for replacement software alternatives... as mentioned in the article there are at least five currently on the books, and who in Russia does not want to earn money...

    But if we assume that Zoom's demarche is really dictated by political pressure, then one should not cherish special hopes that everything will work out, experts say.

    Don't look a gift horse in the mouth... they almost certainly wanted US dollars for payment and likely were not cheap at all...

    “In any case, we urgently need to develop several alternative services in order to break the umbilical cord of our digital dependence on the West,” Malkevich is convinced. “But such situations are good for us. If we ourselves cannot refuse harmful candy, then the confectioner did it for us".

    Excellent... more important... the sugar free more healthy alternative they develop for themselves can be sold to other friends who have poor access to good dentists... makes more money for Russia and denies the evil Candyman...

    If the owner is ethnically Chinese the real test to see if this is political would be if the US imposes sanctions on China and he imposes the same bans on China too... otherwise he is just lacist.... sorry poor taste joke, but you understand what I mean... being anti Russian is the only bigotry allowed... you can't even be mean to people confused over their own gender who think confuse gender with sexuality and think there should be a choice.

    There was talk about banning Zoom in the US some time back because of the owner being Chinese. I guess this is just his way of stepping into line to preserve his business.

    He can easily see what happened to that woman CEO from Huawei...

    To be honest it should not be too hard to make video conference software. A lot of the work is readily available like video and audio codecs. It is a matter of making a working system with already existing components.

    One official in the article seemed to suggest there were 5 systems already in use they could switch to... it is just a question of what those five systems were lacking as to why they went for Zoom... perhaps a service or feature or capability, or perhaps it was price. With Zoom withdrawing service they can hardly complain if a company copies some of their ideas, though keep in mind civilian non government use of the software is not banned in Russia...

    The disadvantage of electric rocket engines is also the low acceleration of the spacecraft, which is tenths or even hundredths of the gravitational acceleration (g), which limits the use of such engines only in outer space. Therefore, to launch a spacecraft from Earth to other planets, it is necessary to combine conventional chemical rocket engines with electric ones.

    But low thrust electric engines in space create microgravity on ships transiting space, which is actually a useful thing. Zero gravity is a pain in the ass and exceptionally long periods of zero g is very bad for the human anatomy and also something that requires lots of energy use. If you sat in your room in zero gravity you would quickly consume all the oxygen around you and you would be quickly surrounded by a cloud of breathed out CO-2 which would cause you to suffocate. Even with carbon dioxide scrubbers and oxygen generating systems, you need fans constantly blowing fresh air around the room to cycle CO2 out of the air where ever humans might be located... any black spots can lead to areas where you can't breath... even with a micro gravity warm air should rise and cooler air should descend and air should naturally circulate without the need for running dozens of fans all the time, but the layout of the living space would still need careful design to prevent black spots.

    The principle of operation of electric propulsion systems is based on the conversion of electrical energy into directed kinetic energy of particles, using the electrical energy of the onboard power plant of the spacecraft.

    EMALS for launching gas at enormous velocity to generate thrust in the opposite direction... what a useful technology...


    Electrothermal propulsion systems accelerate the movement of fuel by heating. There are three subtypes: resistive, jet, and inductively or radiation heated systems.

    It does not mention it, but one way of heating fuel would be to use a nuclear reactor...


    A plasma rocket engine is a type of electric motor that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma. This type of thruster often generates a plasma source using radio frequency or microwave energy using an external antenna. This fact, combined with the absence of hollow cathodes (which are very sensitive to all gases except a few noble gases), allows this type of thruster to be used on a huge range of propellants.

    Plasma using microwaved fuel... sounds like Coalition artillery propellent might be a plasma rocket launcher of projectiles...

    Russia is working on a hybrid reactor, the thermonuclear component for it has already been tested
    It will be a compact system that will be able to operate in hard-to-reach regions for more than eight years without reloading fuel.

    The hybrid reactor will have a capacity of approximately 60-100 megawatts and will be able to operate for more than eight years without reloading fuel. Scientists hope to find its use in remote regions to generate electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel.

    Would be interesting to see what they define as being compact... such a system fitted to an SSK in a way that it can be installed and removed like a torpedo or cruise missile in a vertical launch tube would be rather interesting... I somehow doubt it will be light, but that sort of power generation performance would make it rather better than a large diesel or gas turbine generator which would be what the alternative would be.... in places like the Antarctic station it means heat light and power for 8 years... without needing to cart down enormous volumes of diesel or petrol or even LNG... much of the heat produced would likely be a byproduct of the system operating so would not waste energy either.

    As they improve the technology and design the future potential for mounting a system on a large aircraft with electric jet engines that allow the plane to fly for 8 years without refuelling is interesting... the main problem would likely be its enormous weight that would limit the payload to relatively useless. Nuclear powered bombers were rejected because despite effectively unlimited range, the weight of the systems and shielding meant a useless payload capacity and enormous risk of crashes.

    Therefore I would suggest perhaps a compact but heavy nuclear generator would be ideal for use on a large airship... heat for manned areas in arctic regions and high altitudes... electricity could be used in electric motors for propulsion, but also hydrogen fuel cells for increasing and decreasing ballast, and of course heat can improve the lifting performance of any gas used. Onboard dehumidifier could create water ballast from thin air, which can then be used in the hydrogen/water cycle of lifting gas and ballast to allow excellent buoyancy control. Most importantly the excess power generation would allow enormous high power radar and radio antenna to be used in an AWACS or communications repeating function for operating over remote areas of mountains where normal communications is limited.

    Such an airship could follow a small group of ships and be their eyes and ears at enormous altitudes... a 100-120km/h speed limit is fine because ships don't go that fast either.

    Also the risk of a crash... the number of hydrogen bags in a really big airship means even if you hit it with a decent sized missile, the number of internal bags punctured would be limited... water ballast could be immediately used to fill all reserve bags to reduce ballast and increase available lift... at worst the airship will descend... if it is being used over water it could be designed to be amphibious and sit on the water surface... ballast and lift could be used to effectively make it settle on the surface rather than crash... a HE payload of enormous size would be needed at high altitude because HE blast waves are not very effective at high altitude, and making the hydrogen bags of kevlar and nomex would make them rather hard to rupture... filling the air space between the bags with neutral nitrogen gas would prevent fire from being an issue... after getting airborne the airspace between the bags could be purged with nitrogen which is cheap and fully inert so sparks or heat from radar or radio antenna would not be a fire risk either.

    It would be much harder to bring down such an airship than any other air vehicle in fact.

    A robotic arm was created for cosmonauts and military personnel

    Looking at that article was interesting... with tactile response such robotics could also be useful for limb replacement and to create machines/robots that the elderly could use to help them and make them more independent... but I also saw this which I found interesting...

    https://translate.yandex.com/translate?lang=ru-en&url=https%3A%2F%2Frg.ru%2F2021%2F04%2F07%2Fdlia-kosmonavtov-i-voennyh-sozdali-robota-manipuliatora.html

    If true would mean Tu-22M3Ms could not be exported because AFAIK they are supposed to get NK-32 engine commonality with the Blackjack.

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